• Jaap Scheerens
Part of the Lifelong Learning Book Series book series (LLLB, volume 14)

The general aims of this study were to clarify the core and related concepts of citizenship as a concern for schooling, and study informal learning embedded in the school context in more detail. In order to achieve this aim, the state of the art of dealing with citizenship in schools in the participating countries was described on the basis of intensive case studies of a limited number of schools. The case study analyses dealt with the general issue of the “teach ability” of citizenship at school, strengths and weaknesses of the context embedded and the explicit teaching approaches, the quality of methods and materials, and the possibility to assess the realization of citizenship at school by means of quantitative and qualitative assessment approaches. In the school analyses, school composition, in the sense of the proportion of students with a minority background, was used as an important stratification variable. The study was also intended to deliver conclusions about a common core in objectives concerning citizenship across European countries, about promising embedded and explicit approaches, and to the feasibility of assessment approaches. In this final chapter the balance of the study is made up, on the basis of a conclusive analysis on how the results have contributed to the stated aims. First, the core definitions and more precise objective of the study will be summarized once more.


Minority Student School Principal School Culture Foreign Student Active Citizenship 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Coombs, P., & Ahmed, M. (1974). Attacking rural poverty. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Deal, T. E., & Peterson, K. D. (1999). Shaping school culture.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  3. Department for Education and Skills (DfES). (2004). Self-evaluation tool for citizenship education. London: DfES.Google Scholar
  4. Diedrich, M. (2006). Connections between quality of school life and democracy in German schools. In A. Sliwka, M. Diedrich, & M. Hofer (Eds.), Citizenship education (pp. 121–134). Münster: Waxmann Verlag.Google Scholar
  5. Education Council. (2003). Onderwijs en burgerschap [Education and citizenship]. Den Haag: Onderwijsraad.Google Scholar
  6. European Union; Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap. (2004). Citizenship: Made in Europe: Living together starts at school. Den Haag: Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap.Google Scholar
  7. Fagen, S. A. (1986). Least intensive interventions for classroom behavior problems. Pointer, 31, 21–28.Google Scholar
  8. Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). Five misunderstandings about case-study research. Qualitative Inquiry, 12(2), 219–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fordham, P. E. (1993). “Informal, non-formal and formal education programmes” in YMCA George Williams College ICE301 lifelong learning unit 2. London: YMCA George Williams College.Google Scholar
  10. Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations – Software of the mind. UK: McGraw-Hill Books.Google Scholar
  11. Inspectorate of Education. (2007). The state of education. The Netherlands: Utrecht.Google Scholar
  12. Maslowski, R. (2001). School culture and school performance. Ph.D. Thesis. Enschede: Twente University Press.Google Scholar
  13. McMeekin, R. W. (2003). Networks of schools. Education policy archives, 11, 1–16.Google Scholar
  14. Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  15. Solvason, C. (2005). Integrating specialist school ethos…or do you mean culture? Education Studies, 31, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Torney-Purta, J., Lehmann, R., Oswald, H., & Schulz, W. (2001). Citizenship and education in twenty-eight countries. Civic knowledge at age fourteen. Amsterdam: IEA.Google Scholar
  17. Yin, R. K. (2002). Case study research. Design and methods. Applied social research method series (3rd ed., Vol. 5). California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaap Scheerens
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational Organization and ManagementUniversity of Twentethe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations