Advertisement

The Nile pp 563-583 | Cite as

The Nile Benthos

  • Gamal M. El-Shabrawy
  • Mohamed R. Fishar
Part of the Monographiae Biologicae book series (MOBI, volume 89)

Benthic macro and micro-invertebrates include those biota that spend a significant portion of their life on or in the bottom. Nile benthic macroinvertebrates (molluscs, worms and crustaceans) exhibit a marked variation in composition and abundance, reflecting a range of microhabitats but a comprehensive inventory of the taxa present is still lacking. Meiobenthos (nematodes, flatworms, and microcrustaceans) has to date remained almost unstudied. Macroinvertebrate species richness in Egypt amounts to about 7–31 species at individual bank-side sites of the river and delta and the macrobenthos of the White Nile and its lakes is represented by about the same number of species. The sandy bed of the White Nile is sparsely populated, with the larvae of small Chironomidae prominent. Information about the Blue Nile is scarce, but its benthos appears to be poor, because of torrential flow and drastic changes in water level. Generally, benthic invertebrates of the Nile lakes have low diversity compared with temperate lakes. Twelve species of molluscs, 14 species of insects and three species of oligochaetes are known from Lake Victoria. The benthic community of Lake Turkana includes a sponge, a bryozoan, 8 gastropods, 3 bivalves, 17 ostracods, 23 insects and several hydracarines and annelids. Caridina nilotica, Potamonautes niloticus (Crustacea), Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta), Corbicula fluminalis, Cleopatra bulimoides and Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca) occur Nile-wide.

Keywords

Eichhornia Crassipes Nile Delta Benthic Fauna Bottom Fauna Ethiopian Rift 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdel Aal, Z. E. A., 1979. Studies on gastropod Mollusca in El Mansoura district. M. Sci. Thesis, Mansoura University, 180 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Abdel Aziz, N. E., 1987. Liminological investigation on zooplankton and benthos in Lake Mariut. M. Sci. Thesis, Alexandria University, 247 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Abdel Gawad, S. S., 2001. Studies on benthic invertebrates of Nile River at Helwan region. Ph. D. Thesis, Mansoura University, 138 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Abdel Mola, H. R., 2003. Ecological and biological studies on Lake Manzalah, with special reference to their water quality and sediment productivity. M. Sci. Thesis, El Azhar University, 308 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Abdel Salam, K. M., 1995. Ecological studies on macrobenthic invertebrates in the Nile River. M. Sci. Thesis, Alexandria University, 98 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Aboul Ezz, S. M., 1984. Limnological investigations on zooplankton and benthos in lake Borullus. Ph. D. Thesis, Mansoura University, 340 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Aboul Ezz, S. M. & N. E. Abdel Aziz, 1999. Benthic fauna of Lake Maruit. Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries of Egypt 25: 181–202.Google Scholar
  8. Agami, E. A. M., 1989. Morphological and biological studies on certain Egyptian corixids (Hemiptera: Corixidae). M. Sci. Thesis, Cairo University, Egypt.Google Scholar
  9. Ali, M. Z., N. E. Hamad & M. B. M. El-Mahdi, 1993. Seasonal abundance and effect of chemophysical factors on immature stages of order Odonata in Qena. Journal of Egyptian-German Society of Zoology 11: 77–89.Google Scholar
  10. Ali, R. H., 1989. Taxonomical, ecological and anatomical studies on the fresh water snails of the genus Cleopatra Common in Egypt. M. Sci. Thesis, Ain Shams University, 117 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Amyot, M., B. Pinel-Alloul & P. G. C. Campbell, 1994. Abiotic and seasonal factors influencing trace metal levels (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fasciatus in two fluvial lakes of the St Lawrence River. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51: 2003–2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bacci, G., 1951–1952. Elementi per una malacofauna del'Abissynia e delle Somalia. Annales Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria 65: 1–44.Google Scholar
  13. Barel C., W. Ligtvoet, T. Goldschmidt, F. Witte & P. Goudswaard, 1991. The haplochromine cichlids in Lake Victoria: an assessment of biological and fisheries interests. In M. Keenlyside (ed.), Cichlid Fishes: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  14. Battle, J. M., S. W. Golladay & B. Clayton, 2001. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality characteristics in five wetland types: preliminary results on biomonitoring, pp. 333–336. In K. J. Hatcher (ed.), Proceedings of the 2001 Georgia Water Resources Conference. Institute Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens.Google Scholar
  15. Beadle, L. C., 1981. The Inland Waters of Tropical Africa. Second edition. Longman, London.Google Scholar
  16. Bernasconi M. P. & D. I.Stanley, 1994. Molluscans Biofacies and their environmental implications, Nile Delta Lagoon, Egypt. Journal of Coastal Research 10: 440–456.Google Scholar
  17. Brinkhurst, R. O., 1974. The Benthos of Lakes. MacMillan, London, 190 pp.Google Scholar
  18. CIPR., 1991. Topic Rhine. International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine. Secretariat technique et scientifique. Koblenz, 4 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Cohen, A. S., 1986. Distribution and faunal associations of benthic invertebrates at Lake Turkana, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 141: 179–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dejoux, C., L. Lauzanne & C. Lévêque, 1971. Nature des fonds et répartition des organismes benthiques dans la région de Bol (Archipel Est du Lac Tchad). Cahiers ORSTOM, Série Hydrobiologique 5: 213–223.Google Scholar
  21. Dickman, M. D., J. R. Yang & I. D. Brindle, 1990. Impacts of heavy metals on higher aquatic plant, diatoms and benthic invertebrate communities in the Niagara River watershed near Welland, Ontario. Water Pollution Research Journal Canada 25: 131–159.Google Scholar
  22. Duane, C. C., E. A. Ehrhardt, J. F. Fairchild, R. B. Jacobson, B. C. Poulton, L. C. Sappington, B. P. Kelly & R. M. Williams, 2004. Ecological Dynamics of Wetlands at Lisbon Bottom, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri. Final Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri, 35 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Dumont, H. J., 1980. The dragonfly fauna of Egypt and the role of Nile in its origin and composition. Journal of Water Supply and Management 4: 29–34.Google Scholar
  24. Dumont, H. J., 1992. The regulation of plant and animal species and in African shallow lakes communities and wetlands. Revue d'Hydrobiologie Tropicale 25: 303–316.Google Scholar
  25. Dumont, H. J., 2009. Aquatic Insects of the Nile Basin, with Emphasis on the Odonata. In H. J. Dumont (ed.), The Nile. Monographiae Biologicae, Vol. 89: 631–646. Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  26. Dumont, H. J. & G. M. EL-Shabrawy, 2007. Lake Burullus of the Nile Delta: a short history, an uncertain future. Ambio 36: 677–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. El-Shabrawy, G. M., 2002. Ecological survey of Borullus nature Protectorate: benthos; conservation of wetland and coastal ecosystems in the Mediterranean region, Nature Conservation Sector. Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, Final Report 60 pp.Google Scholar
  28. El-Shabrawy, G. M. & R. Abd El-Regal, 1999. Benthic fauna and sediment of Lake Nasser I – Main channel and its littoral area. Bulletin of the Faculty of Sciences of Zagazig University 21: 193–215.Google Scholar
  29. El-Shimy, N. A. & A. H. Obuid-Allah, 1992. A survey of some fresh water invertebrates in the Nile at Assiut, Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian-German Society of Zoology 7: 363–376.Google Scholar
  30. El-Shimy, N. A., M. A. Hussein & H. A. Gouda, 1995. Observations on the biology of two freshwater leeches (Hirudinea) in Egypt. Bulletin of the Faculty of Science of Assiut University 24: 21–34.Google Scholar
  31. Elstad, C. A., 1986. Macrobenthic distribution and community structure in the upper navigation pools of the Upper Mississippi River. Hydrobiologia 136: 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Evans, D. L., W. J. Streever & T. L. Crisman, 1999. Natural flatwood marshes and created freshwater marshes of Florida: factor influencing aquativ invertebrate distribution and comosionsbetween natural and created marsh communities. In D. P. Batzer, R. B. Rader & S. A. Wissinger (eds), Invertebrates in freshwater wetlands of North America. Wiley, New York, pp. 81–104.Google Scholar
  33. Fishar M. R. & W. P. Williams, 2006. A feasibility study to monitor the macroinvertebrate diversity of the River Nile using three sampling methods. Hydrobiologia 556:137–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fishar M. R. & W. P. Williams, 2008. The development of a Biotic Pollution Index for the River Nile in Egypt. Hydrobiologia 598: 17–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fishar M. R., R. Thorne & W. P. Williams, 2006. Physico-chemical conditions and macroinvertebrate fauna in the River Nile from Aswan to Cairo. African Journal of Aquatic Science 31: 247–259.Google Scholar
  36. Fishar, M. R. A., 1995. Studies on bottom fauna in Lake Nasser, Egypt. Ph. D. Thesis Suez Canal University, 267 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Geene, R., 1994. Notes on dragonflies in Egypt, spring 1990. Foundation for Ornithological Research in Egypt (FORE), Appendix 3: 391–395.Google Scholar
  38. Goldsmidt T. & F. Witte, 1992. Explosive speciation and adaptive radiation of haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria. An illustration of the scientific value of a lost species flock. Mitteilungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Limnologie 23: 101–107.Google Scholar
  39. Green J. & A. I. El-Moghraby, 2009. Swamps of the Upper White Nile. In H. J. Dumont (ed.), The Nile. Monographiae Biologicae, Vol. 89: 193–204. Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  40. Hammerton, D., 1976. The Blue Nile in the plains. In J. Rzóska (ed.), The Nile, Biology of an ancient river. Junk, The Hague, pp. 243–256.Google Scholar
  41. Hellawell, J. M., 1986. Biological indicators of freshwater pollution and environmental management. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 546–554.Google Scholar
  42. Hussein, M. A., R. Kinzelbach & N. A. El-Shimy, 1988. A key for freshwater Hirudinea of Egypt. Bulletin of the Faculty of Science, Assiut University 17: 29–43.Google Scholar
  43. Ibrahim, A. & M. T. Khalil, 2004. Invasive Species in the River Nile Ecosystem. In M. R. Fishar & U. S. A. Khalifa (eds), Status of Biodiversity of River Nile. Workshop held at British Council, Cairo, 9 December 2003, 80 pp.Google Scholar
  44. Ibrahim, A. M., M. T. Khalil & M. F. Mubarak, 1997. Ecological studies on the exotic Crayfishes, Procambarus clarkii and Procambarus zonangulus in the River Nile. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Science 23: 217–228.Google Scholar
  45. Ibrahim, A. M., H. M. Bishai, & M. T. Khalil, 1999. Freshwater molluscs of Egypt. Publication of National Biodiversity Unit, 10.Google Scholar
  46. Illies, J. & I. Botosaneanu, 1963. Problémes et méthodes de la classification et de la zonation écologique des eaux courantes, considerées surtout du point de vue faunistique. Mitteilungen der Internationalen Vereinigung fur Limnologie 12: 1–57.Google Scholar
  47. Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, J., V. Kantzaris, P. Katharios, P. Kaspiris, T. Georgiadis & B. Montesantou, 2003. Application of different bioindicators for assessing water quality: a case study in the rivers Alfeios and Pineios (Peloponesos, Greece). Ecological Indicators 2: 345–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Iskaros, I. A., 1988. Biological studies on bottom fauna of Lake Nasser and Adjacent water. M. Sci. Thesis, Alexandria University, 184 pp.Google Scholar
  49. ISO-BMWP, 1979. Assessment of the Biological Quality of Rivers by a Macroinvertebrate Score. ISO/TC147/SC5/WG6/N5. International Standards Organisation, 18 pp.Google Scholar
  50. Jian, J.-G. & S.-F. Yun, 2003. Development of a biotic index using the correlation of protozoan communities with chemical water quality. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 37: 777–792.Google Scholar
  51. Johnson, T. C. & J. O. Malala, 2009. Lake Turkana and its link to the Nile. In H. J. Dumont (ed.), The Nile. Monographiae Biologicae, Vol. 89: 287–304. Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  52. Kossa, A. A., 2000. Effect of industrial and organic pollution on potential productivity and fish stock of Lake Mariut. Ph. D. Thesis, Ain Shams University, 201 pp.Google Scholar
  53. Lehman, J., 2009. Lake Victoria. In H. J. Dumont (ed.), The Nile. Monographiae Biologicae, Vol. 89: 215–241. Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  54. Liang Y. L. & H. Q. Liu, 1995. Resources, environment and fishery ecological management of macrophytic lakes (Chinese, English abstract). Science Press, Beijing.Google Scholar
  55. Ligtvoet, W. & F. Witte, 1991. Perturbation through predator introduction: effects on the food web and fish yields in Lake Victoria (East Africa). In O. Ravera (ed.), Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Perturbation and Recovery. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, pp. 263–268.Google Scholar
  56. Magee, P. A., F. A. Reid & L. H. Frederickson, 1999. Temporary flooded wetlands of Missouri: invertebrate ecology and management, pp. 691–730. In D. P. Batzer, R. B. Rader & S. A. Wissinger (eds), Invertebrates in Freshwater Wetlands of North America. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Masifwa, W. F., T. Twongo & P. Denny, 2001. The impact of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms on the abundance and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates along the shores of northern Lake Victoria, Uganda. Hydrobiologia 452: 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mbahinzireki, G. B., 1994. Initial results of the Benthic fauna studies in the Northern Lake Victoria. In E. Okemwa, A. Getabu & E. Wakwabi (eds), Proceeding of the 2nd EEC Regional Seminar on Recent Trends of Research on Lake Victoria Fisheries, 25–27 September, 1991, Kisumu-Kenya. ICIPE Science Press, Nairobi, Kenya: 7–13.Google Scholar
  59. McLachlan, A. J., 1979. Decline and recovery of the benthic invertebrate communities. In M. Kalk, A. J. McLachlan & C. Howard-Williams (eds), Lake Chilwa. Monographiae Biologicae 35: 145–160. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
  60. McLachlan, A. J. & S. H. McLachlan, 1971. Benthic fauna and sediments in the newly created lake Kariba (Central Africa). Ecology 52: 800–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mercedes, R. M., 1987. The ecology of some benthic Oligochaeta from the Parana River, Argentina. Hydrobiologia 155: 209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Milbrink, G., 1983. An improved environmental index based on the relative abundance of Oligochaete species. Hydrobiologia 102: 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mohamed, M. S., 2007. Ecological studies on some aquatic insects in the River Nile at greater Cairo region, Egypt. M. Sci. Thesis, Helwan University, 244 pp.Google Scholar
  64. Monakov, A. V., 1969. The zooplankton and zoobenthos of the White Nile and adjoining waters of the Republic of the Sudan. Hydrobiologia 33: 161–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Moyle, J. B., 1940. A biological survey of the upper Mississippi River system. Minnesota Department of Conservation, Division of Game and Fish, Investigational Report 10: 69 pp.Google Scholar
  66. Muli, J. R. & K. M. Mavuti, 2001. The benthic macrofauna community of Kenyan waters of Lake Victoria. Hydrobiologia 458: 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Newell, P. F., R. C. Newell & M. W. Trett, 1990b. Assessment of the impact of liquid wastes on benthic invertebrate assemblages. Science of the Total Environment 97/98: 855–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Newell, R. L., 1998. Diversity of Aquatic Invertebrates of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Some Tributaries and Two Adjacent Springs, Washington State, USA. Report to the Nature Conservancy of Washington, 34 pp.Google Scholar
  69. Plafkin, J. L., M. T. Barbour, K. D. Porter, S. K. Gross & R. M. Hughes, 1989. Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in streams and rivers: benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. EPA/444/4– 89/001. Office of Water Regulations and Standards. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington.Google Scholar
  70. Ramadan, S. H. E., A. M. Kheirallah & K. H. M. Abdel-Salam, 2000. Benthic communities in the Nile River. Egypt, Mollusca. Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography & Fisheries 26: 149–166.Google Scholar
  71. Ramdani, M., R. J. Flower & N. Elkhiati, 2001. Zooplankton (Cladocera, Ostracoda), Chironomidae and other benthic faunal remains in sediment cores from nine North African wetland lakes: the CASSARINA project. Aquatic Ecology 35: 389–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Roback, S. S., 1980. The immature Chironomids of the eastern United State IV Tonypondina, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 132: 1–63.Google Scholar
  73. Rosenberg, D. M., & V. H. Resh, 1993. Freshwater Biomonitoring in Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Chapman and Hall, New York, 488 pp.Google Scholar
  74. Rzóska, J., 1976. Notes on the benthos of the Nile system. In J. Rzóska (ed.), The Nile, Biology of an ancient river. Junk, The Hague, pp. 345–351.Google Scholar
  75. Samaan, A. A., A. A. Aleem, 1972. Quantitative estimation of bottom fauna in Lake Mariut. Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries of Egypt 2: 377–390.Google Scholar
  76. Sibley, P. K., D. A. Beriot & G. T. Ankly, 1998. Life cycle and behavioral assessment of the influence of substrate particle size on Chironomus tentanus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in laboratory assays. Hydrobiologia 361: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Springuel, I. & K. J. Murphy, 1991. Euhydrophytes communities of the river Nile and its impoundments in Egyptian Nubia. Hydrobiologia 218: 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Steuer, A., 1942. Ricerche Idrobiologiche alle Foci del Nilo. Memorie dell'Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia 1: 85–106.Google Scholar
  79. Tewabe, D., S. Muhammed & B. Abdissa, 2005. Distribution and abundance of macro-benthic and weed-based faunas in the northern part of Lake Tana. Internal Report ARARI, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, 14 pp.Google Scholar
  80. Tudorancea, C., R. M. Baxter & C. H. Fernando, 1989. A comparative limnological study of zoobenthic associations in lakes of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Monographische Beiträge 83: 121–174.Google Scholar
  81. Van Damme, D. & B. Van Bocxlaer, 2009. Freshwater mollusks of the Nile: past and present. In H. J. Dumont (ed.), The Nile. Monographiae Biologicae, Vol. 89: 585–629. Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  82. Vannote, R. L., G. W. Minshall, K. W. Cummins, J. R. Sedell & C. E. Cushing, 1980. The river continuum concept. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 37: 130–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Verdonschot, P. F. M., 1987. Aquatic oligochaetes in ditches. Hydrobiologia 155: 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vijverberg, J., F. A. Sibbing, & E. Dejen, 2009. Lake Tana: Source of the Blue Nile. In H. J. Dumont (ed.), The Nile. Monographiae Biologicae, Vol. 89: 163–192. Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  85. Ward, J. V., 1998. Riverine landscapes: Biodiversity patterns, disturbance regimes, and aquatic conservation. Biological Conservation 83: 269–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wiley, M. J., 1981. An analysis of some factors influencing the successful penetration of sediment by Chironomid larvae. Oikos 36: 296–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Winnel, M. H. & D. J. Jude, 1984. Benthic community structure and composition among rocky habitats in the great lakes and Keuka lake, New York. Journal of great Lakes Research 13: 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Witte, F., T. Goldschmidt, P. C. Goudswaard, W. Ligtvoet, M. J. P. Van Oijen & J. H. Wanink, 1992. Species extinction and concomitant ecological changes in Lake Victoria. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 42: 214–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zahran, M. A., 2009. Hydrophytes of the Nile in Egypt. In H. J. Dumont (ed.), The Nile. Monographiae Biologicae, Vol. 89: 463–478. Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gamal M. El-Shabrawy
    • 1
  • Mohamed R. Fishar
    • 1
  1. 1.Fish Research Station, El-KhanaterNational Institute of Oceanography and FisheriesEl-KhariaEgypt

Personalised recommendations