Advertisement

Class Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledons)

Embryo usually with two cotyledons, sometimes one, rarely with three or four. Cotyledons commonly with three vascular bundles. Leaves mostly petioled. Venation typically reticulate, either pinnate or palmate, and mostly not closed (with free vein endings). Leaf traces 1–3, seldom more. Prophylls and bracteoles are usually paired. Plumule terminal. Vascular bundles usually arranged in a ring, seldom in two or more rings or scattered. The root system mostly that of a tap root from which side branches arise. The root cap and epidermis mostly of a common ontogenetical origin. Plants woody or herbaceous, frequently secondarily arborescent. Epicuticular wax ultrastructure mostly of Aristolochia-type, but in Winteraceae and Canellaceae they are of Berberis-type. Plastids of the sieve elements of S-type or less often of P-type. Flowers mostly 5- or (less frequently) 4-merous and only in some mainly archaic groups 3-merous. Floral nectaries of various types but never septal or nectaries absent. Pollen grains typically triaperturate or of triap-erturatederived type, except in some archaic families, where they are distally uniaperturate or rarely biaperturate. The class Magnoliopsida includes 8 subclasses, 125 orders, c. 440 families, almost 10,500 genera, and no less than 195,000 species.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Baas P, E Wheeler, and M Chase. 2000. Dicotyledonous wood anatomy and the APG system of angiosperm classification. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 134: 3–17.Google Scholar
  2. Baas P, S Jansen, E Smets, and EA Wheeler. 2003. Ecological adaptations and deep phylogenetic splits — evidence and questions from the secondary xylem. In: TF Stuessy, V Mayer, and E Hörandl, eds. Deep morphology: toward a renaissance of morphology in plant systematics, pp. 221–240. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag, Liechtenstein.Google Scholar
  3. Bate-Smith EC. 1962. The phenolic constituents of plants and their taxonomic significance: I. Dicotyledons. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 58: 95–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behnke H-D. 1991. Distribution and evolution of forms and types of sieve-element plastids in the dicotyledons. Aliso 13: 167–182.Google Scholar
  5. Boros CA and FR Stermitz. 1990. Iridoids. An updated review, I. J. Nat. Prod. 53: 1055–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boros CA and FR Stermitz. 1991. Iridoids. An updated review, II. J. Nat. Prod. 54: 1172–1246.Google Scholar
  7. Burr B und W Barthlott. 1993. Untersuchungen zur Ultraviolettreflexion von Angiospermenblüten II. Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Hamamelididae, Caryophyllidae, Rosidae. Akad. Wiss. Lit. (Münz). Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt, vol. 87. Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  8. Carlquist S. 1984. Vessel grouping in dicotyledon woods: significance and relationship to imperforate tracheary elements. Aliso 10: 505–525.Google Scholar
  9. Carlquist S. 1992. Wood anatomy of sympetalous dicotyledon families: a summary with comments on systematic relationships and evolution of the woody habit. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 303–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carlquist S. 2001. Comparative wood anatomy. Systematic, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of dicotyledon wood, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  11. Carpenter KJ. 2005. Stomatal architecture and evolution in basal angiosperms. Am. J. Bot. 92: 1595–1615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Corner EJH. 1976. The seeds of dicotyledons, 2 vols. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  13. Cutler DF and M Gregory. 1998. Anatomy of the dicotyledons, vol. I V. Saxifragales (sensu Armen Takhtajan 1983), 2nd edition. Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  14. Dahlgren G. 1989. The last Dahlgrenogram: system of classification of the dicotyledons. In: K Tan, RR Mill, and TS Elias, eds. Plant taxonomy, phytogeography, and related subjects, pp. 249–260. University Press Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  15. Dahlgren G. 1991. Steps toward a natural system of the dicotyledons. Aliso 13: 107–165.Google Scholar
  16. Davis CC and KJ Wurdack. 2004. Host-to-parasite gene transfer in flowering plants: phylogenetic evidence from Malpighiales. Science 305: 676–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ditsch F and W Barthlott. 1997. Mikromorphologie der Epicuticularwachse und das System der Dilleniidae und Rosidae. Akad. Wiss. Lit. (Münz). Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt, vol. 97. Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  18. Doyle JA and PK Endress. 2000. Morphological phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms: comparison and combination with molecular data. Int. J. Plant Sci. 161(6, Suppl.): S121–S153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Drinnan AN, PR Crane, and SB Hoot. 1994. Patterns of floral evolution in the early diversification of non-magnoliid dicotyledons (eudicots). In: PK Endress and EM Friis, eds. Early evolution of flowers, pp. 93–122 Vienna (Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 8).Google Scholar
  20. Endress PK. 1994. Floral structure and evolution of primitive angiosperms: recent advance. Plant. Syst. Evol. 192: 79–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Endress PK. 2004. Structure and relationships of basal relictual angiosperms. Aust. Syst. Bot. J. 17: 343–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Endress PK. 2005. The role of morphology in angiosperm evolutionary studies. Nova Acta Leopold. 92.Google Scholar
  23. Endress PK and A Igersheim. 1999. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the basal eudicots. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 130: 305–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Friedman WE and JH Williams. 2003. Modularity of the angiosperm female gametophyte and its bearing on the early evolution of endosperm in flowering plants. Evolution 57: 216–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Friedman WE and JH Williams. 2004. Developmental evolution of the sexual process in ancient flowering plant lineages. Plant Cell 16: S119–S132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Friedman WE, RC Moore, and MD Purugganan. 2004. The evolution of plant development. Am. J. Bot. 91: 1726–1741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Friis EM, PR Crane, and KP Pedersen. 1997. Fossil history of magnoliid angiosperms. In: K. Iwatsuki and PH Raven, eds. Evolution and diversification of land plants, pp. 121–156. Springer, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  28. Furness CA and PJ Rudall. 2004. Pollen aperture evolution — a crucial factor for eudicot success? Trends Plant Sci. 9: 154–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Furness CA, PJ Rudall, and FB Sampson. 2002. Evolution of microsporogenesis in angiosperms. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 235–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goldberg A. 1986. Classification, evolution, and phylogeny of the families of dicotyledons. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 58: 1–314.Google Scholar
  31. Gregory M and P Baas. 1989. A survey of mucilage cells in vegetative organs of the dicotyledons. Israel J. Bot. 38: 125–174.Google Scholar
  32. Gundersen A. 1950. Families of Dicotyledons. Chronica Botanica, Waltham, MA.Google Scholar
  33. Hallier H. 1908. Über Juliania, eine Terebinthaceen-Gattung mit Cupula und die wahren Stammeltern der Kätzchenblüthler. Neue Beiträge zur Stammesgeschichte nebst einer Übersicht über das natürliche System der Dicotyledonen. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Bd. 23, Heft 2: 81–265.Google Scholar
  34. Hennig S, W Barthlott, I Meusel, und I Theisen. 1994. Mikromorphologie der Epicuticularwachse und die Systematik der Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae und Hamamelididae. Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 90: 1–60.Google Scholar
  35. Hoot SB, S Magallón, and PR Crane. 1999. Phylogeny of basal eudicots based on three molecular data sets: atpB, rbcL, and 18S nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 86: 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hutchinson J. 1964. The genera of flowering plants: Dicotyledons, 2 vols. Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  37. Igersheim A and PK Endress. 1998. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the paleoherbs. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 127: 289–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jensen U. 1991. Stages towards the natural system of the Dicotyledons: serological characters. Aliso 13: 183–190.Google Scholar
  39. Metcaife CR and L Chalk. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons, 2 vols. Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  40. Metcaife CR and L Chalk. 1979, 1983, 1987. Anatomy of the dicotyledons, 2d ed, 3 vols. (to be continued). Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  41. Philipson WR. 1961. Relationship and convergence in angiosperms. Phytomorphology 10: 367–376.Google Scholar
  42. Philipson WR. 1974. Ovular morphology and the major classification of the dicotyledons. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 68: 89–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Philipson WR. 1975. Evolutionary lines within the dicotyledons. New Zealand J. Bot. 13: 73–91.Google Scholar
  44. Philipson WR and EE Balfour. 1963. Vascular patterns in dicotyledons. Bot. Rev. 29: 382–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ronse Decraene LP and EF Smets. 1996. The morphological variation and systematic value of stamen pairs in the Magnoliatae. Feddes Repert. 107: 1–17.Google Scholar
  46. Savolainen V, MF Fay, DC Albach, A Backlund, M van der Bank, KM Cameron, SA Johnson, MD Lledó, J-C Pintaud, M Powell, MC Sheahan, DE Soltis, PS Soltis, P Weston, WM Whitten, KJ Wurdack, and MW Chase. 2000. Phylogeny of the eudicots: a nearly complete familial analysis based on rbcL gene sequences. Kew Bull. 55: 257–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Smets EF. 1986. Localization and systematic importance of the floral nectaries in the Magnoliatae (dicotyledons). Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 56: 51–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Soares GLG and Kaplan MAC. 2001. Analysis of flavoneflavonol ratio in Dicotyledoneae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 135: 61–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Takhtajan A. 1983. The systematic arrangement of dicotyledonous families. In: CR Metcaife and L Chalk, eds. Anatomy of the dicotyledons, vol. 2, 2nd ed, pp. 180–201. Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  50. Theisen I and W Barthlott. 1994. Mikromorphologie der Epicuticularwachse und die Systematik der Gentianales, Rubiales, Dipsacales und Calycerales. Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 89: 1–62.Google Scholar
  51. Thomas V. 1991. Structural, functional and phylogenetic aspects of the colleter. Ann. Bot. 68: 287–305.Google Scholar
  52. Vogel S. 1997. Remarkable nectaries: structure, ecology, organophyletic perspectives. I. Substitutive nectaries. Flora 192: 305–333.Google Scholar
  53. Vogel S. 1998a. Remarkable nectaries: structure, ecology, organophyletic perspectives. II. Nectarioles. Flora 193: 1–29.Google Scholar
  54. Von Teichman I and AE van Wyk. 1991. Trends in the evolution of dicotyledonous seeds based on character associations, with special reference to pachychalazy and recalcitrance. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 105: 211–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Walker JW and JA Doyle. 1975. The bases of angiosperm phylogeny: palynology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62: 664–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zahur MS. 1959. Comparative study of secondary phloem of 423 species of woody dicotyledons belonging to 85 families. Mem. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., no. 358.Google Scholar
  57. Zanis MJ, PS Soltis, Y-L Qui, EA Zimmer, and DE Soltis. 2003. Phylogenetic analyses and perianth evolution in basal angiosperms. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 129–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Doust AN and PF Stevens. 2005. A reinterpretation of the stami-nate flowers of Haptanthus. Syst. Bot. 30: 779–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Goldberg A and HA Alden. 2005. Taxonomy of Haptanthus Goldberg & C. Nelson. Syst. Bot. 30: 773–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Goldberg A and C Nelson. 1989. Haptanthus, a new dicotyledonous genus from Honduras. Syst. Bot. 14: 16–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nelson CH. 2002. Haptanthaceae C. Nelson, fam. nov. Ceiba 42: 33.Google Scholar
  62. Agababian VS. 1973. Pollen grains of primitive angiosperms. University Press Yerevan (in Russian).Google Scholar
  63. Bailey IW and BGL Swamy. 1951. The conduplicate carpel of dicotyledons and its initial trend of specialization. Am. J. Bot. 38: 373–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Behnke H-D. 1971. Sieve-tube plastids in Magnoliidae and Ranunculidae in relation to systematics. Taxon 20: 723–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Behnke H-D. 1988. Sieve-element plastids, phloem protein, and evolution of flowering plants: III. Magnoliidae. Taxon 37: 699–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Carlquist S. 1996. Wood anatomy of primitive angiosperms: new perspectives and syntheses. In: DW Taylor and LJ Hickey, eds. Flowering plant origin, evolution, and phy-logeny, pp. 68–90. Chapman & Hall, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Doyle JA and PK Endress. 2000. Morphological phylogenetic analysis of basal angiosperms: comparison and combination with molecular data. Int. J. Plant Sci. 161(Suppl. 6): 121–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ehrendorfer E. 1976. Evolutionary significance of chromosomal differentiation patterns in gymnosperms and primitive angiosperms. In: CB Beck, ed. Origin and early evolution of angiosperms, pp. 220–240. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Ehrendorfer F. 1988. Affinities of the African dendroflora: Suggestions from karyo- and chemosystematics. In: P Goldblatt and PP Lowry II., eds. Modern systematic studies in African botany. Monographs Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 25: 105–127.Google Scholar
  70. Ehrendorfer E, K Krendl, E Habeller, and W Sauer. 1968. Chromosome numbers and evolution in primitive angio-sperms. Taxon 17: 337–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Endress PK. 1973. Arils and aril-like structures in woody Ranales. New. Phytol. 72: 1159–1171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Endress PK. 1983. Dispersal and distribution in some small archaic relic families (Austrobaileyaceae, Eupomatiaceae, Himantandraceae, Idiospermoideae-Calycanthaceae). Sonderh. Naturwiss. Vereins Hamburg 7: 201–217.Google Scholar
  73. Endress PK. 1986. Reproductive structures and phylogenetic significance of extinct primitive angiosperms. Plant Syst. Evol. 152: 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Endress PK. 1994. Shapes, sizes, and evolutionary trends in stamens of Magnoliidae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 115: 429–460.Google Scholar
  75. Endress PK. 1996. Evolutionary aspects of fruits in basal flower-ing plants. Det Norske Vidensk. Akademi, I. Mat.-Naturv. Klasse, Achandlinger, n.s. 18: 21–32.Google Scholar
  76. Endress PK. 2001. The flowers in extant basal angiosperms and inferences on ancestral flowers. Int. J. Plant Sci. 162: 1111–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Endress PK and D Hufford. 1989. The diversity of stamen structures and dehiscence patterns among Magnoliidae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 100: 45–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Endress PK and A Igersheim. 2000. Gynoecium structure and evolution in basal angiosperms. Int. J. Plant Sci. 161(Suppl. 6): 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Erbar C. 1983. Zum Karpellbau einiger Magnoliiden. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 104: 3–31.Google Scholar
  80. Erbar C. 1994. Flowers in Magnoliidae and the origin of flowers in other subclasses of the angiosperms. II. The relationships between flowers of Magnoliidae, Dilleniidae, and Caryophyllidae. Plant Syst. Evol., Suppl. 8: 209–218.Google Scholar
  81. Erbar C and P Leins. 1983. Zur Sequenz von Bl ü tenorganen bei einigen Magnoliiden. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 103: 433–449.Google Scholar
  82. Floyd SF and WE Friedman. 2000. Evolution of endosperm developmental patterns among basal flowering plants. Int. J. Plant Sci. 161: S57–S81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Floyd SK and WE Friedman. 2001. Developmental evolution of endosperm in basal angiosperms: evidence from Amborella (Amborellaceae), Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), and Illicium (Illiaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 228: 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Furness CA and PJ Rudall. 2001. The tapetum in basal angio-sperms: Early diversity. Int. J. Plant Sci. 162: 375–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gabarayeva NI. 1991. Patterns of development in primitive angiosperm pollen. In: S Blackmore and SH Barnes, eds. Pollen and spores: Patterns of diversification, pp. 257–268. Claredon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  86. Goldblatt P. 1974. A contribution to the knowledge of cytology in Magnoliidae. J. Arnold Arbor. 55: 453–457.Google Scholar
  87. Gottlieb OR, MAC Kaplan, K Kubitzki, and JR Toledo Barros. 1989. Chemical dichotomies in the Magnolealean complex. Nord. J. Bot. 8: 437–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gottsberger G. 1977. Some aspects of beetle pollination in the evolution of flowering plants. Plant Syst. Evol., Suppl. 1: 211–226.Google Scholar
  89. Gottwald HPJ. 1977. The anatomy of secondary xylem and the classification of ancient dicotyledons. Plant Syst. Evol., Suppl. 1: 111–121.Google Scholar
  90. Graham SW and RG Olmstead. 2000. Utility of 17 chloroplast genes for inferring the phylogeny of the basal angiosperms. Am. J. Bot. 87: 1712–1730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Groot EP, JA Doyle, SA Nichol, and TL Rost. 2004. Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of root apical meristem organization in dicotyledonous angiosperms. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 97–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hiepko P. 1965. Vergleichend-morphologische und entwick-lungsgeschichdiche Untersuchungen ü ber das Perianth bei den Polycarpicae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 84: 359–508.Google Scholar
  93. Hoot SB, S Megallon, and PR Crane. 1999. Phylogeny of basal eudicots based on three molecular datasets: atpB, rbcL and 18S nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 86: 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Igersheim A and PK Endress. 1997. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of Magnoliales and winteroids. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 124: 213–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jensen U and G Greven. 1984. Serological aspects and phyloge-netic relationships of the Magnoliidae. Taxon 33: 563–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Judd WS and RG Olmstead. 2004. A survey of tricolpate (eudicot) phylogenetic relationships. Am. J. Bot. 91: 1627–1644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kramer EM and VF Irish. 2000. Evolution of the petal and stamen developmental programs: evidence from comparative studies of the lower eudicots and basal angiosperms. Int. J. Plant Sci. 161(Suppl.): 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kubitzki K and H Reznik. 1966. Flavonoid-Muster der Polycarpicae als systemadsches Merkmal: I. Übersichtuber die Fammen. Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 42: 445–470.Google Scholar
  99. Lemesle R. 1955. Contribution a 1'etude de quelques families de dicotyledones consideres comme primitives. Phytomorpho-logy 5: 11–45.Google Scholar
  100. Le Thomas A. 1988. Les structures reproductives des Magnoliales Africaines et Malgashes: Significations phylogeniques. Monographs Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 25: 161–174.Google Scholar
  101. Loconte H and DW Stevenson. 1991. Cladistics of the Magnoliidae. Cladistics 7: 267–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Metcaife CR. 1987. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. Vol. 3, Magnoliales, Illiciales, and Laurales, 2nd ed. Claredon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  103. Okada H. 1975. Karyomorphological studies of woody Polycarpicae. J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ., ser. B, Div. 2, Bot. 15: 115–200.Google Scholar
  104. Ozenda P. 1949. Recherches sur les dicotyledones apo-carpiques: Contribudon a 1'etude des angiospermes dites primidves. Publ. Lab. de 1'Ecole Norm. Sup., Ser. Biol. Fasc. 2. Paris.Google Scholar
  105. Qiu Y-L, MW Chase, DH Les, and CR Parks. 1993. Molecular phylogenedcs of the Magnoliidae: Cladistic analyses of nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 587–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Raven PH, DW Kyhos, and MS Cave. 1971. Chromosome numbers and relationships in Annoniflorae. Taxon 20: 479–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ronse Decreane LP and EF Smets. 1992. Complex polyandry in the Magnoliadae: Definition, distribution, and systematic value. Nord. J. Bot. 12: 621–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sampson 2000. Pollen diversity in some modern magnoliids. Int. J. Plant Sci. 161(Suppl.): 193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sastri RLN. 1969. Comparative morphology and phylogeny of the Ranales. Biol. Rev. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 44: 291–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith AC. 1971 (1972). An appraisal of the order and families of primitive extant angiosperms. J. Indian Bot. Soc., Golden Jubilee volume, 50A: 215–226.Google Scholar
  111. Sugiyama M. 1979. A comparative study of nodal anatomy in the Magnoliales based on the vascular system in the node-leaf continuum. J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot. 12(5): 199–279.Google Scholar
  112. Takhtajan AL. 1948. Morphological evolution of the angio-sperms. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  113. Tucker SC and AW Douglas. 1996. Floral structure, development, and relationships of paleoherbs: Saruma, Cabomba, Lactoris, and selected Piperales, pp. 141–175. In: DW Taylor, LJ Hickey, eds. Flowering plant origin, evolution and phylogeny. Chapman & Hall, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Thien LB. 1980. Patterns of pollination in the primitive angio-sperms. Biotropica 12: 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Thorne RB. 1974. A phylogenetic classification of the Annoniflorae. Aliso 8: 147–209.Google Scholar
  116. Walker JW. 1974a. Evolution of exine structure in the pollen of primitive angiosperms. Am. J. Bot. 61: 891–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Walker JW. 1974b. Aperture evolution in the pollen of primitive angiosperms. Am. J. Bot. 61: 1112–1137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Walker JW. 1976a. Comparative pollen morphology and phylog-eny of the ranalean complex. In: CB Beck, ed. Origin and early evolution of angiosperms, pp. 241–299. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  119. Walker JW. 1976b. Evolutionary significance of the exine in the pollen of primitive angiosperms. In: IK Ferguson and J Muller, eds. The evolutionary significance of the exine, pp. 251–308. Linn. Soc. Symposium, No. 1. Columbia University Press, London/New York.Google Scholar
  120. Wu Z-Y, A-M Lu, and Y-C Tang. 1998. A comprehensive study of “Magnoliidae” sensu lato. — With special consideration on the possibility and the necessity for proposing a new “poly-phyletic-polychronic-polytopic” system of angiosperms. In: A-L Zhang and S-G Wu, eds. Floristic characteristics and diversity of East Asian plants, pp. 269–334. China Higher Education Press/Springer, Beijing/Berlin.Google Scholar
  121. Zhu Min and Xiao Pei-gen. 1991. Distribution of benzyl isoqui-nolines in Magnoliidae and other taxa. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 29: 142–155 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  122. Bailey IW. 1957. Additional notes on the vesselless dicotyledon, Amborella trichopoda Baill. J. Arnold Arbor. 38: 374–378.Google Scholar
  123. Bailey IW and BGL Swamy. 1948a. Amborella trichopoda Baill., a new type of vesselless dicotyledons. J. Arnold Arbor. 29: 215.Google Scholar
  124. Bailey IW and BGL Swamy. 1948b. Amborella trichopoda Baill.: A new morphological type of vesselless dicotyledon. J. Arnold Arbor. 29: 245–254.Google Scholar
  125. Bobrov AV, PK Endress, AP Melikian, MS Romanov, AN Sorokin, and AP Bejerano. 2005. Fruit structure of Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 148: 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Buzgo M, PS Soltis, and DE Soltis. 2004. Floral developmental morphology of Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 925–947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Carlquist S and EL Schneider. 2001. Vegetative anatomy of the New Caledonian endemic Amborella trichopoda: relationships with the Illiciales and implications for vessel origin. Pac. Sci. 55: 305–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Degtjareva G, TH Samigullin, DD Sokoloff, and CM Valiejo-Roman. 2004. Gene sampling versus taxon sampling: Is Amborella (Amborellaceae) a sister group to all other extant angiosperms? Bot. Zhurn. 89: 896–907.Google Scholar
  129. Endress PK and A Igersheim. 2000. The reproductive structures of the basal angiosperm Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 161(Suppl. 6): 237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Field TS, T Brodribb, T Jaffré, and NM Holbrook. 2001. Acclimation of leaf anamoty, photosynthetic light use, and xylem hydraulies to light in Amborella trichopoda. Int. J. Plant Sci. 162: 999–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Field TS, MA Zweiniecki, T Brodribb, T Jaffré, MJ Donoghue, and NM Holbrook. 2000. Structure and function of tracheary elements in Amborella trichopoda. Int. J. Plant Sci. 161: 705–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Floyd SK and WE Friedman. 2001. Developmental evolution of endosperm in basal angiosperms: evidence from Amborella (Amborellaceae), Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), and Illicium (Illiaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 228: 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Goremykin VV, KI Hirsch-Ernst, S Wölfl, and FH Hellwig. 2003. Analysis of the Amborella trichopoda chloroplast genome sequence suggests that Amborella is not a basal angiosperm. Molec. Biol. Evol. 20: 1499–1505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Hesse M. 2001. Pollen characters of Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae): A reinvestigation. Bot. J. Plant Sci. 162: 201–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lockhart PJ and D Penny. 2005. The place of Amborella within the radiation of angiosperms. Trends Plant Sci. 10: 201–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Metcalfe CR. 1987. Anatomy of the Dicotyledons. Amborellaceae, pp. 97–100. Claredon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  137. Melikian AP, AV Bobrov, and ES Zaytzeva. 1999. A new fruit type in Amborella trichopoda Baill. (Amborellaceae Pichon). 14 Symp. Biodiversität und Evolutionsbiol. Jena.Google Scholar
  138. Oginuma K, T Jaffré, and H Tobe. 2000. The karyotype analysis of somatic chromosomes in Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae). J. Plant Res. 113: 281–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Philipson WR. 1993. Amborellaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 92–93. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  140. Plisko MA. 1988. Amborellaceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, vol. 2, pp. 54–55. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  141. Posluszny U and PB Tomlinson. 2003. Aspects of infl orescence and fl oral development in the putative basal angiosperm Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 81: 28–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sampson FB. 1993. Pollen morphology of the Amborellaceae and Hortoniaceae (Hortonioideae: Monimiaceae). Grana 32: 154–162.Google Scholar
  143. Soltis DE and PS Soltis. 2004. Amborella not a “basal angio-sperm”? Not so fast. Am. J. Bot. 91: 997–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Stefanovic S, DW Rice, and JD Palmer. 2004. Long branch attraction, taxon sampling, and the earliest angiosperms: Amborella or monocots. BMC Evol. Biol. (4): 35 (online).Google Scholar
  145. Thien LB, TL Sage, T Jaffré, P Bernhardt, V Pontieri, PH Weston, D Malloch, H Azuma, SW Graham, MA McPherson, HS Rai, RF Sage, and J-L Dupre. 2003. The population structure and fl oral biology of Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 466–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tobe H, T Jaffré, and PH Raven. 2000. Embryology of Amborella (Amborellaceae): Description and polarity of character states. J. Plant Res. 113: 271–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Yamada T, H Tobe, R Imaichi, and M Kato. 2001. Developmental morphology of the ovules of Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae) and Chloranthus serratus (Chloranthaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 137: 277–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Young DA. 1982. Leaf fl avonoids of Amborella tricho-poda. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 10: 21–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Arber A. 1920. Water plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  150. Batygina TB. 1981. Cabombaceae, Nymphaeaceae. In: MS Yakovlev, ed. Comparative embryology of flowering plants: Winteraceae-Juglandaceae, pp. 101–110. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  151. Batygina TB and II Shamrov. 1983. Embryology of the Nelumbonaceae and Nymphaeaceae: Pollen grain structure (some features of correlated development of the pollen grain and anther wall). Bot. Zhurn. 68: 1177–1184 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  152. Batygina TB and II Shamrov. 1985. Comparative embryology of the orders Nymphaeales and Nelumbonales and the problems in their systematics and phylogeny. Bot. Zhurn. 70: 368–373 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  153. Batygina TB, TI. Kravtsova, and II Shamrov. 1980. The comparative embryology of some representatives of the order Nymphaeales and Nelumbonales. Bot. Zhurn. 65: 1071–1087 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  154. Batygina TB, II Shamrov, and GE Kolesova. 1982. Embryology of the Nymphaeales and Nelumbonales: II. The development of the female embryonic structures. Bot. Zhum. 67: 1179–1195 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  155. Behnke HD. 1996. Endoplasmic reticulum derived decorated tubules in the sieve elements of Nymphaea. Protoplasma 193: 213–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Bonilla Barbosa J, A Novelo, YH Orozco, J Marquez Guzman. 2000. Comparative seed morphology of Mexican Nymphaea species. Aquatic Bot. 68(3): 189–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Bukowiecki H, M Furmanova, and H Oledzka. 1972. The numerical taxonomy of Nymphaeaceae: 1. Estimation of taxonomic distance. Acta Pol. Pharm. 29: 319–327.Google Scholar
  158. Carlquist S and EL Schneider. 1996. Vessels in Brasenia and Cabomba (Cabombaceae). Am. J. Bot. 83(6): 144–145 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  159. Chassat J-R. 1962. Recherches sur la ramification chez les Nymphaeacees. Bull. Soc. Bot. France, Mem., 1962: 72–95.Google Scholar
  160. Chen W-P and S-M Zhang. 1992. Comparative leaf anatomy of Nymphaeaceae (s.l.) Acta Phytotax. Sin. 30: 415–422.Google Scholar
  161. Chen I, SR Manchester, and Z Chen. 2004. Anatomically-preserved seeds of Nuphar from the early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong Province, China. Am. J. Bot. 91: 1265–1272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Chifflot JBJ. 1902. Contribution a Fetude de la classe des Nympheinees. Ann. Univ. Lyon Sei. Med., N. S. 10: 18–38.Google Scholar
  163. Chrysler MA. 1938. The winter buds of Brasenia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 65: 277–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Clarke GCS and MR Jones. 1981. Cabombaceae. Rev. Palaebot. Palynol. 33: 51–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Collinson MF. 1980. Recent and tertiary seeds of the Nymphaeaceae sensu lato with a revision of Brasenia ovula (Brong.) Reid and Chandler. Ann. Bot. 46: 603–632.Google Scholar
  166. Conard JS. 1905. The waterlilies. A monograph of the genus Nymphaea. Washington.Google Scholar
  167. Cook MT. 1902. Development of the embryo sac and embryo of Castalia odorata and Nymphaea advena. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 29: 211–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Cook MT. 1906. The embryology of some Cuban Nymphaeaceae. Bot. Gaz. 42: 376–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Cutter EG. 1957. Studies of morphogenesis in the Nymphaeaceae: 1. Introduction: Some aspects of the morphology of Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. and Nymphaea alba L. Phytomorphology 7: 45–46: 57–73.Google Scholar
  170. Cutter EG. 1958. Studies of morphogenesis in the Nymphaeaceae: II. Floral development in Nuphar and Nymphaea: Bracts and calyx. Phytomorphology 8: 74–95.Google Scholar
  171. Cutter EG. 1961. The inception and distribution of flowers in the Nymphaeaceae. Proc. Linn. Soc. London 172: 93–100.Google Scholar
  172. Dorofeev PI. 1973. Systematics of ancestral forms of Brasenia. Palaeontol. J. 7: 219–227.Google Scholar
  173. Dorofeev PI. 1984. The taxonomy and history of the genus Brasenia (Cabombaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 69: 137–148 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  174. Earle TT. 1938. Embryology of certain Ranales. Bot. Gaz. 100: 257–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. El Ghazali GEB and WE Abd Alla. 2001. Pollen morphological study on Nymphaea lotus L. (Nymphaeaceae) with emphasis on zonisulculate apertures. Jpn. J. Hist. Bot. 9: 79–84.Google Scholar
  176. Endress PK. 2005. Carpels in Brasenia (Cabombaceae) are completely ascidiate despite a long stigmatic crest. Ann. Bot. N.S. 96: 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Fassett NC. 1953. A monograph of Cabomba. Castanea 18: 116–128.Google Scholar
  178. Floyd SK and WE Friedman. 2001. Developmental evolution of endosperm in basal angiosperms: evidence from Amborella (Amborellaceae), Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), and Illicium (Illiaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 228: 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Friis EM, KR Pedersen, and PR Crane. 2001. Fossil evidence of water lilies (Nymphaeales) in the Early Cretaceous. Nature 410: 357–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Gabarayeva NI and G El-Ghazaly. 1997. Sporoderm development in Nymphaea mexicana (Nymphaeaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 204: 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Gabarayeva NI and JR Rowley. 1994. Exine development in Nymphaea colorata (Nymphaeaceae). Nord. J. Bot. 14: 671–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Gabarayeva NI, VV Grigorjeva, and JR Rowley. 2003. Sporoderm ontogeny in Cabomba aquatica (Cabombaceae). Rev. Paleobot. Palynol. 127: 147–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Gabarayeva N, B Walles, G El Ghazaly, and JR Rowley. 2001. Exine and tapetum development in Nymphaea capensis (Nymphaeaceae): a comparative study. Nord. J. Bot. 21: 529–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Galati B. 1981. The ontogeny of hairs and stomata of Cabomba australis (Nymphaeaceae). Lilloa 35: 149–158.Google Scholar
  185. Galati BG. 1985. Estudios embriologicos en Cabomba australis (Nymphaeaceae). I. La esporagenesis y las grneraciones sexuadas. Bol. Soc. Argentina Bot. 24: 29–47.Google Scholar
  186. Galati BG. 1987. Estudios embriologicos en Cabomba australis (Nymphaeaceae). II. Ontogenia de la semilla. Bol. Soc Argentina Bot. 25: 187–196.Google Scholar
  187. Gandolfo MA, KC Nixon, and WL Crepet. 2004. Cretaceous flowers of Nymphaeaceae and implications for complex insect entrapment pollination mechanisms in early angio-sperms. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 101: 8056–8060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Goleniewska-Furmanova M. 1970. Comparative leaf anatomy and alkaloid content in the Nymphaeaceae. Monogr. Bot. 31: 1–55.Google Scholar
  189. Grob V, P Moline, E Pfeifer, AR Novelo, and R Rutsihauser. 2006. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera. J. Plant Res. 119: 561–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Gwynne-Vaughan DT. 1897. On some points in the morphology and anatomy of the Nymphaeaceae. Trans. Linn. Soc. London Bot. 5: 287–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Haines RW and KA Lye. 1975. Seedlings of Nymphaeaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 70: 255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Hartog C den. 1970. Ondinea: A new genus of Nymphaeaceae. Blumea 18: 413–416.Google Scholar
  193. Heinsbroek PG and WA Van Heel. 1969. Note on the bearing of the pattern of vascular bundles on the morphology of the stamens of Victoria amazonica (Poep.) Sowerby. K. Nederi. Akad. Wet. Proc., ser. C, 72: 431–444.Google Scholar
  194. Hiepko P. 1965. Vergleichend-morphologische und entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen über das Perianth bei den Polycarpicae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 84: 359–508.Google Scholar
  195. Hu G-W, K-M Liu, and L-G Lei. 2003. Comparative study on leaf anatomy of three genera in Nymphaeaceae. Life Sci. Res. 7: 243–248.Google Scholar
  196. Inambar JA and KM Aleykutty. 1979. Studies on Cabomba aquatica (Cabombaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 132: 161–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Ishimatsu M, T Tanaka, G Nonaka, I Nishioka, M Nishizawa, and T Yamagishi. 1989. Tannins and related compounds. LXXIX. Isolation and characterisation of novel dimeric and trimeric hydrolyzable tannins, nuphrins C, D, E and F, from Nuphar japonicum DC. Chem. Pharmac. Bull. 37: 1735–1743.Google Scholar
  198. Ito M. 1982. On the embryos and the seedlings of the Nymphaeaceae. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 33: 143–148.Google Scholar
  199. Ito M. 1983. Studies in the floral morphology and anatomy of Nymphaeales: 1. The morphology of vascular bundles in the flower of Nymphaea tetragona George. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 34: 18–26.Google Scholar
  200. Ito M. 1984. Studies in the floral morphology and anatomy of Nymphaeales: II. The floral anatomy of Nymphaea tetragona George. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 35: 94–102.Google Scholar
  201. Ito M. 1986. Studies in the floral morphology and anatomy of Nymphaeales: III. Floral anatomy of Brasenia schreberi Gmel. and Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 99: 169–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Ito M. 1987. Phylogenetic systematics of the Nymphaeales. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 100: 17–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Kadono Y and EL Schneider. 1987. The life history of Euryale ferox Salisb. in southwestern Japan with special reference to reproductive ecology. Plant Species Biol. 2: 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Kenneally KF and EL Schneider. 1983. On the genus Ondinea (Nymphaeaceae) including a new subspecies from the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Nuytsia 4: 359–365.Google Scholar
  205. Khanna P. 1964. Morphological and embryological studies in Nymphaeaceae: 1. Euryale ferox. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 59B: 237–243.Google Scholar
  206. Khanna P. 1965. Morphological and embryological studies in Nymphaeaceae: II. Brasenia schreberi Gmel. and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Austral. J. Bot. 13: 379–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Khanna P. 1967. Morphological and embryological studies in Nymphaeaceae: III. Victoria cruziana D'Orb. and Nymphaea stellata Wilid. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 80: 305–312.Google Scholar
  208. Knoch E. 1899. Untersuchungen über die Blüte von Victoria regia. Biol. Bot. 47: 1–60.Google Scholar
  209. Kolesova GE, TB Batygina. 1988. Cabombaceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, 2: 136–140. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  210. Les DH DK Garvin, and CF Wimpee. 1991. Molecular evolutionary history of ancient aquatic angiosperms. Proc. Nad. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 10119–10123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Les DH, EL Shneider, and DJ Padgett. 1997. Phylogemy of the Nymphaeaceae: on the verge of a synthesis. Am. J. Bot. 84(Suppl. 6): 219–211.Google Scholar
  212. Les DH, EL Shneider, DJ Padgett, PS Soltis, DE Soltis, and M Zanis. 1999. Phylogeny, classification and floral evolution of water lilies (Nymphaeaceae; Nymphaeales): A synthesis of non-molecular, rbcL, matK, and 18S rDNA Data. Syst. Bot. 24: 24–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Li H-L. 1955. Classification and phylogeny of Nymphaeaceae and allied families. Am. Midi. Naturalist 54: 33–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Lippok B and SS Renner. 1997. Polination of Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) in Europe: flies and bees rather than Donacia beetles. Plant Syst. Evol. 207: 273–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Liu Y-L, L-M Xu, X-M Ni, and J-R Zhao. 2005. Phylogeny of Nymphaeaceae inferred from ITS sequences. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 43: 22–30 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  216. Lodkina MM. 1988. Evolutionary relations between mono- and dicotyledons based on embryo and seedling investigation. Bot. Zhurn. 73: 617–630 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  217. Lu P-H and W-P Chen. 1993. Study on the peroxidase isozymes of Nymphaeaceae with analysis of polar ordination. J. Nanjing Normal University (Natural Sci.) 16: 52–56 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  218. Lu P-H, W-P Chen, H-X Xu, and M Liu. 1994. Study on the esterase isozymes of Nymphaeaceae with numerical taxonomy. J. Nanjing Normal University (Natural Sci.) 17: 92–97 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  219. Meeuse BJD and EL Schneider. 1979/80. Nymphaea revisited: A preliminary communication. Israel J. Bot. 28: 65–79.Google Scholar
  220. Melikian AP. 1964. Comparative anatomy of the sporoderm of some representatives of the family Nymphaeaceae. Bot. Zhurn. 49: 432–436 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  221. Melikian AP, EN Nemirovich-Danchenko. 1988. Nymphaeaceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, vol. 2, pp. 140–147. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  222. Meyer NR. 1964. Palynological studies of the family Nymphaeaceae. Bot. Zhurn. 49: 1421–1429 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  223. Meyer-Melikian NR and N Diamandopulu. 1996. Ultrastructure of pollen grains of the order Nymphaeales. Bot. Zhurn. 81(7): 1–9 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  224. Moseley MF. 1958. Morphological studies of the Nymphaeaceae: 1. The nature of the stamens. Phytomorphology 8: 1–29.Google Scholar
  225. Moseley MF. 1961. Morphological studies of the Nymphaea-ceae: II. The flower of Nymphaea, Bot. Gaz. 122: 233–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Moseley MF. 1965. Morphological studies of the Nymphaea-ceae: III. The floral anatomy of Nuphar. Phytomorphology 15: 54–84.Google Scholar
  227. Moseley MF. 1972. Morphological studies of the Nymphaeaceae. I V, Development of flower of Nuphar. Phytomorphology 21: 253–283.Google Scholar
  228. Moseley MF, IJ Mehta, PS Williamson, and H Kosakai. 1984. 13th Morphological studies of the Nymphaeaceae (sensu lato): Contributions to the vegetative and floral structure of Cabomba. Am. J. Bot. 71: 902–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Moseley MF, EL Schneider, and PS Williamson. 1993. Phylogenetic interpretations from selected floral vasculature characters in the Nymphaeaceae sensu lato. Aquatic Bot. 44: 325–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Müller J. 1970. Description of pollen grains of Ondinea purpurea Den Hartog. Blumea 18: 416–417.Google Scholar
  231. Murthy GVS. 2000. Pollen morphology of Nymphaeaceae (s.l.). Bull. Bot. Surv. India 42: 73–80.Google Scholar
  232. Ni X-M, B Yu, Y-J Zhou, and J-R Zhao. 1994. Studies on the phylogenetic relationships among the Nymphaeaceae. J. Wuhan Bot. Res. 12: 311–320.Google Scholar
  233. Okada H and M Tamura. 1981. Karyomorphological study on the Nymphaeales. J. Jpn. Bot. 56: 367–375.Google Scholar
  234. Orban I and J Bouharmont. 1998. Megagametophyte development of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. (Nymphaeaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 126: 339–348.Google Scholar
  235. Orgaard M. 1991. The genus Cabomba (Cabombaceae): A taxo-nomic study. Nord. J. Bot. 11: 179–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Orgaard M, HWE Bruggen, van, PJ Vlugt, van der. 1992. Die Familie Cabombaceae (Cabomba und Brasenia.). Aqua Planta Sonderheft 3.Google Scholar
  237. Osborn JM and EL Schneider. 1988. Morphological studies of the Nymphaeaceae sensu lato: XVI. The floral biology of Brasenia schreberi. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 75: 778–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Osborn JM, TN Taylor, and EL Schneider. 1991. Pollen morphology and ultrastructure of the Cabombaceae: Correlations with pollination biology. Am. J. Bot. 78: 1367–1378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Padgett DJ, DH Les, and GE Crow. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships in Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae): Evidence from morphology, chloroplast DNA, and nuclear ribosomal DNA. Am. J. Bot. 86: 1316–1324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Padmanabhan D and MY Ramji. 1966. Developmental studies on Cabomba caroliniana Gray: II. Floral anatomy and microsporogenesis. Proc. Indian Acad. Sei., Sec. B., 64: 216–223.Google Scholar
  241. Prance GT and AB Anderson. 1976. Studies of the floral biology of Neotropical Nymphaeaceae. 3. Acta Amazonica 6: 163–170.Google Scholar
  242. Prance GT and JR Arias. 1975. A Study of the floral biology of Victoria amazonica (Poepp.) Sowerby (Nymphaeaceae). Acta Amazonica 5: 109–139.Google Scholar
  243. Raciborski M. 1894. Die Morphologic der Cabombeen und Nymphaeaceen. Flora 78: 244–299.Google Scholar
  244. Ramji MY and D Padmanabhan. 1965. Developmental studies on Cabomba caroliniana Gray: 1. Ovule and carpel. Proc. Indian Acad. Sei., Sec. B, 62: 215–223.Google Scholar
  245. Rao TA and BC Banerjee. 1978. On foliar sclereids in the Nymphaeaceae sensu lato and their use in familial classification. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 88B: 413–422.Google Scholar
  246. Richardson FC. 1969. Morphological studies of the Nymphaeaceae: IV. Structure and development of the flower of Brasenia schreberi Gmel. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 47: 1–101.Google Scholar
  247. Richardson FC and M Moseley. 1967. The vegetative morphology and nodal structure of Brasenia schreberi. Am. J. Bot. 54: 645.Google Scholar
  248. Rowley JR, NI Gabaraeva, and B Walles. 1992. Cyclic invasion of tapetal cells into loculi during microspore development in Nymphaea colorata (Nymphaeaceae). Am. J. Bot. 79: 801–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Schaffner JH. 1904. Some morphological peculiarities of the Nymphaeaceae and Helobiae. Ohio Nat. 4: 83–92.Google Scholar
  250. Schaffner JH. 1929. Principles of plant taxonomy: VII. Ohio J. Sci. 29: 243–252.Google Scholar
  251. Schaffner JH. 1934. Phylogenetic taxonomy of plants. Quart. Rev. Biol. 9: 129–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Schamrov II. 1998. Formation of hypostase, podium and postament in the ovule of Nuphar lutea (Nymphaeaceae) and Ribes aureum (Grossulariaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 83: 3–14 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  253. Schmucker Th. 1932. Physiologische und ökologische Untersuchungen an Blüten tropischer Nymphaea-Arten. Planta 16: 376–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Schneider EL. 1976. Morphological studies of the Nymphaea-ceae: VIII. The floral anatomy of Victoria Schromb. (Nymphaeaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 72: 115–148.Google Scholar
  255. Schneider EL. 1978. Morphological studies of the Nymphaea-ceae: IX. The seed of Barclaya longifolia Wall. Bot. Gaz. 139: 223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Schneider EL. 1979. Pollination biology of the Nymphaeaceae. In: DM Caron, ed., Proc. 4th Internat. Symp. Pollination Md. Agr. Exp. Sta. Spec. Misc. Publ. 1: 419–430.Google Scholar
  257. Schneider EL. 1982. Notes on the floral biology of Nymphaea elegans (Nymphaeaceae) in Texas. Aquatic Bot. 12: 197–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Schneider EL. 1983. Gross morphology and floral biology of Ondine apurpurea. Austral. J. Bot. 31: 371–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Schneider EL and S Carlquist. 1995a. Vessels in the roots of Barclaya rotundifolia (Nymphaeaceae). Am. J. Bot. 82: 1343–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Schneider EL and S Carlquist. 1995b. Vessels origins in Nymphaeaceae: Euryale and Victoria. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 119: 185–193.Google Scholar
  261. Schneider EL and S Carlquist. 1996a. Vessels in Brasenia (Cabombaceae): New perspective on vessel origin in primary xylem of angiosperms. Am. J. Bot. 83: 1236–1240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Schneider EL and S Carlquist. 1996b. Vessel origin in Cabomba. Nord. J. Bot. 16: 637–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Schneider EL, S Carlquist, K Beamer, and A Kohn. 1995. Vessels in Nymphaeaceae: Nuphar, Nymphaea, and Ondinea. Int. J. Plant Sci. 156: 857–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Schneider EL and T Chancy. 1981. The floral biology of Nymphaea odorata (Nymphaeaceae). Southw. Naturalist 26: 159–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Schneider EL and EG Ford. 1978. Morphological studies of the Nymphaeaceae: X. The seed of Ondinea purpurea Den Hartog. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 105: 192–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Schneider EL and JM Jetter. 1982. Morphological studies of the Nymphaeaceae: XII. The floral biology of Cabomba caro-liniana. Am. J. Bot. 69: 1410–1419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Schneider EL and LA Moore. 1977. Morphological studies of the Nymphaeaceae: VII. The floral biology of Nuphar lutea subsp. Macrophylla. Brittonia 29: 88–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Schneider EL and PS Williamson. 1993. Nymphaeaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed., The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 486–493. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  269. Schneider EL, SC Tucker, and PS Williamson. 2003. Floral development in the Nymphaeales. Int. J. Plant Sci. 164(Suppl. 5): S279–S292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Seago JL. 2002. The root cortex of the Nymphaeaceae, Cabombaceae, and Nelumbonaceae. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Seidel CF. 1869. Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Victoria regia Lindl. Nov. Act. Acad. Caes.-Leopold-Carol. Nat. Cur. 35(6): 26.Google Scholar
  272. Shamrov II and AN Winter. 1991. The ovule development in representatives of the genera Nymphaea and Victoria (Nymphaeaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 76: 1072–1083 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  273. Simon JP. 1971. Comparative serology of the order Nymphaea-les: II. Relationships of Nymphaeaceae and Nelumbonaceae. Aliso 7: 325–350.Google Scholar
  274. Snigirevskaya NS. 1955. On the morphology of pollen of Nymphaeales. Bot. Zhurn. 40: 108–115 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  275. Sokolovskaya AP and AP Melikian. 1964. On the karyotype of Barclaya longifolia Wall. Bot. Zhurn. 49: 585–586 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  276. Takahashi M. 1992. Development of spinous exine in Nuphar japonicum De Candolle (Nymphaeaceae). Rev. Paleobot. Palynol. 75: 317–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Tamura M. 1982. Relationship of Barclaya and classification of Nymphaeales. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 33: 336–345.Google Scholar
  278. Taylor ML and JM Osborn. 2006. Pollen ontogeny in Brasenia (Cabombaceae, Nympheales). Am. J. Bot. 93: 344–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Thorne RF. 1974. A phylogenetic classification of the Annoniflorae. Aliso 8 (2): 147–209.Google Scholar
  280. Tillich H-J. 1990. Die Keimpflanzen der Nymphaeaceae: Monocotyl oder dicotyl. Flora 184: 169–176.Google Scholar
  281. Titova GE. 1990. The development of the female generative structures in Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray (Cabombaceae). Abstracts 11th Internat. Symposium Embryology, Seed Reproduction, p. 210. Leningrad.Google Scholar
  282. Titova GE and TB Batygina. 1996. Is the embryo of Nymphaealean plants (Nymphaeales s.l.) a dicotyledonous? Phytomorphology 46 (2): 171–190.Google Scholar
  283. Trecul A. 1845. Recherches sur la structure et le devel-oppement du Nuphar lutea. Ann. Sei. Nat. Bot., ser. 3, 4: 286–345.Google Scholar
  284. Troll W. 1933. Beiträge zur Morphologie des Gynaeceums: IV. Über das Gynaeceum der Nymphaeaceen. Planta 21: 447–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Ueno J and S Kitaguchi. 1961. On the fine structure of the pollen walls in angiosperms: 1. Nymphaeaceae. J. Biol. Osaka City Univ. 12: 83–89.Google Scholar
  286. Valla JJ and DR Cirino. 1972. Biologia floral del irupe, Victoria cruziana Orb. (Nymphaeaceae). Darwiniana 17: 477–500.Google Scholar
  287. Valtseva OV and EI Cavich. 1965. On development of the embryo of Nymphaea candida Presl and N. tetragona Georgi. Bot. Zhurn. 50: 1323–1326 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  288. Van Heel WA. 1977. The pattern of vascular bundles in the stamens of Nymphaea lotus L. and its bearing on the stamen morphology. Blumea 23: 345–348.Google Scholar
  289. Van Meigroet F and M Dujardin. 1992. Cytologie et histology de la reproduction chez Nymphaea heudelotii. Canad. J. Bot. 70: 1991–1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Van Tieghem P. 1866. Sur la croissance terminale de la racine dans les Nympheacees. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 264–265.Google Scholar
  291. Vinogradov IS. 1967. System of the family Nymphaeaceae on the basis of the analysis of morphological structure. Zapiski Tsentr.-Kavkaz. Otd. Vses. Bot. Obschestva 2: 5–11 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  292. Voronin NS. 1964. Evolution of the primary structure of the roots of plants. Scient. Papers Tsialkovsky Pedagog. Inst. Kaluga 13: 3–179 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  293. Voronkina N V. 1974. The anatomical structure of root apex in Nymphaeales J. Schaffner. Bot. Zhurn. 59: 1417–1424 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  294. Walker JW. 1976a. Comparative pollen morphology, phylog-eny of the ranalean complex. In: CB Beck, ed. Origin and early evolution of angiosperms, pp. 241–299. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  295. Walker JW. 1976b. Evolutionary significance of the exine in the pollen of primitive angiosperms. In: K Ferguson and J Müller, eds. The evolutionary significance of the exine, pp. 251–308. Linn. Soc. Symposium, No. 1. Columbia University Press, London/New York.Google Scholar
  296. Weberbauer A. 1894. Beiträge zur Samenanatomie der Nymphaeaceen. Engler's Jahrb. 18(3): 213–258.Google Scholar
  297. Wei P-H, W-P Chen, and R-Y Chen. 1993. Chromosome number of the members in the family Nymphaeaceae. J. Nanjing Normal University (Natural Sci.) 16: 52–55 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  298. Wei P-H, W-P Chen, and R-Y Chen. 1994. Study on the karyo-type analysis of Nymphaeaceae and its taxonomic position. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 32: 293–300.Google Scholar
  299. Weidlich WH. 1976. The organization of the vascular system in the stems of Nymphaeaceae: 1. Nymphaea subgenera Castalia and Hydrocallis; and II. Nymphaea subgenera Anecphya, Lotos, and Brachyeeras. Am. J. Bot. 63: 499–509,1365–1379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Weidlich WH. 1980. The organization of the vascular system in the stems of Nymphaeaceae: III. Victoria and Euryale. Am. J. Bot. 67: 790–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Williamson PS and MF Moseley. 1989. Morphological studies of the Nymphaeaceae sensu lato: XVII. Floral anatomy of Ondinea purpurea subspecies purpurea (Nymphaeaceae). Am. J. Bot. 76: 1779–1794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Williamson PS and EL Schneider. 1993. Cabombaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed., The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 157–160. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  303. Williamson PS and EL Schneider. 1994a. Floral aspects of Barclaya (Nymphaeaceae): Pollination, ontogeny, and structure. Plant Syst. Evol., Suppl. 8: 159–173.Google Scholar
  304. Williamson PS and EL Schneider. 1994b. Ondinea purpurea den Hartog. Aqua Plants 1: 3–10.Google Scholar
  305. Winter AN. 1990. Peculiarities of the female gametophyte development in the families Nymphaeaceae and Barclayaceae. Abstracts 11th Internal. Symp. Embryology and Seed Reproduction, p. 189. Leningrad.Google Scholar
  306. Winter AN and TB Batygina. 1988. Barclayaceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, vol. 2, pp. 147–150. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  307. Winter AN and II Shamrov. 1991a. The development of the ovule and embryo sac in Nuphar lutea (Nymphaeaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 76: 378–390 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  308. Winter AN and II Shamrov. 1991b. Megasporogenesis and embryo sac development in representatives of the genera Nymphaea and Victoria (Nymphaeaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 76: 1716–1728 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  309. Wolf M. 1991. Blütenphyllotaxis von Nymphaeaceae: ist das Androecium von Nymphaea, Nuphar, etc. spiralig? Symposium Morphologie, Anatomie und Systematik. Göttingen.Google Scholar
  310. Wood CE. 1959. The genera of the Nymphaeaceae and Ceratophyllaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 40: 94–112.Google Scholar
  311. Yamada T, R Imaichi, and M Kato. 2001. Developmental morphology of ovules and seeds of Nympheales. Am. J. Bot. 88: 963–974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Bailey IW and BGL Swamy. 1949. The morphology and relationships of Austrobaileya. J. Arnold Arbor. 30: 211–220.Google Scholar
  313. Baranova MA. 1992. The epidermal structures and systematic position of the Austrobaileyaceae. Bot. Zhurn. 77: 1–17 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  314. Baranova MA. 2004. The epidermal structure of Austrobaileya (Austrobaileyaceae) — a further comment. Kew Bull. 59: 489–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Behnke H-D. 1986. Sieve element characters and the systematic position of Austrobaileya, Austrobaileyaceae, with comments on the distinction and definition of sieve cells and sieve tube members. Plant Syst. Evol. 152: 101–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Carlquist S. 2001. Observations on the vegetative anatomy of Austrobaileya: habital, organographic and phylogenetic conclusions. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 135: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Croizat L. 1940. Notes on the Dilleniaceae and their allies: Austrobaileyeae subfam. nov. J. Arnold Arbor. 21: 397–404.Google Scholar
  318. Croizat L. 1943. New families. Cact. Succ. J. (Los Angeles) 15: 64.Google Scholar
  319. Dickison WC and PK Endress. 1983. Ontogeny of the stem-node-leaf vascular continuum of Austrobaileya. Am. J. Bot. 70: 906–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Endress PK. 1980. The reproductive structures and systematic position of the Austrobaileyaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 101: 393–433.Google Scholar
  321. Endress PK. 1983a. The early floral development of Austrobaileya Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 103: 481–497.Google Scholar
  322. Endress PK. 1983b. Dispersal and distribution in some small archaic relic angiosperm families (Austrobaileyaceae, Eupomatiaceae, Himantandraceae, Idiospermoideae-Calycanthaceae). Sonderbd. Naturwiss. Verh. Hamburg 7: 201–217.Google Scholar
  323. Endress PK. 1993. Austrobaileyaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 138–140. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  324. Endress PK and R Honegger. 1980. The pollen of the Austrobaileyaceae and its phylogenetic significance. Grana 19: 177–182.Google Scholar
  325. Morawetz W. 1988. Karyosystematics and evolution of Australia Annonaceae as compared with Eupomatiaceae, Himantan-draceae, Austrobaileyaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 159: 49–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Rudenberg L. 1967. The chromosomes of Austrobaileya. J. Arnold Arbor. 48: 241–244.Google Scholar
  327. Srivastava LM. 1970. The secondary phloem of Austrobaileya scandens. Canad. J. Bot. 48: 341–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Zavada MS. 1984. Pollen wall development of Austrobaileya maculata. Bot. Gaz. 145: 11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Bailey IW and CG Nast. 1948. Morphology and relationships of Illicium, Schisandra, and Kadsura: I. Stem and leaf. J. Arnold Arbor. 29: 77–89.Google Scholar
  330. Baranova MA. 1983. On the laterocytic stomatotype in angio-sperms. Brittonia 35: 93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Battaglia E. 1986. Embryological questions. 7. Do new types of embryo sac occur in Schisandra? Ann. Bot. 44: 69–82.Google Scholar
  332. Behnke H-D. 1988. Sieve-element plastids, phloem protein, and evolution of flowering plants: III. Magnoliidae. Taxon 37: 699–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Bhandari NN. 1971. Embryology of the Magnoliales and comments on their relationships. J. Arnold Arbor. 52: 1–39, 285–304.Google Scholar
  334. Carlquist S. 1982. Wood anatomy of Illicium (Illiciaceae): Phylogenetic, ecological, and functional interpretations. Am. J. Bot. 69: 1587–1598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Carlquist S. 1999. Wood and bark anatomy of Schisandraceae: implications for phylogeny, habit, and vessel evolution. Aliso 18: 45–55.Google Scholar
  336. Denk T and I-C Oh. 2006. Phylogeny of Schisandraceae based on morphological data: evidence from modern plants and the fossil record. Plant Syst. Evol. 256: 113–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Earle TT. 1941. Embryo and endosperm development in Illicium floridanum Ellis. Am. J. Bot. 28: 25 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  338. Floyd SK and WE Friedman. 2001. Developmental evolution of endosperm in basal angiosperms: evidence from Amborella (Amborellaceae), Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), and Illicium (Illiaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 228: 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Friedman WE, WN Gallup, and JH Williams. 2003. Female gametophyte development in Kadsura: implications for Schisandraceae, Austrobaileyales, and the early evolution of flowering plants. Int. J. Plant Sci. 164(Suppl. 5): 293–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Gabarayeva NI and VV Grigorjeva. 2003. Comparative study of the pollen wall development in Illicium floridanum (Illiciaceae) and Schisandra chinensis (Schisandraceae). Taiwania 48(3): 147–167.Google Scholar
  341. Hao G, ML Chye and RMK Saunders. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of Schizandraceae based on morphology and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 135: 401–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Hao G, RMK Saunders, and M-L Chye. 2000. A phylogenetic analysis of the Illiciaceae based on sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITM) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Plant Syst. Evol. 223: 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Hayashi Y. 1963a. The embryology of the family Magnoliaceae sensu lat. 1. Megasporogenesis, female gametophyte and embryogyne of Illicium anisatum L. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ. Ser. Biol. 29: 27–33.Google Scholar
  344. Hayashi Y. 1963b. The embryology of the family Magnoliaceae sensu lato: I. Megasporogenesis, female gametophyte, and embryogeny of Schisandra repanda Radlkofer and Kadsura japonica Dunal. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ. Ser. Biol. 29: 403–411.Google Scholar
  345. Hegnauer R. 1997. Phytochemistry and chemotaxonomy of the Illiciaceae. In: C Kalkman et al., eds. Flora Malesiana, ser. 1, 13: 175–177. Leiden.Google Scholar
  346. Huynh K-L. 1976. L'arrangement du pollen du genre Schisandra (Schisandraceae) et sa significance phylo-genique chez les angiospermes. Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 52: 227–253.Google Scholar
  347. Jalan S. 1962. The ontogeny of the stomata in Schisandra grandtfiora Hook. f. et Thorns. Phytomorphology 12: 239–242.Google Scholar
  348. Jalan S. 1968a. Contribution to the nodal structure of Schisandra Michaux. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 88: 311–316.Google Scholar
  349. Jalan S. 1968b. Observations on the crystalliferous sclereids of some Schisandraceae. Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 44: 277–288.Google Scholar
  350. Jalan S and RN Kapil. 1964. Pollen grains of Schisandra Michaux. Grana Palynol. 5: 216–221.Google Scholar
  351. Kapil RN and S Jalan. 1964. Schisandra Michaux: Its embryology and systematic position. Bot. Notis. 117: 285–306.Google Scholar
  352. Keng H. 1965. Observations on the flowers of Illicium. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin., 2nd ser., 6: 61–73.Google Scholar
  353. Keng H. 1993a. Illiciaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 344–347. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  354. Keng H. 1993b. Schisandraceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 589–592. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  355. Kolbasina EI. 1967. Organogenesis of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Bot. Zhurn. 52: 377–378 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  356. Lan S-F. 1984. Pollen morphology of the genus Kadsura in China. J. South China Agric. College 5: 83–92 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  357. Lin Q. 1989. A study of the pollen morphology of genus Illicium L. Bull. Bot. Res. 9: 115–124 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  358. Lin Q. 1997. Systematics and evolution of the family Illiciaceae. Ph.D. thesis. Forestry College, Guangzhou (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  359. Lin Q. 2000. Taxonomic notes on the genus Schisandra Michx. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 38: 532–550.Google Scholar
  360. Liu H and C-S Yang. 1989. Pollen morphology of Illiciaceae and its significance in systematics. China J. Bot. 1: 104–115.Google Scholar
  361. Liu Z, G Hao, Y-B Luo, LB Thien, SW Rosso, A-M Lu, and Z-D Chen. 2006. Phylogeny and androecial evolution in Schisandraceae, inferred from sequences of nuclear ribo-somal DNA ITS and chloroplast DNA trnL-F regions. Int. J. Plant Sci. 167: 539–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Liu Z, X-Q Wang, Z-D Chen, Q Lin, and A-M Lu. 2000. The phylogeny of Schizandraceae inferred from sequence analysis of the nrDNA ITS region. Acta Bot. Sinica 42: 758–761.Google Scholar
  363. Melikian AP. 1988. Illiciales. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, 2: 48–50. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  364. Metcalfe CR. 1987. Illiciales. In: CR Metcalfe, ed. Anatomy of dicotyledons, 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 73–89. Claredon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  365. Oh I-C and T Denk. 2001. Seed and leaf character evolution in the monogeneric basal angiosperm family Illiciaceae. Intern. Symposium Deep Morphology, p. 61. Vienna.Google Scholar
  366. Oh I-C, T Denk, and EM Friis. 2003. Evolution of Illicium (Illiciaceae): Mapping morphological characters on the molecular tree. Plant Syst. Evol. 204: 175–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Praglowski J. 1976. Schisandraceae Bl. In: Nilsson S, ed. World pollen and spore flora, vol. 5, pp. 1–36. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  368. Roberts ML and RR Haynes. 1983. Ballistic seed dispersal in Illicium (Illiciaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 143: 227–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Robertson RE and SC Tucker. 1979. Floral ontogeny of Illicium fioridanum, with emphasis on stamen and carpel development. Am. J. Bot. 66: 605–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Saunders RMKS. 1995. Systematics of the genus Illicium L. (Illiciaceae) in Malesia. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 117: 333–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Saunders RMKS. 1997a. Illiciaceae. In: C Kalkman et al., eds. Flora Malesiana, ser. I, 13: 169–184. Leiden.Google Scholar
  372. Saunders RMKS. 1997b. Schisandraceae. In: C Kalkman et al., eds. Flora Malesiana, ser. I, 13: 185–207. Leiden.Google Scholar
  373. Saunders RMKS. 1998. Monograph of Kadsura (Schisandraceae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 54: 1–106.Google Scholar
  374. Saunders RMKS. 2000. Monograph of Schisandra (Schisandraceae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 58: 1–146.Google Scholar
  375. Smith AC. 1947. The families Illiciaceae and Schisandraceae. Sargentia 7: 1–224.Google Scholar
  376. Stone DE. 1968. Cytological and morphological notes on the southeastern endemic, Schisandra glabra (Schisandraceae). J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 84: 351–356.Google Scholar
  377. Stone DE and JL Freeman. 1968. Cytotaxonomy of Illicium fioridanum and I. farviflorum (Illiciaceae). J. Arnold Arbor 49: 41–51.Google Scholar
  378. Sun CR. 2002. Micromorphological features of the seed surface of Schisandraceae and their systematic significance. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 40(2): 97–109.Google Scholar
  379. Swamy BGL. 1965. Macrogametophytic ontogeny in Schisandra chinensis. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 43: 391–396.Google Scholar
  380. Sy LK, RMK Saunders, and Brown GD. 1997. Phytochemistry of Illicium dunnianum and the systematic position of the Illiciaceae. Phytochemistry. 44: 1099–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Thien LB, DA White, and LA Yatsu. 1983. The reproductive biology of a relic: Illicium floridanum Ellis. Am. J. Bot. 70: 719–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Van der Ham RWHM. 1997. Pollen morphology of Iilliciaceae. In: C Kalkman et al., eds. Flora Malesiana, ser. I, 13: 173–174. Leiden.Google Scholar
  383. Vijayaraghavan MK and U Dhar. 1975. Kadsura heteroclicta: Microsporangium and pollen. J. Arnold Arbor. 56: 176–182.Google Scholar
  384. White DA and LB Thien. 1983. The pollination of Illicium parv-iflorum (Illiciaceae). J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 101: 5–18.Google Scholar
  385. Williams JH and WE Friedman. 2004. The four-celled female gametophyte of Illicium (Illiciaceae; Austrobaileyales): implications for understanding the origin and early evolution of monocots, eumagnoliids and eudicots. Am. J. Bot 91: 332–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Yang Z-R and Qi Lin 2005. Comparative morphology of the leaf epidermis in Schisandra (Schisandraceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 148: 39–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Yoshida O. 1962. Embryologische Studien uber Schisandra chinensis Baillon. J. Coil. Arts and Sci., Chiba Univ., 3: 459–462.Google Scholar
  388. Carlquist S. 1984. Wood anatomy of Trimeniaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 144: 103–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Endress PK and EL Sampson. 1983. Floral structure and relationships of the Trimeniaceae (Laurales). J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 447–473.Google Scholar
  390. Goldblatt P. 1979. Chromosome number in two primitive dicots, Xymalos monospora (Monimiaceae) and Piptocalyx moorei (Trimeniaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 66: 898–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Morat P and HS MacKee. 1977. Quelques precisions sur le Trimenia neocaledonica Bak. f. et la famille des Trimeniacees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Adansonia, ser. 2, 17: 205–213.Google Scholar
  392. Petrova LP. 1988. Trimeniaceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, vol. 2, pp. 56. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  393. Philipson WR. 1986. Trimeniaceae. In: CGGJ van Steenis, ed. Flora Malesiana, ser. 1, 10: 327–333. Nijhoff, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  394. Philipson WR. 1993. Trimeniaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 596–598. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  395. Renner SS. 1999. Circumscription and phylogeny of the Laurales: evidence from molecular and morphological data. Am. J. Bot. 86: 1301–1315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. Rodenburg WF. 1971. A revision of the genus Trimenia (Trimeniaceae). Blumea 19: 3–15.Google Scholar
  397. Sampson FB. 1987. Short communications: disulculate pollen in the Trimeniaceae (Laurales). Grana 26: 239–241.Google Scholar
  398. Sampson FB and PK Endress. 1984. Pollen morphology in the Trimeniaceae. Grana 23: 129–137.Google Scholar
  399. Wagner WL and DH Lorence. 1999. A revision of Trimenia Seem. (Trimeniaceae) in the Marquises Islands with description of a new species, Trimenia nukuhivensis. Adansonia, sér. 3, 21: 225–230.Google Scholar
  400. Armour HM. 1906. On the morphology of Chloranthus. New Phytol. 5: 49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Baillon H. 1871. Sur la position des Chloranthacees. Adansonia 10: 138–146.Google Scholar
  402. Baranova M. 1983. On the laterocytic stomatotype in angio-sperms. Brittonia 35: 93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Baranova M. 1986. Comparative stomatographic investigations in the family Chloranthaceae. In: Problems of paleobotany, pp. 12–19. Soviet Science Press, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  404. Behnke HD. 1988. Sieve-element plastids, phloem protein, and evolution of flowering plants: III. Magnoliidae. Taxon 37: 699–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Burger WC. 1977. Flora Costaricensis: Chloranthaceae. Fieldiana Bot. 40: 1–10.Google Scholar
  406. Carlquist S. 1987. Presence of vessels in wood of Sarcandra (Chloranthaceae): Comments on vessel origins in angio-sperms. Am. J. Bot. 74: 1765–1771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Carlquist S. 1990. Wood anatomy of Ascarina (Chloranthaceae) and the tracheid-vessel element transition. Aliso 12: 667–684.Google Scholar
  408. Carlquist S. 1992a. Wood anatomy of Hedyosmum (Chloranthaceae) and the tracheid-vessel element transition. Aliso 13: 447–462.Google Scholar
  409. Carlquist S. 1992b. Wood anatomy and stem of Chloranthus: Summary of wood anatomy of Chloranthaceae, with comments on relationships, vessellessness, and the origin of monocotyledons. IAWA Bull. 2, 13: 3–16.Google Scholar
  410. Chan H-S and Y-Q Cheng. 1994. The origin, differentiation and geography of Chloranthaceae. J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 2: 31–44 (in Chinese, with English summary).Google Scholar
  411. Cordemoy CJ de. 1863. Monographic du groupe des Chloranthacees. Adansonia 3: 280–310.Google Scholar
  412. Crane PR, EM Friis, and KR Pedersen. 1989. Reproductive structure and function in Cretaceous Chloranthaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 165: 211–226.Google Scholar
  413. Doyle JA, H Eklund, and PS Herendeen. 2003. Floral evolution in Chloranthaceae: implications of a morphological phyloge-netic analysis. Int. J. Plant Sci. 164(Suppl. 5): 365–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. Edwards JG. 1920. Flower and seed of Hedyosmum nutans. Bot. Gaz. 70: 409–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. Eklund H. 1999. Phylogeny of living and fossil Chloranthaceae. In: H Eklund. Big survivors with small flowers: fossil history and evolution of Laurales and Chloranthaceae. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.Google Scholar
  416. Eklund H, JA Doyle, and PS Herendeen. 2004. Morphological phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil Chloranthaceae. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 107–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. Endress PK. 1971. Bau der weiblichen Blüten von yosmum mexicanum Cordemoy (Chloranthaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 91: 39–60.Google Scholar
  418. Endress PK. 1986. Reproductive structures and phylo-genetic significance of extant primitive angiosperms. Plant Syst. Evol. 152: 1–28.Google Scholar
  419. Endress PK. 1987. The Chloranthaceae: Reproductive structures and phylogenetic position. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 109: 153–226.Google Scholar
  420. Endress PK, FLS Igersheim, and A Igersheim. 1997. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of Laurales. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 125: 93–168.Google Scholar
  421. Jeremie J. 1980. Notes sur le genre Ascarina (Chloranthaceae) en Nouvelle-Caledonie et a Madagascar. Adansonia, ser. 2, 20: 273–285.Google Scholar
  422. Kong HZ. 2000a. Karyotypes of Sarcandra Gardn. and Chloranthus Swartz (Chloranthaceae) from China. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 133: 327–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. Kong HZ. 2000b. Taxonomic notes on Chloranthus henryi Hemsl. And its allies. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 38: 355–366 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  424. Kong HZ. 2001. Comparative morphology of leaf epidermis in the Chloranthaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 136: 279–294.Google Scholar
  425. Kong HZ and Z-D Chen. 2000. Phylogeny in Chloranthus Swartz (Chloranthaceae) inferred from sequence analysis of nrDNA ITS region. Acta Bot. Sinica 42: 762–764.Google Scholar
  426. Kong HZ, Z-D Chen, and AM Lu. 2002. Phylogeny of Chloranthus (Chloranthaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnL-F sequence data. Am. J. Bot. 89: 940–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Kong HZ, AM Lu, and PK Endress. 2002. Floral organogenesis of Chloranthus sessilifolius, with special emphasis on the morphological nature of the androecium of Chloranthus (Chloranthaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 232: 181–188.Google Scholar
  428. Kuprianova LA. 1967. Palynological data for the history of the Chloranthaceae. Pollen et Spores 9: 95–100.Google Scholar
  429. Kuprianova LA. 1981. Palynological data on the family Chloranthaceae, its relationships, and the history of distribution. Bot. Zhurn. 66: 3–15 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  430. Leroy JF. 1981. An unrecognized ancestral dicotyledon with a strobiloid flower is living today: Hedyosmum. 13th Internal. Bot. Congress, Sydney, Abstr. 136.Google Scholar
  431. Leroy JF. 1983a. Interpretation nouvelle des appareils sexuels chez les Chloranthacees (Chloranthales, Magnoliidees). C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, ser. 53, 296: 747–752.Google Scholar
  432. Leroy JF. 1983b. The origin of angiosperms: An unrecognized ancestral dicotyledon, Hedyosmum (Chloranthales), with a strobiloid flower is living today. Taxon 32: 169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Liu H. 1992 The role of palynology in modern plant taxonomy based on pollen morphology of Chloranthaceae. In: Z-Y Yu, X-Y Li, W-Z Di, eds Advances in plant taxonomy in northwest China, pp 69–70. Beijing.Google Scholar
  434. Lodkina MM. 1988. Chloranthaceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative anatomy of seeds, pp. 89–92. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian)Google Scholar
  435. Maekawa F. 1970. Notes on the stamens of Chloranthus japoni-cus. J. Jpn. Bot. 45: 289–294.Google Scholar
  436. Maekawa F. 1971. Further notes on the stamens of Chloranthus japonicus. J. Jpn. Bot. 46: 198.Google Scholar
  437. Moore LB. 1977. The flowers of Ascarina lucida Hook. f. (Chloranthaceae). New Zealand J. Bot. 15: 491–494.Google Scholar
  438. Nakazawa K. 1956. Vascular course of Piperales: I. Chloranthaceae. Jpn. J. Bot. 15: 199–207.Google Scholar
  439. Occhioni P. 1954. Contribuicao ao estudo da famflia Chloranthaceae corn especial referencia ao genus Hedyosmum Sw. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade do Brasil.Google Scholar
  440. Okada H. 1995. Karyological studies of four genera of the Chloranthaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 195: 177–185.Google Scholar
  441. Patel RN. 1975. Wood anatomy of the dicotyledons indigenous to New Zealand. New Zealand J. Bot. 13: 141–148.Google Scholar
  442. Smith AC. 1976. Studies of Pacific Island plants: XXXIII. The genus Ascarina (Chloranthaceae) in the Southern Pacific. J. Arnold Arbor. 57: 405–425.Google Scholar
  443. Stuchlick L. 1984. Morphologia de los granos de polen de las Chloranthaceae y Canellaceae Cubanas. Acta Bot. Hung. 30: 321–328.Google Scholar
  444. Swamy BGL. 1953a. The morphology and relationships of the Chloranthaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 34: 375–411.Google Scholar
  445. Swamy BGL. 1953b. Sarcandra irvingbaileyi: A new species of vesselless dicotyledon from South India. Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India 19B: 301–306.Google Scholar
  446. Swamy BGL. 1953c. A taxonomic revision of the genus Ascarina Forst. Proc. Nad. Inst. Sci. India 19B: 371–388.Google Scholar
  447. Swamy BGL and IW Bailey. 1950. Sarcandra: A vesselless genus of Chloranthaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 31: 117–129.Google Scholar
  448. Takahashi H. 1988. Morphology and ontogeny of stem xylem elements in Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai (Chloranthaceae): additional evidence for the occurrence of vessels. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 101: 387–395.Google Scholar
  449. Takahasi H and M Tamura. 1990. Occurrence of vessel elements in the stem of Sarcandra glabra. J. Jpn. Bot. 65: 81–86.Google Scholar
  450. Thierry R. 1913. Contribution a 1'etude anatomique des Chloranthacees. Thesis, University of Paris. Also: Trav. Lab. Mat. Med., Paris, 9: 1–158.Google Scholar
  451. Todzia CA. 1988. Chloranthaceae: Hedyosmum. Flora Neotropica 48: 1–139.Google Scholar
  452. Todzia CA. 1993. Chloranthaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed., The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 281–287. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  453. Todzia CA and RC Keating. 1991. Leaf architecture of the Chloranthaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 78: 476–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Verdcourt B. 1985. Notes on Malesian Chloranthaceae. Kew Bull. 40: 213–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. Verdcourt B. 1986. Chloranthaceae. In: CGGJ van Steenis, ed. Flora Malesiana, ser. 1, 10(2): 123–149. Dodrecht.Google Scholar
  456. Vijayaraghavan MR. 1964. Morphology and embryology of a vesselless dicotyledon: Sarcandra irvingbaileyi Swamy and systematic position of the Chloranthaceae. Phytomorphology 14: 429–441.Google Scholar
  457. Von Balthazar M and PK Endress. 1999. Floral bract function, flowering process and breeding systems of Sarcandra and Chloranthus (Chloranthaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 218: 161–178.Google Scholar
  458. Wang DQ, SH Huang, and ZF Wu. 1984. A preliminary study of the genus Chloranthus in Anhui. Bull. Bot. Res. 4: 173–182 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  459. Wang YH and K Yang. 2000. The comparation of the hetero-morphosic anthers of Chloranthus henryi (Chloranthaceae) and its phylogenetic meanings. Bull. Bot. Res. 20: 379–384.Google Scholar
  460. Yamada T, H Tobe, R Imaichi, and M Kato. 2001. Developmental morphology of the ovules of Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae) and Chloranthus serratus (Chloranthaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 137: 277–290.Google Scholar
  461. Yamazaki T. 1992. Floral morphology of Hedyosmum orientale Merr. Et Chun (Chloranthaceae) and phylogenetic signifi-cance of its perianth. J. Jpn. Bot. 67: 257–269.Google Scholar
  462. Yamazaki T. 1998. Embryogeny of Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai (Chloranthaceae) and phylogenetic position of the Chloranthaceae. J. Jpn Bot. 73: 22–25.Google Scholar
  463. Yoshida O. 1957. Embryologische Studien über die Ordnung Piperales: I. Embryologie von Chloranthus japonicus. J. Coll. Arts Chiba Univ. 2: 172–178.Google Scholar
  464. Yoshida O. 1959. Embryologische Studien über die Ordnung Piperales: II. Embryologie von Chloranthus serratus. J. Coll. Arts Chiba Univ. 2: 295–303.Google Scholar
  465. Yoshida O. 1960. Embryologische Studien über die Ordnung Piperales: III. Embryologie von Sarcandra glabra. J. Coll. Arts Chiba Univ. 3: 55–60.Google Scholar
  466. Zhang L-B and S Renner. 2003. The deepest splits in Chloranthaceae as resolved by chloroplast sequences. Int. J. Plant Sci. 164(Suppl. 5): 383–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. Zhang SS and LG Lei. 1991. Characteristics of leaf epidermis of Chloranthaceae from China. Acta Bot. Bor.-Occident. Sinica 11: 17–22 (in Chinese, with English summary).Google Scholar
  468. Zhang SS, LG Lei, HQ Liu, and QY Su. 1990. A preliminary study on tracheary elements in the endemic species Sarcandra hainanensis from China–evidence for the occurrence of vessels in Sarcandra. Acta Bot. Bor.-Occid. Sinica 10: 95–98.Google Scholar
  469. Zhang SS and Y Wang. 1983. A preliminary study on the anatomy of the Chloranthaceae in China. Acta Bot. Bor-Occid. Sinica 3: 117–121 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  470. Zhang S, W Zhang, and Q Su. 1991. Discussion of systematic position of Chloranthaceae by leaf architecture of plants. Acta Bot. Bor.-Occid. Sinica 11: 226–232.Google Scholar
  471. Zhou ZK. 1993. Origin, systematics and distribution of Chloranthaceae. Acta Bot. Yunn. 15: 321–331.Google Scholar
  472. Zhou ZK and HM Li. 1994. Implication of the leaf architecture for systematic studies of Chloranthaceae from China. Chinese J. Bot. 6: 12–18.Google Scholar
  473. Aboy HE. 1936. A study of the anatomy and morphology of Ceratophyllum demersum. Thesis, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  474. Batygina TB and II Shamrov. 1981. Ceratophyllaceae. In: MS Yakoviev, ed. Comparative embryology of flowering plants: Winteraceae-Juglandaceae, pp. 110–115. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  475. Endress PK. 1994. Evolutionary aspects of the floral structure in Ceratophyllum. In: PK Endress and EM Friis, eds. Early evolution of flowers, pp. 175–183. Plant Syst. Evol., Suppl.: 8. Wien.Google Scholar
  476. Gray A. 1848. Remarks on the structure and affinities of the order Ceratophyllaceae. Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 4: 41–50.Google Scholar
  477. Iwamoto A, A Shimizu, and H Ohba. 2003. Floral development and phyllotaxis variation in Ceratophyllum demersum (Ceratophyllaceae). Am. J. Bot. 90: 1124–1130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. Jedrychowska A and A Sroczynska. 1934. On the cytology and embryology of Ceratophyllum submersum. Acta Soc. Bot. Polon. 11: 423–441.Google Scholar
  479. Jones EN. 1931. The morphology and biology of Ceratophyllum demersum. Stud. Nat. Hist. Iowa Univ. 13: 11–55.Google Scholar
  480. Kaden NN. 1953. Fruits and seeds of the Middle Russian Horn-worts. Bull. Moscow Soc. Naturalists, Biol. 38(3): 82–85.Google Scholar
  481. Klercker JEF de. 1885. Sur Fanatomie et le developpe-ment de Ceratophyllum. Kgl. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 9(10): 1–22.Google Scholar
  482. Les DH. 1985. The taxonomic significance of plumule morphology in Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae). Syst. Bot. 10: 338–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. Les DH. 1986. Systematic and evolution of Ceratophyllum L. (Ceratophyllaceae): a monograph. Ph.D. dissertation, Ohia State University, Ohia.Google Scholar
  484. Les DH. 1988a. The evolution of achene morphology in Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae): II. Fruit variation and systematics of the “spiny-margined” group. Syst. Bot. 13: 73–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. Les DH. 1988b. The evolution of achene morphology in Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae): III. Relationships of the “facially-spined” group. Syst. Bot. 13: 509–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. Les DH. 1988c. The origin and affinities of the Ceratophyllaceae. Taxon 37: 326–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Les DH. 1989. The evolution of achene morphology in Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae): IV. Summary of proposed relationships and evolutionary trends. Syst. Bot. 14: 254–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. Les DH. 1993. Ceratophyllaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 246–249. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  489. Lowden RM. 1978. Studies on the submerged genus Cerato-phyllum L. in the Neotropics. Aquatic Bot. 4: 127–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. Mouraviev I. 1945. Recherches sur la microspore du genre Ceratophyllum. Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 14(l): 73–82.Google Scholar
  491. Muenscher WC. 1940. Fruits and seedlings of Ceratophyllum. Am. J. Bot. 27: 231–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Oganezova EP and RM Nalbandyan. 1976. Purification and properties of plastoganin and ferredoxin from Ceratophyllum demersum L. Biokhimia (Moscow) 41(5): 794–800 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  493. Sastri RLN. 1955. Embryology of Ceratophyllum demersum L. Proc. Indian Sci. Congr. 3: 226.Google Scholar
  494. Schieiden MJ. 1837. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Cerato-phylleen. Linnaea 11: 513–542.Google Scholar
  495. Schneider EL and S Carlquist. 1996. Conducting tissue in Ceratophyllum demersum (Ceratophyllaceae). SIDA 17: 437–443.Google Scholar
  496. Sehgal A and HY Mohan Ram. 1981. Comparative developmental morphology of two populations of Ceratophyllum L. (Ceratophyllaceae) and their taxonomy. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 82: 343–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  497. Shamrov II. 1980. Some data on the flower ecology of Ceratophyllum. Bot. Zhurn. 65: 703–706 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  498. Shamrov II. 1981. Some peculiar features of the development of the anther in Ceratophyllum demersum and C. pentacanthum (Ceratophyllaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 66: 1464–1472 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  499. Shamrov II. 1983a. Antecological investigation of three species of the genus Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 68: 1357–1366 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  500. Shamrov II. 1983b. The structure of the anther and some peculiar features of the microsporogenesis and pollen grain development in the representatives of the genus Cerato-phyllum (Ceratophyllaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 68: 1662–1667 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  501. Shamrov II. 1997. Ovule and seed development in Ceratophyllum demersum (Ceratophyllaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 82: 1–13 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  502. Shamrov II and TB Batygina. 1984. The development of the embryo and endosperm in representatives of the family Ceratophyllaceae. Bot. Zhurn. 69: 1328–1335 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  503. Shamrov II and TB Batygina. 1988. Ceratophyllaceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, vol. 2, pp. 153–156. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  504. Strasburger E. 1902. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis von Ceratophyllum submersum und phylogenetische Erörterungen. Jahrb. Wiss. Bot. 34: 477–524.Google Scholar
  505. Sundari KT, M Radhakrishnaiah, and LL Narayana. 1982. Chemotaxonomy of Ceratophyllum. Acta Bot. Indica, 10: 304–305.Google Scholar
  506. Wilmot-Dear M. 1985. Ceratophyllum revised: A study in fruit and leaf variation. Kew Bull. 40: 243–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. Wood CE, Jr. 1959. The genera of the Nymphaeaceae and Ceratophyllaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 40: 94–112.Google Scholar
  508. Agababian VS. 1972. Ultrastructure of sporoderm of some primitive Angiospermae. Bot. Zhurn. 57: 955–959 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  509. Bailey IW and CG Nast. 1943a. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. I. Pollen and stamens. J. Arnold Arbor. 24: 340–346.Google Scholar
  510. Bailey IW and CG Nast. 1943b. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. II. Carpels. J. Arnold Arbor. 24: 472–481.Google Scholar
  511. Bailey IW and CG Nast. 1944a. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. III. Wood. J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 97–103.Google Scholar
  512. Bailey IW and CG Nast. 1944b. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. IV. Anatomy of the node and vasculariza-tion of the leaf. J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 215–221.Google Scholar
  513. Bailey IW and CG Nast. 1944c. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. V. Foliar epidermis and sclerenchyma. J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 342–348.Google Scholar
  514. Bailey IW and CG Nast. 1945. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae. VII. Summary and conclusions. J. Arnold Arbor. 26: 37–47.Google Scholar
  515. Baranova M. 1972. Systematic anatomy of the leaf epidermis in the Magnoliaceae and some related families. Taxon 21: 446–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. Baranova M. 2004. The stomatal apparatus of Takhtajania per-rieri (Capuron) M. Baranova et J.-F.Leroy (Winteraceae). Kew Bull. 59: 141–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  517. Behnke H-D and U Kiritis. 1983. Ultrastructure and differentiation of sieve elements in primitive angio-sperms: I. Winteraceae. Protoplasma 118: 148–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  518. Bhagavathi Kutti Amma PR. 1938. Microsporogenesis in Drimys. Presidency College Bot. Mag. Madras, 5: 22–25.Google Scholar
  519. Bhandari NN. 1963. Embryology of Pseudowintera colorata, a vesselless dicotyledon. Phytomorphology, 13: 303–316.Google Scholar
  520. Bhandari NN. 1971. Embryology of the Magnoliales and comments on their relationships. J. Arnold Arbor. 52: 1–39, 285–304.Google Scholar
  521. Bhandari NN and R Venkataraman. 1968. Embryology of Drimys winteri. J. Arnold Arbor. 49: 509–524.Google Scholar
  522. Birkinshaw C, D Ravelonarivo, R Andriamparany, S Rapanarivo, E Rabakonandriana, GE Schatz, and LB Thien. 1999a. Risque d'extinction du Takhtajania perrieri. Rapport Final I., September, Antananarivo.Google Scholar
  523. Birkinshaw C, D Ravelonarivo, R Andriamparany, S Rapanarivo, E Rabakonandriana, GE Schatz, and LB Thien. 1999b. L'habitat du Takhtajania perrieri. Rapport Final II., October, Antananarivo.Google Scholar
  524. Boer R de and F Bouman. 1974. Integumentary studies in the Polycarpicae. III. Drimys winteri (Winteraceae). Acta Bot. Neerl. 23: 19–27.Google Scholar
  525. Bongers JM. 1973. Epidermal leaf characters of the Winteraceae. Blumea 21: 381–411.Google Scholar
  526. Burtt BL. 1936. Bubbia haplopus B.L. Burtt, Winteraceae. Hooker's Icon. Plant. 34, t.3315, 1–3.Google Scholar
  527. Burtt BL. 1938. The taxonomic position of Tetrathalamus. Bull. Misc. Int. Kew 1938: 458–460.Google Scholar
  528. Capuron R. 1963. Contributions á l'étude de la flore de Madagascar. XII. Présence á Madagascar d'un nouveau représentant (Bubbia perrieri R. Capuron) de la famille des Wintéracées. Adansonia n.s. 3: 373–378.Google Scholar
  529. Carlquist S. 1981. Wood anatomy of Zygogynum (Winteraceae): Field observations. Bull. Mus. Natur. Hist. Nat. Paris, ser. 4, Adansonia 3: 281–292.Google Scholar
  530. Carlquist S. 1982. Exospermum stipitatum (Winteraceae): Observations on wood, leaves, flowers, and fruit. Aliso 10: 277–289.Google Scholar
  531. Carlquist S. 1983a. Wood anatomy of Belliolum (Winteraceae) and note on flowering. J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 161–169.Google Scholar
  532. Carlquist S. 1983b. Wood anatomy of Bubbia (Winteraceae) with comments on origin of vessels in dicotyledons. Am. J. Bot. 70: 578–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. Carlquist S. 1988. Wood anatomy of Drimys s. s. (Winteraceae). Aliso 12: 81–95.Google Scholar
  534. Carlquist S. 1989. Wood anatomy of Tasmannia: Summary of wood anatomy of Winteraceae. Aliso 12: 257–275.Google Scholar
  535. Carlquist S. 2000. Wood and bark anatomy of Takhtajania (Winteraceae); phylogenetic and ecological implications. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 317–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. Coetzee JA and J Praglowski. 1988. Winteraceae pollen from the Miocene of the southwestern Cape (South Africa): Relationship to modern taxa and phytogeographical significance. Grana 27: 27–37.Google Scholar
  537. Dandy JE. 1933. The Winteraceae of New Zealand. J. Bot. 71: 119–122.Google Scholar
  538. De Boer R and F Bouman. 1974. Integumentary studies in the Polycarpicae: III. Drimys winteri (Winteraceae). Acta Bot. Neerl. 23: 19–27.Google Scholar
  539. Dehay C and A Ghestem 1969. Caractéres de l'appareil libéro-ligneux foliare chez quelques Wintéracées. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 116: 165–169.Google Scholar
  540. Deroin T. 2000. Notes on the vascular anatomy of the fruit of Takhtajania (Winteraceae) and its interpretation. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 398–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. Deroin T and J-F Leroy. 1993. Sur l'interprétation de la vascu-larisation ovarienne de Takhtajania (Winteracees). C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 316: 725–729.Google Scholar
  542. Doust AN. 1997. Variability and pattern in the flowers of the Winteraceae (Magnoliidae). Am. J. Bot. 84 (6, Abstract): 40.Google Scholar
  543. Doust AN. 2000. Comparative floral ontogeny in Winteraceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 366–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  544. Doust AN 2001. The developmental basis of floral variation in Drimys winteri (Winteraceae). Int. J. Pland Sci. 162: 697–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  545. Doust AN and AN Drinnan. 2004. Floral development and molecular phylogeny support the generic status of Tasmannia (Winteraceae). Am. J. Bot. 91: 321–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. Doweld A. 2000. De genere Tasmannia R.Br. ex DC. (Winteraceae). In: TV Egorova ed. Novitates Systematicae Plant. Vascularium, 32: 36–40 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  547. Doyle JA. 2000. Paleobotany, relationships, and geographic history of Winteraceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 303–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. Doyle JA, CL Hotton, and JV Ward. 1990a. Early Cretaceous tetrads, zonasulculate pollen, and Winteraceae. I. Taxonomy, morphology and ultrastructure. Am. J. Bot. 77: 1544–1557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  549. Doyle JA, CL Hotton, and JV Ward. 1990b. Early Cretaceous tetrads, zonasulculate pollen, and Winteraceae. II. Cladistic analysis and implications. Am. J. Bot. 77: 1558–1568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  550. Ehrendorfer F and M Lambrou. 2000. Chromosomes of Takhtajania, other Winteraceae, and Canellaceae: phylogenetic implications. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 407–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. Ehrendorfer F, I Silberbauer-Gottsberger, and G Gottsberger. 1979. Variation on the population, racial, and species level in the primitive relic angiosperm genus Drimys (Winteraceae) in South America. Plant Syst. Evol. 132: 53–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  552. Endress PK, A Igersheim, FB Sampson, and GE Schatz. 2000. Floral structure of Takhtajania and its systematic position in Winteraceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 347–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. Erbar C and P Leins. 1983. Zur Sequenzvon Blütenorganen bei einigen Magnoliiden. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 103: 433–449.Google Scholar
  554. Esau K and VI Cheadle. 1984. Anatomy of the secondary phloem in Winteraceae. JAWA Bull., N.S. 5: 13–43.Google Scholar
  555. Field TS, MA Zwieniecki, and NM Holbrook. 2000. Winteraceae evolution: an ecophysiological perspective. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 323–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  556. Fiser J and D Walker 1967. Notes on the pollen morphology of Drimys Forst., section Tasmannia (R.Br.) F. Muell. Pollen et Spores 9: 229–239.Google Scholar
  557. Frame D. 1996. Carpel development in Tasmannia insipida (Winteraceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 157: 698–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  558. Freiberg TE. 1981. Winteraceae. In: MS Yakovlev, ed. Comparative embryology of flowering plants. Winteraceae — Juglandaceae, pp. 26–30. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  559. Gifford EM. 1951a. Early ontogeny of the foliage leaf in Drimys winteri var. chinensis. Am. J. Bot. 38: 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. Gifford EM. 1951b. Ontogeny of the vegetative axillary bud in Drimys winteri var. chinensis. Am. J. Bot. 38: 234–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  561. Godley EJ and DH Smith. 1981. Breeding system in New Zealand plants: 5. Pseudowintera colorata (Winteraceae). New Zealand J. Bot. 19: 151–156.Google Scholar
  562. Gottsberger G, I Silberbauer-Gottsberger, and F Ehrendorfer. 1980. Reproductive biology in the primitive relic angiosperm Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 135: 11–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  563. Ham van der R and BJ van Heuven. 2002. Evolutionary trends in Winteraceae pollen. Grana 41: 4–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  564. Hiepko P. 1966. Das Blütendiagramm von Drimys winteri J. R. et G. Forst. (Winteraceae). Willdenowia 4: 221–226.Google Scholar
  565. Hotchkiss AT. 1955. Chromosome numbers and pollen tetrad size in the Winteraceae. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 80: 47–53.Google Scholar
  566. Karol KG, Y Suh, GE Schatz, and EA Zimmer. 2000. Molecular evidence for the phylogenetic position of Takhtajania in the Winteraceae: inference from nuclear ribosomal and chloro-plast gene spacer sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 414–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  567. Keating RC. 2000. Anatomy of the young vegetative shoot of Takhtajania perrieri (Winteraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 335–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  568. Kubitzki K. 1993. Canellaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 200–203. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  569. Leinfellner W. 1965, 1966. Wie sind die Winteraceen-Karpelle tatsachlich gebaut?: I. Die Karpelle von Drimys, Sektion Tasmannia. II. Über das Vorkommen einer ringformigen Plazenta in den Karpellen von Drimys, Sektion Wintera. III. Die Karpelle von Bubbia, Belliolum, Pseudowintera, Exospermum, und Zygogynum. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 112: 554–575; 113: 84–95, 245–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  570. Leinfellner W. 1967. Über die Karpelle verschiedener Magnoliales. V. Pleodendron (Canellaceae). Oesterr. Bot. Z. 114: 502–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  571. Lemesle A. 1950. Persistance de caracteres archaïques dubois secondaire chez les Canellacees. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 231: 455–456.Google Scholar
  572. Lemesle A. 1951. Nouvelles remarques histologiques et phylo-genetiques sur la famille des Canellacees. Rev. Gen. Bot. 58: 193–202.Google Scholar
  573. Leroy J-F. 1977. A compound ovary with open carpels in Winteraceae (Magnoliales): Evolutionary implications. Science 196: 977–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  574. Leroy J-F. 1978. Une sous-famille monotypique de Winteraceae endémique á Madagascar: Takhtajanioideae. Adansonia, ser. 2, 17: 385–395.Google Scholar
  575. Leroy J-F. 1980. Nouvelles remarques sur le genre Takhtajania (Winteraceae–Takhtajanioideae). Adansonia, n.s. 20: 9–20.Google Scholar
  576. Lloyd DG and MS Wells. 1992. Reproductive biology of a primitive angiosperm, Pseudowintera colorata (Winteraceae), and the evolution of pollination systems in the Anthophyta. Plant Syst. Evol. 181: 77–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  577. Lobreau-Callen D. 1977. Le pollen de Bubbia perieri R. Cap.: Rapports palynologiques avec les autres genres de Winteracees. Adansonia, ser. 2, 16: 445–460.Google Scholar
  578. Melchior H and W Schultze-Motel. 1959. Canellaceae. In: A Engler and K Prantl, eds. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2nd ed., 17a: 221–224. Ducker und Humboldt Berlin.Google Scholar
  579. Meylan BA and BG Butterfield. 1982. Pit membranes structure in the vessel-less woods of Pseudowintera Dandy (Winteraceae). IAWA Bull. 3: 167–175.Google Scholar
  580. Miers J. 1858. On the Canellaceae. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 3, 1: 349–353.Google Scholar
  581. Miers J. 1861. On the Winteraceae. Contributions to Botany 1: 123–138. London.Google Scholar
  582. Morawetz W. 1984. How stable are genomes of tropical woody plants? Heterozygosity in C-banded karyotypes of Porcelia as compared with Annona (Annonaceae) and Drimys (Winteraceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 145: 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. Nast CG. 1944. The comparative morphology of the Winteraceae: VI. Vascular anatomy of the flowering shoot. J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 454–466.Google Scholar
  584. Occhioni P. 1948. Contribuicao ao estudo do familia “Canellaceae.” Arq. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro 8: 3–165.Google Scholar
  585. Occhioni P. 1949. Contribuicao ao estudo anatomico de Cinnamodendron sampaioanum Occh. Arq. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro 9: 101–108.Google Scholar
  586. Parameswaran N. 1961a. Foliar vascularisation and histology in the Canellaceae. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 54: 306–317.Google Scholar
  587. Parameswaran N. 1961b. Ruminate endosperm in the Canellaceae. Curr. Sci. 30: 344–345.Google Scholar
  588. Parameswaran N. 1962. Floral morphology and embryology in some taxa of the Canellaceae. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 55B: 167–182.Google Scholar
  589. Patel RN. 1974. Wood anatomy of the dicotyledons indigenous to New Zealand: 4. Winteraceae. New Zealand J. Bot. 12: 19–32.Google Scholar
  590. Pellmyr O, LB Thien, G Bergstrom, and I Groth. 1990. Pollination of New Caledonian Winteraceae: Opportunistic shifts or parallel radiation with their pollinators. Plant Syst. Evol. 173: 143–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  591. Praglowski J. 1979. Winteraceae Lindl. In: S Nilsson, ed. World pollen and spore flora, vol. 8. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  592. Prakash N, AL Lim, and FB Sampson. 1992. Anther and ovule development in Tasmannia (Winteraceae). Austral. J. Bot. 40: 877–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  593. Raleigh RE, PY Ladige, TJ Entwisle and AN Drinnan. 1994. Morphometric studies of the genus Tasmannia (Winteraceae) in Victoria, Australia. Mulleria 38: 235–256.Google Scholar
  594. Sampson FB. 1963. The floral morphology of Pseudowintera, the New Zealand member of the vesselless Winteraceae. Phytomorphology 13: 403–423.Google Scholar
  595. Sampson FB. 1970. Unusual features of cytokinesis in meiosis of pollen mother cells of Pseudowintera traversii (Buchan.) Dandy (Winteraceae). Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 47: 71–77.Google Scholar
  596. Sampson FB. 1974. A new pollen type in the Winteraceae. Grana 14: 11–15.Google Scholar
  597. Sampson FB. 1978. Placentation in Exospermum stipitatum (Winteraceae). Bot. Gaz. 139: 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  598. Sampson FB. 1980. Natural hybridism in Pseudowintera (Winteraceae). New Zealand J. Bot. 18: 43–51.Google Scholar
  599. Sampson FB. 1981. Synchronous versus asynchronous mitosis within permanent pollen tetrads of the Winteraceae. Grana 20: 19–23.Google Scholar
  600. Sampson FB. 1987. Stamen venation in the Winteraceae. Blumea 32: 79–89.Google Scholar
  601. Sampson FB. 2000. The pollen of Takhtajania perrieri (Winteraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 380–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  602. Sampson FB and DR Kaplan. 1970. Origin and development of the terminal carpel in Pseudowintera traversii. Am. J. Bot. 57: 1185–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  603. Sampson FB and SC Tucker. 1978. Placentation in Exospermum stipitatum (Winteraceae). Bot. Gaz. 139: 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  604. Sampson FB, JB Williams, and PS Woodland. 1988. The morphology and taxonomic position of Tasmannia glaucifolia (Winteraceae), a new Australian species. Austral. J. Bot. 36: 395–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  605. Schatz GE. 1989. The search for Takhtajania (Winteraceae). Bull. Natl. Trop. Bot. Gard. 19(4): 117–118.Google Scholar
  606. Schatz GE. 2000. The rediscovery of a Malagasy endemic: Takhtajania perrieri (Winteraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 297–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  607. Schatz GE, PP Lowry II, and A Ramisamihantanirina. 1998. Takhtajania perrieri: Rediscovered. Nature 391: 133–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  608. Smissen R. 1993. Some aspects of the embryology, morphology and anatomy of Exospermum stipitatum. B.Sc. (Hons) Project, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  609. Smith AC. 1943a. The American species of Drimys. J. Arnold Arbor. 24: 1–33.Google Scholar
  610. Smith AC. 1943b. Taxonomic notes on the Old World species of Winteraceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 24: 119–164.Google Scholar
  611. Smith AC. 1945. Geographical distribution of the Winteraceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 26: 48–59.Google Scholar
  612. Smith AC. 1969. A reconsideration of the genus Tasmannia (Winteraceae). Taxon 18: 286–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  613. Straka H. 1963. Über die mogliche phylogenetische Be-deutung der Pollenmorphologie dcr madagascarischen Bubbia peri-eri R. Cap. (Winteraceae). Grana Palynol. 4: 355–360.Google Scholar
  614. Strasburger E. 1905. Die Samenanlage von Drimys winteri und die Endospermbildung bei Angiospermen. Flora 95: 215–231.Google Scholar
  615. Stuchlick L. 1984. Morfologia de los granos de polen de las Chlorantaceae y Canellaceae Cubanas. Acta Bot. Hung. 30: 321–328.Google Scholar
  616. Suh Y, LB Thien, and EA Zimmer. 1992. Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA gene in Canella winterana (Magnoliales; Canellaceae). Nucl. Acids Res. 20: 6101–6102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  617. Suh Y, LB Thien, HE Reeve, and EA Zimmer. 1993. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic implications of internal transcribed spacer sequences of ribosomal DNA in Winteraceae. Am. J. Bot. 80: 1042–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  618. Svoma E. 1998. Studies on the embryology and gynoecium structure in Drimys winteri (Winteraceae) and some Annonaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 209: 205–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  619. Swamy BGL. 1952. Some aspects of the embryology of Zygogynum baillonii. Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India 18: 399–406.Google Scholar
  620. Thien LB. 1982. Fly pollination in Drimys (Winteraceae), a primitive angiosperm. In: JL Gressitt, ed. Biogeography and ecology of New Guinea, Monographiae Biologicae 42: 529–533. The Hague.Google Scholar
  621. Thien LB, P Bernhardt, GW Gibbs, O Pellmyr, G Bergstrom, I Groth, and G McPherson. 1985. The pollinadon of Zygogy-num (Winteraceae) by a moth, Sabatinca (Micropteridae): An ancient association? Science 227: 540–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  622. Thien LB, O Pellmyr, LY Yatsu, G Bergstrom, and G McPherson. 1990. Polysaccharide food-bodies as pollinator rewards in Exospermum stipitatum and other Winteraceae. Adansonia, n.s. 12: 191–197.Google Scholar
  623. Thompson WP and IW Bailey. 1916. Are Tetracentron, Trochodendron, and Drimys specialized or primitive types? Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 6: 27–32.Google Scholar
  624. Tieghem P van. 1900. Sur les dicotyledones du groupe des Homoxylees. J. Bot. (Paris) 14: 259–297, 330–361.Google Scholar
  625. Tobe H and B Sampson. 2000. Embryology of Takhtajania (Winteraceae) and a summary statement of embryological features for the family. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 389–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  626. Tucker SC. 1959. Ontogeny of the inflorescence and the flower in Drimys winteri var. chinensis. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 30: 257–336.Google Scholar
  627. Tucker SC. 1975. Carpellary vasculature and the ovular vascular supply in Drimys. Am. J. Bot. 62: 191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  628. Tucker SC and EM Gifford. 1964. Carpel vascularization of Drimys lanceolata. Phytomorphology 14: 197–203.Google Scholar
  629. Tucker SC and EM Gifford. 1966a. Organogenesis in the carpel-late flower of Drimys lanceolata. Am. J. Bot. 53: 433–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  630. Tucker SC and EM Gifford. 1966b. Carpel development in Drimys lanceolata. Am. J. Bot. 53: 671–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  631. Tucker SC and FB Sampson. 1979. The gynoecium of wintera-ceous plants. Science 203: 920–921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  632. Ueda K. 1977. Floral morphology of Belliolum pancheri (Winteraceae). Proc. Jpn Soc. Plant Taxon. 3: 10.Google Scholar
  633. Ueda K. 1978a. Floral morphology of the Winteraceae: 2. Drimys confertifolia. Proc. Jpn Soc. Plant Taxon. 4: 11–12.Google Scholar
  634. Ueda K. 1978b. Vasculature in the carpels of Belliolum pancheri (Winteraceae). Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 29: 119–125.Google Scholar
  635. Vink W. 1970. The Winteraceae of the Old World: I. Pseudowintera and Drimys, morphology and taxonomy. Blumea 18: 225–354.Google Scholar
  636. Vink W. 1977. The Winteraceae of the Old World: II. Zygogynum, morphology and taxonomy. Blumea 23: 219–250.Google Scholar
  637. Vink W. 1978. The Winteraceae of the Old World: III. Notes on the ovary of Takhtajania. Blumea 24: 521–525.Google Scholar
  638. Vink W. 1983. The Winteraceae of the Old World: IV. The Australian species of Bubbia. Blumea 28: 311–328.Google Scholar
  639. Vink W. 1985. The Winteraceae of the Old World: V. Exospermum links Bubbia to Zygogynum. Blumea 31: 39–55.Google Scholar
  640. Vink W. 1988. Taxonomy in Winteraceae. Taxon 37: 691–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  641. Vink W. 1993. Winteraceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The genera and families of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 630–638. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  642. Walker JW, GJ Brenner, and AG Walker. 1983. Winteraceae pollen in the Lower Cretaceous of Israel: Early evidence of a Magnolealean angiosperm family. Science 220: 1273–1275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  643. Williams CA and WJ Harvey. 1982. Leaf flavonoid patterns in the Winteraceae. Phytochemistry 21: 329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  644. Wilson TK. 1960. The comparative morphology of the Canellaceae: I. Synopsis of genera and wood anatomy. Trop. Woods 112: 1–27.Google Scholar
  645. Wilson TK. 1964. The comparative morphology of the Canellaceae: III. Pollen. Bot. Gaz. 125: 192–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  646. Wilson TK. 1965. The comparative morphology of the Canellaceae: II. Anatomy of the young stem and node. Am. J. Bot. 52: 369–378.Google Scholar
  647. Wilson TK. 1966. The comparative morphology of the Canellaceae: I V. Floral morphology and conclusions. Am. J. Bot. 53: 336–343.Google Scholar
  648. Agababian VS. 1972. Pollen morphology of the family Magnoliaceae. Grana 12: 166–176.Google Scholar
  649. Azuma H, JG Garcia-Franco, V Rico-Gray, and LB Thien. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the Magnoliaceae: the biogeogra-phy of tropical and temperate disjunctions. Am. J. Bot. 88: 2275–2285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  650. Azuma H, LB Thien, and S Kawano. 1999a. Floral scents, leaf volatiles and thermogenic flowers in Magnoliaceae. Plant Species Biol. 14: 121–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  651. Azuma H, LB Thien, and S Kawano. 1999b. Molecular phylog-eny of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) inferred from cdDNA sequences and evolutionary divergence of the floral scents. J. Plant Res. 112: 291–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  652. Bailey IW and AC Smith. 1942. Degeneriaceae: A new family of flowering plants from Fiji. J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 356–365.Google Scholar
  653. Baillon H. 1866. Memoire sur la famille de Magnoliacees. Adansonia 7: 1–16.Google Scholar
  654. Baranova M. 1969. A comparative stomatographic investigation of the genus Manglietia Bl. Bot. Zhurn. 54: 1952–1964 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  655. Baranova M. 1972. Systematic anatomy of the leaf epidermis in the Magnoliaceae and some related families. Taxon 21: 447–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  656. Baranova MA and C Jeffrey. 2000. Stomatographical features in the systematics of the Magnoliaceae. Bot. Zhurn. 85(6): 35–49.Google Scholar
  657. Baranova M, C Jeffrey, QG Wu, and JP Liao. 2000. Leaf epidermis features of Magnoliaceae and their systematic signifi-cance, with special reference to the genera Parakmeria, Manglietiastrum and Woonyoungia. Proc. Internat. Symp. Fam. Magnoliaceae 2000: 143–152. Beijing.Google Scholar
  658. Barkley FA. 1975. Liriodendraceae fam. n. order Mag-noliales. Phytologia 32(4): 304.Google Scholar
  659. Behnke H-D. 1988. Sieve-element plastids, phloem protein, and evolution of flowering plants: III. Magnoliidae. Taxon 37: 699–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  660. Bhandari NN. 1971. Embryology of the Magnoliales and comments on their relationships. J. Arnold Arbor. 52: 1–39, 285–304.Google Scholar
  661. Biswas BK and AK Sharma. 1984. Chromosome studies in the family Magnoliaceae. Cytologia 49: 193–200.Google Scholar
  662. Bouman F. 1977. Integumentary studies in the Polycar-picae: IV. Liriodendron tulipifera L. Acta Bot. Neerl. 26: 213–223.Google Scholar
  663. Brandza M. 1891. Developpement des teguments de la graine. (Magnoliacees). Rev. Gen. Bot. 3: 124–126.Google Scholar
  664. Cai X and Z-H Hu. 2000a. Studies on the development of oil cells in Liriodendron chinense. Acta Bot. Bor.-Occid. Sinica 20: 309–312.Google Scholar
  665. Cai X, ZH Hu. 2000b. Comparative studies on leaf structure and oil cells of the Magnoliaceae in China. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 38(3): 218–230.Google Scholar
  666. Canright JE. 1952. The comparative morphology and relationships of the Magnoliaceae: I. Trend of specialization in the stamens. Am. J. Bot. 39: 484–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  667. Canright JE. 1953. The comparative morphology and relationships of the Magnoliaceae: II. Significance of the pollen. Phytomorphology 3: 355–365.Google Scholar
  668. Canright JE. 1955. The comparative morphology and relationships of the Magnoliaceae: IV. Wood and nodal anatomy. J. Arnold Arbor. 36: 119–140.Google Scholar
  669. Canright JE. 1960. The comparative morphology and relationships of the Magnoliaceae: III. Carpels. Am. J. Bot. 47: 145–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  670. Carlquist S. 1989 (1990). Wood and bark anatomy of Degeneria. Aliso 12: 485–495.Google Scholar
  671. Cheng B-L and HP Nooteboom. 1993. Notes on Magnoliaceae. III. The Magnoliaceae of China. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 999–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  672. Cheng BL, X Huang, R Wang, and S Cheng. 2000. Chromosome data of Magnoliaceae. In: Y Liu et al., eds. Proc. Internat. Symp. Fam. Magnoliaceae 2000, pp. 192–201. Beijing.Google Scholar
  673. Dahl A and JR Rowley. 1965. Pollen of Degeneria vitiensis. J. Arnold Arbor. 46: 308–329.Google Scholar
  674. Dandy JE. 1927. The genera of Magnoliaceae. Kew Bull. 1927: 257–265.Google Scholar
  675. Dandy JE. 1971. The classification of the Magnoliaceae. Newslett. Am. Magnolia Soc. 8: 3–6.Google Scholar
  676. Dandy JE. 1974. Magnoliaceae taxonomy. In: J Praglowski, ed. World pollen and spore flora. Magnoliaceae, vol. 3, pp. 1–5. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  677. Dandy JE. 1978. A revised survey of the genus Magnolia together with Manglietia and Michelia. In NG Treseder, ed. Magnolias, pp. 29–37. London.Google Scholar
  678. De Boer R and F Bouman. 1972. Integument studies in the Polycarpicae: II. Magnolia stellata and Magnolia virginiana. Acta Bot. Neerl. 21: 617–629.Google Scholar
  679. Deroin T. 1991. La vascularisation florale des Magnoliales: Premiere approche experimentale de son role au cours de la pollinisation. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 3rd ser., 312: 355–360.Google Scholar
  680. Doweld AB. 2003. On the structure of Degeneria seeds (Degeneriaceae). Bull. Mosc. Ob. Ispyt. Prirody, 108(3): 64–73 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  681. Earle TT. 1938. Origin of the seed coats in Magnolia. Am. J. Bot. 25: 221–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  682. Ehrendorfer E, F Krendl, E Habeller, and W Sauer. 1968. Chromosome numbers and evolution in primitive angio-sperms. Taxon 17: 337–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  683. Endress PK. 1977. Über Blütenbau und Verwandtschaft der Eupomatiaceae und Himantandraceae (Magnoliales). Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 90: 83–103.Google Scholar
  684. Endress PK. 1984. The role of inner staminodes in the floral display of some relic Magnoliales. Plant Syst. Evol. 146: 269–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  685. Endress PK and LD Hufford. 1989. The diversity of stamen structures and dehiscence patterns among Magnoliales. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 100: 45–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  686. Erbar C and P Leins. 1981. Zur Spirale in Magnolien-Bluten. Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 56: 225–241.Google Scholar
  687. Freiberg TE and OP Kamelina. 1981. Magnoliaceae. In: MS Yakovlev, ed. Comparative embryology of flowering plants: Winteraceae-Juglandaceae, pp. 36–41. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  688. Gabarayeva NI. 1986a. The development of the exine in Michelia fuscata (Magnoliaceae) in connection with the change in cytoplasmic organelles of microspores and tapetum. Bot. Zhurn. 71: 311–322 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  689. Gabarayeva NI. 1986b. Ultrastructure analysis of the intine development of Michelia fuscata (Magnoliaceae) in connection with the changes of cytoplasmic organelles of micro-spores and tapetum. Bot. Zhurn. 71: 416–428 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  690. Gabarayeva NI. 1987a. Ultrastructure and development of sporoderm in Manglietia tenuipes (Magnoliaceae) during the tetrad period: The ptimexine formation in connection with cytoplasmic organelle activity. Bot. Zhurn. 72: 281–290 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  691. Gabarayeva NI. 1987b. Ultrastructure and development of lamellae of endexine in Manglietia tenuipes (Magnoliaceae) in connection with the question of endexine existence in primitive angiosperms. Bot. Zhurn. 72: 1310–1317 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  692. Gabarayeva NI. 1987c. Ultrastructure and development of pollen grain wall in Manglietia tenuipes (Magnoliaceae): The formation of intine in connection with the activity of cyto-plasmic organelles. Bot. Zhurn. 72: 1470–1478 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  693. Gabarayeva NI. 1988. The significance of ontogenetic investigation of the sporoderm for elucidation of the structure and phylogeny of the mature sporoderm of some species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae. In: AF Chlonova, ed. Palynology in the USSR, pp. 48–52. Nauka, Novosibirsk (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  694. Gabarayeva NI. 1990. On the site of sporopollenin precursors synthesis in the developing pollen grains in Magnoliaceae. Bot. Zhrun.75: 783–791 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  695. Gabarayeva NI. 1991a. The ultrastructure and development of exine and orbicules of Magnolia delavayi (Magnoliaceae) in the tetrad and the beginning of post-tetrad periods. Bot. Zhurn. 76: 10–19 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  696. Gabarayeva NI. 1995. Sporoderm development in Liriodendron chinense (Magnoliaceae): a probable role of the endoplasmic reticulum. Nord. J. Bot. 16: 307–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  697. Goldblatt P. 1974. A contribution to the knowledge of cytology in Magnoliales. J. Arnold Arbor. 55: 453–457.Google Scholar
  698. Guedes M. 1968. Le carpelle du tulipier (Liriodendron tulip-ifera). Oesterr. Bot. Z. 115: 372–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  699. Guillaumin A. 1942. Materiaux pour la flore de la Nouvelle Caledonie: 69 Notes sur les Magnoliacees. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 89: 1–3.Google Scholar
  700. Hayashi Y. 1963. The embryology of the Magnoliaceae sensu lato: I. Megasporogenesis, female gametophyte, and embryology. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ., 4th ser. (Biol.), 29: 27–33.Google Scholar
  701. Hayashi Y. 1964. The embryology of the Magnoliaceae sensu lato: III. Magnolia liltflora and Michelia fuscata. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ., 4th ser. (Biol.), 30: 89–98.Google Scholar
  702. Hayashi Y. 1965. The comparative embryology of the Magnoliaceae s. 1. in relation to the systematic consideration of the family. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ., 4th ser. (Biol.), 31: 29–44.Google Scholar
  703. Hayashi Y. 1966. The embryology of the Magnoliaceae sensu lato: IV. Microsporogenesis and development of the male gametophyte in Michelia figo Spreng. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ., 4th ser. (Biol.), 32: 11–118.Google Scholar
  704. Hayashi Y. 1984. Embryology of Magnolia salicifolia. J. Jpn. Bot. 59: 289–307.Google Scholar
  705. Heiser Ch B. 1962. Some observations on pollination and compatibility in Magnolia. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 72: 259–266.Google Scholar
  706. Hu HH. 1940. A new genus of Magnoliaceae. Sunyatsenia 4: 142–145.Google Scholar
  707. Hu HH and WY Cheng. 1951. Parakmeria, a new genus of Magnoliaceae of southwestern China. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 1: 1–2.Google Scholar
  708. Igersheim A, PK Endress, and FLS Endress. 1997. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the Magnoliales and winteroids. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 124: 213–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  709. Johnson MA and D Fairbrothers 1965. Comparison and interpretation of serological data in the Magnoliaceae. Bot. Gaz. 126: 260–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  710. Kaeiser M and SG Boyce. 1962. Embryology of Liriodendron tulipifera L. Phytomorphology 12: 103–109.Google Scholar
  711. Kapil RN and NN Bhandari. 1964. Morphology and embryology of Magnolia. Proc. Nad. Inst. Sci. India 30B: 245–262.Google Scholar
  712. Keng H. 1978. The delimitation of the genus Magnolia. Gard. Bull. Singapore 31: 127–131.Google Scholar
  713. Kim S, C-W Park, Y-D Kim, and Y Suh. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships in family Magnoliaceae inferred from ndhF sequences. Am. J. Bot. 88: 717–728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  714. Korobova SN. 1981. Degeneriaceae. In: MS Yakovlev, ed. Comparative embryology of flowering plants: Winteraceae-Juglandaceae, pp. 30–33. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  715. Kubitzki K. 1993. Degeneriaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed., The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 290–291. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  716. Law YH. 1984. A preliminary study on the taxonomy of the family Magnoliaceae. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 22: 89–109 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  717. Law YH. 2000. Studies on the phylogeny of the Magnoliaceae. In: YH Law, HM Fan, ZY Chen, QG Wu and QW Zeng, eds. Proc. Internat. Symp. Fam. Magnoliaceae 2000, pp. 3–13. Beijing.Google Scholar
  718. Leinfellner W. 1967. Über die Karpelle verschiedener Magnoliales: IV. Magnolia und Michelia (Magnoliaceae). Oesterr. Bot. Z. 114: 73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  719. Leinfellner W. 1969. Über die Karpelle verschiedener Magnoliales: VIII. Überblick über alle Familien der Ordnung. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 117: 107–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  720. Lemesle R. 1953. Les caracteres histologiques du bois secon-daire des Magnoliales. Phytomorphology 3: 430–446.Google Scholar
  721. Lemesle R and A Duchaigne. 1955. Contribution a 1'etude his-tologique et phylogenetique du Degeneria vitiensis I. W. Bailey et A. C. Smith. Rev. Gen. Bot. E. E. 62: 708–719.Google Scholar
  722. Leppik EE. 1975. Morphogenic stagnation in the evolution of Magnolia flowers. Phytomorphology 25: 451–464.Google Scholar
  723. Li J and JG Conran. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in Magnoliaceae subfam. Magnolioideae: a morphorogical cla-distic analysis. Plant Syst. Evol. 242: 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  724. Li SS, NH Tan, J Zhou, and SX Zhao. 2001. Phytochemical and chemotaxonomic studies on Liriodendron chinense and Paramichelia baillonii (Magnoliaceae). Acta Bot. Yunnanica. 23: 115–120.Google Scholar
  725. Li Z-L, W-Q Song, Z-P An, and R-Y Chen. 1998. Karyotype comparison between genera in Magnoliaceae. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 36: 232–237 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  726. Lozano-Contreras G. 1975. Contribucion a las Magnoliaceae de Colombia. Dugandiodendron. Caldesia 11: 27–50.Google Scholar
  727. Maneval WE. 1914. The development of Magnolia and Liriodendron, including a discussion of the primitive-ness of the Magnoliaceae. Bot. Gaz. 57: 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  728. Matsui M, R Imaichi, and M Kato. 1993. Ovular development and morphology in some Magnoliaceae species. J Plant Res. 106: 297–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  729. McLaughlin RP. 1933. Systematic anatomy of the woods of the Magnoliales. Trop. Woods 34: 3–39.Google Scholar
  730. Melikian AP and MA Plisko. 1988a. Degeneriaceae. In: Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, vol. 2, pp. 8–10. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  731. Melikian AP and MA Plisko. 1988b. Magnoliaceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, 2: 11–17. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  732. Melville R. 1969. Studies in floral structure and evolution: I. The Magnoliales. Kew Bull. 23: 133–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  733. Millington WE and JE Gunkel. 1950. Structure and development of the vegetative shoot tip of Liriodendron tulipifera L. Am. J. Bot. 37: 326–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  734. Mohana Rao PR. 1975. Seed anatomy in Michelia champaca Linn. with comments on the primitiveness of the Magnoliaceous seed. Phytomorphology 25: 81–90.Google Scholar
  735. Morawetz W. 1981. C-banding in Liriodendron tulipifera (Magnoliaceae): Some karyological and systematic implications. Plant Syst. Evol. 138: 209–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  736. Morawetz W. 1988. Karyosystematics of Australian Annonaceae as compared with Eupomatiaceae, Himantandraceae, and Austrobaileyaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 159: 49–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  737. Nong Van Tiep. 1980. Beitrage zur Sippenstruktur der Gattung Manglietia. Feddes Repert. 91: 497–576.Google Scholar
  738. Nooteboom HP. 1985. Notes on Magnoliaceae with a revision of Pachylarnax and Elmerrillia and the Malesian species of Manglietia and Michelia. Blumea 31: 65–121.Google Scholar
  739. Nooteboom HP. 1987. Notes on Magnoliaceae: II. Revision of Magnolia sections Maingoia (Malesian species), Aromadendron, and Blumiana. Blumea 32: 343–382.Google Scholar
  740. Nooteboom HP. 1993. Magnoliaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed., The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 391–401. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  741. Nooteboom HP. 1998. The tropical Magnoliaceae and their clas-sification. In: D Hung, ed. Magnolias and their allies, pp. 71–80. International Dendrology Society and Mangolia Society, Sherbone.Google Scholar
  742. Nooteboom HP. 2000. Different looks at the classification of the Magnoliaceae. In: YH Law, HM Fan, ZY Chen, QG Wu and QW Zeng, eds. Proc. Internat. Symp. Magnoliaceae 2000, pp. 26–37. Beijing.Google Scholar
  743. Ozenda P. 1947a. Anatomie des genres Aromadendron, Elmerrillia, Alcimandra, Pachylarnax, et Kmeria. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 225: 1360–1362.Google Scholar
  744. Ozenda P. 1947b. Structure du noeud foliare des Magnoliacees et des Anonacees. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 224: 1521–1523.Google Scholar
  745. Padmanabhan D. 1960. A contribution to the embryology of Michelia champaca. J. Madras Univ. 30B: l55–165.Google Scholar
  746. Pan H, S Shi, H Jin, Y Huang, and H Zhang. 1999. Phylogeny of Parakmeria (Magnoliaceae) and its related taxa inferred from the matK gene sequence. Acta Sci. Natur. univ. Sunyatseni 38: 63–67.Google Scholar
  747. Parks CR, NG Miller, JF Wendel, and KM McDougal. 1983. Genetic divergence within the genus Liriodendron (Magnoliaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 658–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  748. Praglowski J. 1974. Magnoliaceae. World Pollen and Spore Flora, vol. 3. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  749. Qiu Y-L, MW Chase, HL Donald, and RP Clifford. 1993. Molecular phylogenetics of the Magnoliidae: cladistic analysed of nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 587–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  750. Raven PH and DW Kyhos. 1965. New evidence concerning the original basic chromosome number of angiosperms. Evolution 19: 244–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  751. Sauquet H, JA Doyle, T Scharaschkin, T Borsch, KW Hilu, LW Chatrou, and A Le Thomas. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of Magnoliales and Myristicaceae based on multiple data sets: implications for character evolution. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 142: 125–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  752. Scvortsova NT. 1953. On the anatomy of the flower of Magnolia grandtfiora L. Bot. Zhurn. (Leningrad) 43: 401–408 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  753. Shaparenko KK. 1937. Liriodendron: Tulip tree. Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1st ser., 4: 93–170.Google Scholar
  754. Skipworth JP. 1970 (1971). Development of floral vasculature in the Magnoliaceae. Phytomorphology 20: 228–236.Google Scholar
  755. Smith AC. 1949. Additional notes on Degeneria vitiensis. J. Arnold Arbor. 30: 1–9.Google Scholar
  756. Sugiyama M. 1979. A comparative study of nodal anatomy in the Magnoliales base on the vascular system in the nodeleaf continuum. J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, sec. Botany 12: 199–279.Google Scholar
  757. Swamy BGL. 1949. Further contribution to the morphology of the Degeneriaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 30: 3–30.Google Scholar
  758. Takhtajan AL. 1980. Degeneriaceae. In: AL Takhtajan, ed. Life of plants, 5(2): 121–125. Moscow (in Russian).Google Scholar
  759. Takhtajan AL and NR Meyer. 1976. Some additional data on the morphology of pollen grains of Degeneria vitiensis (Degeneriaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 61: 1531–1535 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  760. Thien LB. 1974. Floral biology of Magnolia. Am. J. Bot. 61: 1037–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  761. Thien LB, WH Heimermann, and RT Holman. 1975. Floral odors and quantitative taxonomy of Magnolia and Liriodendron. Taxon 24 (5/6): 557–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  762. Thorne RE. 1974. A phylogenetic classification of the Annoniflorae. Aliso 8: 147–209.Google Scholar
  763. Tiffney BH. 1977. Fruits and seeds of the Brandon Lignite: Magnoliaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 75: 299–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  764. Tucker SC. 1960. Ontogeny of the floral apex of Michelia fuscata. Am. J. Bot. 47: 266–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  765. Tucker SC. 1961. Phyllotaxis and vascular organization of the carpels in Michelia fuscata. Am. J. Bot. 48: 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  766. Tucker SC. 1963. Development and phyllotaxis of the vegetative axillary bud of Michelia fuscata. Am. J. Bot. 50: 661–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  767. Tucker SC. 1977. Foliar sclereids in the Magnoliaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 75: 325–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  768. Ueda Kunihiko. 1984. Vascular systems in Magnoliaceae. Fac. Sci. Kyoto Univ.Google Scholar
  769. Ueda K, J Yamashita, and MN Tamura. 2000. Molecular phylog-eny of the Magnoliaceae. In: YH Law, HM Fan, ZY Chen, QG Wu and QW Zeng, eds. Proc. Internat. Symp. Fam. Magnoliaceae, pp. 205–209. Beijing.Google Scholar
  770. Umeda A, R Imaichi, and M Kato. 1994. Ovular development and morphology of the outer integument of Magnolia grandt-flora (Magnoliaceae). Am. J. Bot 81: 361–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  771. Vazquez-Garcia JA. 1994. Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) in Mexico and Central America: a synopsis. Brittonia 46: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  772. Wei Z-X and Z-Y Wu. 1993. Pollen ultrastructure of Liriodendron and its systematic implications. Acta Bot. Yunn. 15 (2): 163–166 (n Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  773. Whitaker TW. 1933. Chromosome number and relationships in the Magnoliales. J. Arnold Arbor. 14: 376–385.Google Scholar
  774. Xu F-X. 2000a. Morphology of chalazal region on endotesta in the seeds of Magnoliaceae and those of related families. Subtrop. Plant Res. Commun. 29: 5–10.Google Scholar
  775. Xu F-X. 2000b. A cladistic analysis of Magnoliaceae. J. Trop. and Subtrop. Bot. 8: 207–214.Google Scholar
  776. Xu F-X. 2002. Study on pollen morphology of Parakmeria lotungensis). Guihaia. 22: 157–159.Google Scholar
  777. Xu F-X. 2003. Sclerotesta morphology and its systematic implications in magnoliaceous seeds. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 142: 407–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  778. Xu F-X and PJ Rudall. 2006. Comparative floral anatomy and ontogeny in Magnoliaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 258: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  779. Xu F-X and QG Wu. 2000. Morphology of the chalazal region on the endotesta of seeds in genera Magnolia, Parakmeria and Kmeria. In: YH Law, HM Fan, ZY Chen, QG Wu and QW Zeng, eds. Proc. Internat. Symp. Fam. Magnoliaceae 2000: 129–142.Google Scholar
  780. Xu F-X and Q-G Wu. 2002. Chalazal region morphology on the endotesta of Magnoliaceous seeds and its systematic signifi-cance. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 40: 260–270.Google Scholar
  781. Yasui K. 1937. Karyological studies in Magnolia, with special reference to the cytokinesis in the pollen mother cell. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 51: 539–564.Google Scholar
  782. Young DA and RW Sterner. 1981. Leaf flavonoids of primitive dicotyledonous angiosperms: Degeneria vitiensis and Idio-spermum australense. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 9 (2–3): 185–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  783. Zazhurilo KK. 1940. On the anatomy of the seed coats of Magnoliaceae (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Bull. Soc. Nat. Voronezh University 4 (I): 32–40 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  784. Zhang B. 2001. Floral analysis of Magnoliaceae. Guihaia. 21(4): 315–320.Google Scholar
  785. Zhang X-J, Y-Q Chen, F-R Chai, and S-M Shu. 2000. Anatomical characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of secondary xylem of Magnoliaceae in China. Bull. Bot. Res. 20: 318–323 (in Chinese with English summary).Google Scholar
  786. Bailey IW, CG Nast, and AC Smith. 1943. The family Himantandraceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 24: 190–206.Google Scholar
  787. Buchheim G. 1962. Beobachtungen über den Bau der Frucht der Familie Himantandraceae. Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin (N. F.) 2: 78–92.Google Scholar
  788. Diels L. 1917. Über die Gattung Himantandra: Ihre Verbreitung und ihre systematische Stellung. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 55: 126–134.Google Scholar
  789. Doweld AB, and NA Shevyryova. 1998. Carpology, seed anatomy and taxonomic relationships of Calbulimima (Himantandraceae). Ann. Bot. 81: 337–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  790. Endress PK. 1993. Himantandraceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed., The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 338–341. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  791. Melikian AP and EF Cherniakovskaya. 1988. Hi-mantandraceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, vol. 2, pp. 10–11. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  792. Prakash N, DB Foreman, and S Griffith. 1984. Ga-metogenesis in Galbulimima belgraveana (Himantan-draceae). Austral. J. Bot. 32: 605–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  793. Ritchie E and WC Taylor. 1967. The Galbulimima alkaloids. In: RHF Manske, ed. The alkaloids, vol. 9, pp. 529–543. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  794. Royen P van and WA van Heel. 1962. Sertulum Papuanum 6. Himantandraceae. Nova Guinea, Bot., 8–10: 127–135.Google Scholar
  795. Sauer W and F Ehrendorfer. 1970. Chromosomen, Verwandtschaft, und Evolution tropischer Holzpflanzen: II. Himantandraceae. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 118: 38–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  796. Smith AC. 1942. A nomenclatural note on the Himantandraceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 366–368.Google Scholar
  797. Baillon H. 1868. Recherches organogenique sur les Eupomatia. Adansonia 9: 22–28.Google Scholar
  798. Behnke H-D. 1988. Sieve-element plastids, phloem protein, and evolution of flowering plants: III. Magnoliidae. Taxon 37: 699–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  799. Bergstrom G, I Groth, O Pellmyr, PK Endress, LB Thien, A Hilbener, and W Francke. 1991. Chemical basis of a highly specific mutualism: Chiral esters attract pollinating beetles in Eupomatiaceae. Phytochemistry 30: 3221–3225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  800. Bygrave P. 1998. Molecular systematics of the Annonaceae. Annonaceae Newslett. 12: 15–17.Google Scholar
  801. Bhandari NN. 1971. Embryology of the Magnoliales and comments on their relationships. J. Arnold Arbor. 52: 1–39, 285–304.Google Scholar
  802. Carlquist S. 1992. Vegetative anatomy and relationships of Eupomatiaceae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 119: 167–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  803. Cave A. 1989. Chemical research in Annonaceae. Annonaceae Newslett. 6: 24–36.Google Scholar
  804. Christmann M. 1986. Beiträge zur Histologie der An-nonaceen Samen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 106: 379–390.Google Scholar
  805. Christmann M. 1989a. Genera and species of Annonaceae with tritegmic seeds. Annonaceae Newslett. 6: 11–13.Google Scholar
  806. Christmann M. 1989b. Die tritegmischen Annonaceen-Samen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 110: 433–439.Google Scholar
  807. Corner EJH. 1949. The annonaceous seed and its integument. New Phytol. 48: 332–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  808. Deroin T. 1985. Contribution a la morphologic comparee du gynecee des Annonaceae-Monodoroideae. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat. Paris, ser. 4, 7, sect. B, 2: 167–176.Google Scholar
  809. Deroin T. 1987. Anatomie florale de Meiocarpidium Engler et Diels (Annonaceae-Unoneae). Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat., Paris, ser. 4, 9, sect. B, 1: 81–93.Google Scholar
  810. Deroin T. 1989. Definition et signification phylogenique des systemes corticaux floraux: L'exemple des Annonacees. C. R. Acad. Sei. Paris, 3rd ser., 308: 71–75.Google Scholar
  811. Deroin T. 1991. La repartition des modeies de plateaux stigmatiques et l'evolution des Annonacees. C. R. Acad. Sei. Paris, 3rd ser., 312: 561–566.Google Scholar
  812. Deroin T. 1997. Conformation and origin of paracarpy in Annonaceae, with comments on some methodological aspect. Candollea 82: 45–58.Google Scholar
  813. Deroin T. 2000. Floral anatomy of Toussaintia hallei Le Thomas, a case of convergence of Annonaceae with Magnoliaceae. In: YH Law, HM Fan, ZY Chen, QG Wu and QW Zeng, eds. Proc. Internat. Symp. Fam. Magnoliaceae 2000: 168–176.Google Scholar
  814. Diels L. 1912. Über primitive Ranales der australischen Flora. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 48: 7–13.Google Scholar
  815. Doyle JA, P Bygrave, and A Le Thomas. 2000. Implications of molecular data for pollen evolution in Annonaceae. In: MM Harley, CM Morton, and S Blackmore, eds. Pollen and spores: morphology and biology, pp. 259–284. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
  816. Doyle JA and A Le Thomas. 1994. Cladistic analysis and pollen evolution in Annonaceae. Acta Botanica Gallica 141: 149–170.Google Scholar
  817. Doyle JA and A Le Thomas. 1996. Phylogenetic analysis and character evolution in Annonaceae. Bull. Mus. nat. Hist. Nat., Paris, ser.4, 18, sect. B: 279–334.Google Scholar
  818. Doyle JA and A Le Thomas. 1997. Phylogeny and geographic history of Annonaceae. Géogr. Phys. Quatern. 51: 353–361.Google Scholar
  819. Eames A. 1961. Morphology of the angiosperms. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  820. Ehrendorfer F, F Krendl, E Habeier, and W Sauer. 1968. Chromosome numbers and evolution in primitive angio-sperms. Taxon 17: 337–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  821. Endress PK. 1977. Über Blütenbau und Verwandtschaft der Eupomatiaceae und Himantandraceae (Magnoliales). Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 90: 83–103.Google Scholar
  822. Endress PK. 1983. Dispersal and distribution in some small archaic relic angiosperm families (Austrobaileyaceae, Eupomatiaceae, Himantandraceae, Idiospermoideae —Calycanthaceae). Sonderbd. Naturwiss. Verh. Hamburg 7: 201–217.Google Scholar
  823. Endress PK. 1984a. The role of inner staminodia in the floral display of some relic Magnoliales. Plant Syst. Evol. 146: 269–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  824. Endress PK. 1984b. The flowering process in the Eupomatiaceae (Magnoliales). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 104: 297–319.Google Scholar
  825. Endress PK. 1993. Eupomatiaceae. In: K Kubitzki ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 296–298. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  826. Endress PK. 2003. Early floral development and nature of the calyptra in Eupomatiaceae (Magnoliales). Int. J. Plant Sci. 164: 489–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  827. Erbar C. 1996. Early floral developments studies in Annonaceae. In: W Morawetz, H Winkler (eds.). Reproductive morphology in Annonaceae. Biosyst. Ecol. ser. 10: 1–27.Google Scholar
  828. Fournier G, M Leboeuf, and A Cave. 1999. Annonaceae essential oils: a review. J. Essent. Oil Res. 11: 131–142.Google Scholar
  829. Fries RE. 1919. Studien über die Blütenstandsverhältnisse bei der Familie Annonaceae. Acta Horti Berg. 6: 3–48.Google Scholar
  830. Fries RE. 1939. Revision der Arten einiger Annonaceen-Gattungen. Acta Horti Berg. 12: 289–577.Google Scholar
  831. Fries RE. 1959. Annonaceae. In: A. Engler and K. Pranti, eds. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2nd ed., 17a:l–171. Ducker & Humboldt, Berlin.Google Scholar
  832. Gabarayeva NI. 1992. Sporoderm development in Asiminatriloba: I. The development events before callose dissolution. Grana 31: 213–222.Google Scholar
  833. Gabarayeva NI. 1993. Sporoderm development in Asiminatriloba: II. The development events after callose dissolution. Grana 32: 210–220.Google Scholar
  834. Gabarayeva NI. 1995. Pollen wall and tapetum development in Anaxagorea brevipes (Annonaceae): sporoderm substructure, cytoskeleton, sporopollenin precursor particles, and the endexine problem. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 85: 123–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  835. Garwood NC. 1995. Studies in Annonaceae. XX. Morphology and ecology of seedlings, fruits and seeds of selected Panamanian species. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 117: 1–152.Google Scholar
  836. Gottsberger G. 1970. Beiträge zur Biologic der Annona-ceenblüten. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 118: 237–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  837. Gottsberger G. 1999. Pollination and evolution in Neotropical Annonaceae. Plant Species Biol. 14: 143–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  838. Gottsberger G and I Gottsberger. 1985. Pollen units, pollen shape, and apertural position in the Annonaceae: A reassessment. Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 59: 465–473.Google Scholar
  839. Guedes M and A Le Thomas. 1981. Le gynecee de Monodora (Annonacees-Monodoroidees). C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 292 (3): 1025–1028.Google Scholar
  840. Hamilton AG. 1897. On the fertilization of Eupomatia laurina R. Br. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 22: 48–55.Google Scholar
  841. Heijden E van der, and F Bouman. 1988. Studies in Annonaceae. X. Seed anatomy of the Annona group. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 110: 117–135.Google Scholar
  842. Hesse M, W Morawetz, and F Ehrendorfer. 1985. Pollen ultra-structure and systematic affinities of Anaxagorea (Annonaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 148: 253–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  843. Hesse M and M Waha. 1984. Sporoderm characters of Tetrameranthus duckei (Annonaceae) and their systematic implications. Plant Syst. Evol. 147: 323–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  844. Hooker WJ. 1855. Eupomatia laurina. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 81, t. 4848.Google Scholar
  845. Hotchkiss AT. 1955. Geographical distribution of the Eupomatiaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 36: 385–396.Google Scholar
  846. Hotchkiss AT. 1958. Pollen and pollination in the Eupomatiaceae. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 83: 86–91.Google Scholar
  847. Johnson DM. 2003. Phylogenetic significance of spiral and distichous architecture in the Annonaceae. Syst. Bot. 28: 503–511.Google Scholar
  848. Johnson DM and NA Murray. 1995. Synopsis of the tribe Bocageeae (Annonaceae) with revisions of Cardiopetalum,Froesiodendron, Trigynaea, Boccagea, and Hornschuchia.Brittonia 47: 248–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  849. Kamelina OP. 1981. On the embryology of the non-investigated taxa: I. Some data on the embryology of Eupomatiaceae. Bot. Zhurn. 66: 854–859 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  850. Kessler PJA. 1989. Some interesting distribution patterns in Annonaceae. Annonaceae Newslett. 6: 14–23.Google Scholar
  851. Kessler PJA. 1993. Annonaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 93–128. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  852. Koek-Noorman J. 1989. Multidisciplinary approach to the systematics of Neotropical Annonaceae. Annonaceae Newslett. 6: 3–10.Google Scholar
  853. Koek-Noorman J, LY Th Westra, and PJM Maas. 1990. Studies in Annonaceae: XIII. The role of morphological characters in subsequent classification of Annonaceae: A comparative survey. Taxon 39: 16–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  854. Koek-Noorman J, AK van Setten, and CM van Zullen. 1997. Studies in Annonaceae. XXVI: Flower and fruit morphology in Annonaceae: Their contribution to patterns in cluster analysis. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 119: 213–230.Google Scholar
  855. Klucking EP. 1986. Leaf venation pattern, vol. 1, Annonaceae. Cramer, Berlin/Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  856. Leboeuf M, A Cave, PK Bhaurnik, B Bhaurnik, B Mukherjee, and R Mukherjee. 1982. The phytochem-istry of the Annonaceae. Phytochemistry 21: 2783–2813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  857. Leins P and C Erbar. 1980. Zur Entwicklung der Blüten von Monodora crispata (Annonaceae). Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 55: 11–22.Google Scholar
  858. Leins P and C Erbar. 1982. Das monokarpellate Gynoeceum von Monodora crispata (Annonaceae). Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 57: 1–13.Google Scholar
  859. Leins P and C Erbar. 1996. Early floral developmental studies in Annonaceae. Biosyst. Ecol. ser. 10: 1–27.Google Scholar
  860. Lemesle R. 1936. Les vaissaux a perforation scalariformes de l'Eupomatia et leur importance dans la phylogenie des Polycarpes. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 203: 1538–1540.Google Scholar
  861. Lemesle R. 1938. Contribution a 1'etude de l'Eupomatia R. Br. Rev. Gen. Bot. 50: 692–712.Google Scholar
  862. Le Thomas A. 1980/1981. Ultrastructural characters of the pollen grains of African Annonaceae and their significance for the phylogeny of primitive Angiosperms. Parts I and 2. Pollen et Spores 22: 267–342; 23: 5–36.Google Scholar
  863. Le Thomas A. 1988. Variation de la region aperturale dans le pollen des Annonacees. Taxon 37: 644–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  864. Le Thomas A and B Lugardon. 1975. Ultrastructure d'un pollen original parmi les Annonacees. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 122: 109–111.Google Scholar
  865. Le Thomas A and B Lugardon. 1976. De la structure grenue a la structure columellaire dans le pollen des Annonacees. Adansonia, ser. 2, 15: 543–572.Google Scholar
  866. Le Thomas A, B Lugardon, and JA Doyle. 1994. Pollen ultra-structure and relationships of Fusaea (Baillon) Safford and Duguetia A.Saint-Hilaire (Annonaceae). Rev. Paleobot. Palynol. 83: 55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  867. Le Thomas A., W. Morawetz, and M. Waha. 1986. Pollen of Palaeo- and Neotropical Annonaceae: Definition of the aperture by morphological and functional characters. In: S Blackmore and IK Ferguson, eds. Pollen and spore: Form and function, pp. 375–388. London.Google Scholar
  868. Melikian AP and MA Plisko. 1988. Eupomatiaceae. In: A. Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, vol. 2, pp. 18–19. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  869. Mohana Rao PR. 1975. Seed anatomy of Artabotrys odoratissintus with discussion on chalaza, integumentary bundles, and ruminate endosperm. Phytomorphology 25: 215–228.Google Scholar
  870. Mohana Rao PR. 1983. Seed and fruit anatomy in Eupomatia laurina with a discussion of the affinities of Eupomatiaceae. Flora B 173: 311–319.Google Scholar
  871. Mols JB, B Gravendeel, LW Chatrou, MD Pirie, PC Bygrave, MW Chase, and PJA Keßler. 2004. Identifying clades in Asian Annonaceae: monophyletic genera in the polyphyletic Miliuseae. Am. J. Bot. 91: 590–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  872. Morawetz W. 1986. Systematics and karyoevoluton in Magno-liidae: Tetrameranthus as compared with other Annonaceae genera of the same chromosome number. Plant Syst. Evol. 154: 145–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  873. Morawetz W. 1988. Karyosystematics and evolution of Australian Annonaceae as compared with Eupomatia-ceae,Himantandraceae, and Austrobaileyaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 159: 49–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  874. Okada H and K Ueda. 1984. Cytotaxonomical studies on Asian Annonaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 144: 165–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  875. Periasamy K and BGL Swamy. 1959 (1960). Studies in the Annonaceae: 1. Microsporogenesis in Cananga odorata and Miliusa wightiana. Phytomorphology 9: 251–263.Google Scholar
  876. Periasamy K and BGL Swamy. 1961. Studies in the Annonaceae: II. The development of ovule and seed in Cananga odorata and Miliusa wightiana. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 40: 206–216.Google Scholar
  877. Read RW and WC Taylor. 1979. Constituents of Eupomatia species: V. The isolation of eupomatenoid-13 (a new neolignan), (±)-trans-Dehydrodiisoeu-genol, and other extractives from the bark of Eupomatia laurina. Aust. J. Chem. 32: 2317–2321.Google Scholar
  878. Ronse Decraene LP and E Smets. 1990. The floral development of Popowia whitei (Annonaceae). Nord J. Bot. 10: 411–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  879. Samuelsson G. 1914. Über die Pollenentwicklung von Annona and Aristolochia and ihre systematische Bedeutung. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 8: 181–189.Google Scholar
  880. Sauer W and F Ehrendorfer. 1984. Notes on the karyo-systemat-ics of Annonaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 146: 47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  881. Setten AK van and J Koek-Noorman. 1992. Fruits and seeds of Annonaceae: Morphology and its significance for classification and identification. Bibl. Bot. 142: 1–101.Google Scholar
  882. Su YCF and RMK Saunders. 2003. Pollen structure, tetrad cohesion and pollen-connecting threads in Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 143: 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  883. Sugiyama M. 1976. Comparative studies of the vascular system of node-leaf continuum in woody Ranales: II. Node-leaf vascular system of Eupomatia laurina R. Br. J. Jpn. Bot. 51: 169–174.Google Scholar
  884. Svoma E. 1993. Contribution to the ontogenetic development and organization of Annonaceae seed. Annonaceae Newslett. 9: 67–70.Google Scholar
  885. Svoma E. 1998. Seed morphology and anatomy in some Annonaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 209: 177–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  886. Taylor WC. 1985. Eupomatia alkaloids. Alkaloids 24: 1–23.Google Scholar
  887. Tsou C-H and DM Johnson. 2003. Comparative development of aseptate and septate anthers of Annonaceae. Am. J. Bot. 90: 832–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  888. Uphof JCT. 1959. Eupomatiaceae, In: A Engler and K Prantl, eds. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2nd ed., 17a: 173–176. Ducker & Humboldt, Berlin.Google Scholar
  889. Van der Wyk RW and JE Canright. 1956. The anatomy and relationships of the Annonaceae. Trop. Woods 104: 1–24.Google Scholar
  890. Van Heusden ECH. 1992. Flowers of Annonaceae: morphology, classification, and evolution. Blumea, Suppl. 7: 1–128.Google Scholar
  891. Waha M. 1987a. Sporoderm development of pollen tetrads in Asimina triloba (Annonaceae). Pollen et Spores 29(1): 31–44.Google Scholar
  892. Waha M. 1987b. Different origins of fragile exines within the Annonaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 158: 23–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  893. Waha M and W Morawetz. 1988. Pollen evolution and systemat-ics in Annonaceae with special reference to the disulcate Australian endemic genera. Plant Syst. Evol. 161: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  894. Walker JW. 1971a. Pollen morphology, phytogeography, and phylogeny of the Annonaceae. Contr. Gray Herb. 202: 1–131.Google Scholar
  895. Walker JW. 1971b. Contribution to the pollen morphology and phylogeny of the Annonaceae. I. Grana 11: 45–54.Google Scholar
  896. Walker JW. 1971c. Unique type of angiosperm pollen from the family Annonaceae. Science 172: 565–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  897. Walker JW. 1972a. Contributions to the pollen morphology and phylogeny of the Annonaceae, II. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 65: 173–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  898. Walker JW. 1972b. Chromosome numbers, phylogeny, phytogeography of the Annonaceae and their bearing on the (original) basic chromosome number of angiosperms. Taxon 21: 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  899. Walker JW. 1976. Evolutionary significance of the exine in the pollen of primitive angiosperms. In: K Ferguson and J Müller, eds. The evolutionary significance of the exine, pp. 251–308. Linn. Soc. Symposium, No. 1. Academic Press, London/New York.Google Scholar
  900. Woodland PS and PR Garlick. 1982. The fine structure of the pollen of Eupomatiaceae. Austral. J. Bot. 30: 297–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  901. Woodland PS and N Prakash. 1993. Floral morphology, embryology and relationships of the Eupomatiaceae. Abstr. XV Inter. Bot. Congr., p. 95. Yokohama.Google Scholar
  902. Young DA. 1983. Leaf flavonoids of Eupomatiaceae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 11(3): 209–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  903. Armstrong JE and BA Drummond III. 1986. Floral biology of Myristica fragrans Houtt.: The nutmeg of commerce. Biotropica 18: 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  904. Armstrong JE and AK Irvine. 1989. Floral biology of Myristica insipida (Myristicaceae): A distinctive beetle pollination syndrome. Am. J. Bot. 78: 86–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  905. Armstrong JE and SC Tucker. 1986. Floral development in Myristica (Myristicaceae). Am. J. Bot. 73: 1131–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  906. Armstrong JE and TK Wilson. 1978. Floral morphology of Horsfieldia. Am. J. Bot. 65: 441–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  907. Baas P. 2000. Wood anatomy of Myristicaceae. In: PF Stevens, ed. Flora Malesiana, ser. I, 14: 19. Noordhoff, Leiden.Google Scholar
  908. Behnke D-H. 1991. Sieve-element characters of Myristicaceae: Nuclear crystals, S- and P-type plastids, nacrous walls. Nord. J. Bot. 11: 333–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  909. Bhandari NN. 1971. Embryology of the Magnoliales and comments on their relationships. J. Arnold Arbor. 52: 1–39, 285–304.Google Scholar
  910. De Wilde WJJO. 1994a. Taxonomic review of Myristica (Myristicaceae) in the Pacific. Blumea 38: 349–406.Google Scholar
  911. De Wilde WJJO. 1994b. Paramyristica, a new genus of Myristicaceae. Blumea 39: 341–350.Google Scholar
  912. De Wilde WJJO. 2000. Myristicaceae. In: PF Stevens, ed. Flora Malesiana, ser. I, 14: 1–632. Noordhoff, Leiden.Google Scholar
  913. Garratt GA. 1933a. Systematic anatomy of the woods of the Myristicaceae. Trop. Woods 35: 6–48.Google Scholar
  914. Garratt GA. 1933b. Bearing of wood anatomy on the relationships of the Myristicaceae. Trop. Woods 36: 20–44.Google Scholar
  915. Gottlieb OR. 1979. Chemical studies on medicinal Myristicaceae from Amazonia. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1: 309–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  916. Hegnauer R. 2000. Phytocyhemisty and chemotaxonomy of Myristicaceae. In: PF Stevens, ed. Flora Malesiana, ser. I, 14: 21–27. Leiden.Google Scholar
  917. Holmstedt B, JE Lindgren, T Plowman, L River, RE Schultes, and O Tovar. 1980. Indole alkaloids in Amazonian Myristicaceae. Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harv. Univ. 28(3): 215–234.Google Scholar
  918. Joshi AC. 1946. A note on the development of pollen of Myristica fragrans Van Houtten and the affinities of the family Myristicaceae. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 25: 139–143.Google Scholar
  919. Koster J and P Baas. 1981. Comparative leaf anatomy of the Asiatic Myristicaceae. Blumea 27: 115–173.Google Scholar
  920. Kühn U and K Kubitzki. 1993. Myristicaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 457–467. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  921. Nair NC and P. Sarita 1972 (publ. 1975). Floral morphology of Myristica malabarica Lamk. with a discussion of certain aspects of the systematics of Myristica. In: Murty et al., eds. Advances in plant morphology, pp. 264–277. MeeratGoogle Scholar
  922. Nair NC and PN Bahl. 1956. Vascular anatomy of the flower of Myristica malabarica Lamk. Phytomorphology 6: 127–134.Google Scholar
  923. Periasamy K. 1961. Studies on seeds with ruminate endosperm: 1. Morphology of ruminating tissue in Myristica fragrans. J. Madras Univ. 31B: 53–58.Google Scholar
  924. Sauquet H, JA Doyle, T Scharaschkin, T Borsch, KW Hilu, LW Chatrou, and A Le Thomas. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of Magnoliales and Myristicaceae based on multiple data sets: implications for character evolution. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 142: 125–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  925. Sastri RLN. 1954. On the vascular anatomy of the female flower of Myristica fragrans. Proc. Indian Sci. Cong. 3: 172–173 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  926. Sastri RLN. 1955. Structure and development of nutmeg seed. Curr. Sci. 24: 172.Google Scholar
  927. Sastri RLN. 1959. Vascularization of the carpel of Myristica fragrans. Bot. Gaz. 121: 92–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  928. Sauquet H. 2003. Androecium diversity and evolution in Myristicaceae (Magnoliales), with the description of a new Malagasy genus, Doyleanthus, gen. nov. Am. J. Bot. 90: 1293–1305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  929. Sauquet H and A Le Thomas. 2003. Pollen diversity and evolution in Myristicaceae (Magnoliales). Int. J. Plant Sci. 164: 613–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  930. Siddiqi MR and TK Wilson. 1974. Wood anatomy of the genus Knema (Myristicaeae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 101: 354–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  931. Siddiqi MR and TK Wilson. 1975a. Leaf anatomy of the genus Knema. Biologia (Pakistan) 21: 167–175.Google Scholar
  932. Siddiqi MR and TK Wilson. 1975b. Pollen of the genus Knema (Myristicaceae). Pak. J. Bot. 7: 197–200.Google Scholar
  933. Siddiqi MR and TK Wilson. 1976a. Floral anatomy of the genus Knema (Myristicaceae). Biologia (Pakistan) 22: 127–141.Google Scholar
  934. Siddiqi MR and TK Wilson. 1976b. Comparative study of the genus Knema (Myristicaceae). Biologia (Pakistan) 22: 305–308.Google Scholar
  935. Van Heel WA. 1982. Note on the structure of developing seeds of Knema and Horsfieldia (Myristicaceae). Blumea 28: 53–60.Google Scholar
  936. Van der Ham RWJM. 2000. Palynology of Myristicaceae. In: PF Stevens, ed. Flora Malesiana, ser. I, 14: 19–21. Leiden.Google Scholar
  937. Walker JW and AG Walker. 1979. Comparative pollen morphology of the American myristicaceous genera Compsoneura and Virola. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 66: 731–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  938. Walker JW and AG Walker. 1980. Comparative pollen morphology of the mainland African genera of Myristicaceae (Cephalosphaera, Coelocaryon, Pycnanthus, and Scyphocephalium). Am. J. Bot. 67: 603–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  939. Walker JW and AG Walker. 1981. Comparative pollen morphology of the Madagascan genera of Myristicaceae (Mauloutchia, Brochoneura, and Haematodendron). Grana 20: 1–17.Google Scholar
  940. Walker JW and AG Walker. 1983. Comparative pollen morphology of the American myristicaceous genera Otoba, Iryanthera, and Osteophloeum. Am. J. Bot. 70: 315–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  941. Warburg O. 1897. Monographic der Myristicaceae. Nov. Act. Acad. Caes.-Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 68: 1–680.Google Scholar
  942. Wilson TK and LM Maculans. 1967. The morphology of the Myristicaceae: 1. Flowers of Myristica fragrans and M. mal-abarica. Am. J. Bot 54: 214–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  943. Ablett EM, J Playford, and S Mills. 1997. The use of ribisco DNA sequences to examine the systematic position of Hernandia albiflora (C.T.White) Kubitzki (Hernandiaceae), and relationships among the Laurales. Austrobaileya 4: 601–607.Google Scholar
  944. Allen CK. 1938. Studies in the Lauraceae: 1. Chinese and IndoChinese species of Litsea, Neolitsea, and Actinodaphne. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 25: 361–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  945. Baillon H. 1868. Observations sur les Monimiacees. Adansonia 9: 111–134.Google Scholar
  946. Bello MA, F Gonzalez, G Romero de Perez. 2002. Morfologia del androceo, tapete y ultraestructura del polen de Siparuna aspera (Ruiz et Pavon) A. DC. (Siparunaceae). Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat. 26(99): 155–167.Google Scholar
  947. Bhandari NN. 1967. Monimiaceae, Calycanthaceae, Lauraceae. In: BM Johri et al., eds. Seminar on comparative embryology of angiosperms, pp. 19–21. Department of Botany, Univ. Press, Delhi.Google Scholar
  948. Blake ST. 1972. Idiospermum (Idiospermaceae): A new genus and family for Calycanthus australiensis. Contr. Queensland Herb. 12: 1–37.Google Scholar
  949. Boyle EM. 1980. Vascular anatomy of the flower, seed, and fruit of Lindera benzoin. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 107: 409–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  950. Brizicky GK. 1959. Variability in the floral parts of Gomortega (Gomortegaceae). Willdenowia 2: 200–207.Google Scholar
  951. Brofferio I. 1930. Osservazioni sullo sviluppo delle Calycanthaceae. Ann. Bot. Roma 18: 387–394.Google Scholar
  952. Carlquist S. 1983. Wood anatomy of Calycanthaceae: Ecological and systematic implications. Aliso 10: 427–441Google Scholar
  953. Chanderbali AS, H van der Werff, and SS Renner. 2001. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of Lauraceae: evidence from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 104–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  954. Chang R-H and C-S Ding. 1980. The seedling characters of Chinese Calycanthaceae with a new species of Chimonanthus Lindl. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 18: 328–332.Google Scholar
  955. Cheadle CL and K Esau. 1958. Secondary phloem of Calycanthaceae. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 29: 397–510.Google Scholar
  956. Christophel DC, R Kerrigan, and AI Rowett. 1996. The use of cuticular features in the taxonomy of the Lauraceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83: 419–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  957. Collins RPN, N Chang, and LE Knaak. 1969. Anthocyanins in Calycanthus floridus. Am. Midi. Nat. 82: 633–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  958. Coy GV. 1928. Morphology of Sassafras in relation to phylog-eny of angiosperms. Bot. Gaz. 86: 149–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  959. Cummings K and CA Schroeder. 1943. Anatomy of the avocado fruit. Yearb. Calif. Avocado Assoc. 1942: 56–64.Google Scholar
  960. Datta K and S Chanda. 1980. Pollen morphology of a few members of the order Laurales (sensu Takhtajan) with reference to taxonomy and phylogeny. Trans. Böse Res. Inst. Calcutta 43 (3–4): 73–79.Google Scholar
  961. Daumann E. 1930. Blütennektarium von Magnolia und die Futterkorper in der Blüte von Calycanthus. Planta 11: 108–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  962. Dengler NG. 1972. Ontogeny of the vegetative and floral apex of Calycanthus occidentalis. Canad. J. Bot. 50: 1349–1356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  963. Doweld AB. 2001. Carpology and phermatology of Gomortega (Gomortegaceae): systematic and evolutionary implications. Acta Bot. Malacitana 26: 19–37.Google Scholar
  964. Endress PK. 1972. Zur vergleichenden Entwicklungsmorphologie, Embryologie, und Systematik bei Laurales. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 92: 331–428.Google Scholar
  965. Endress PK. 1979. Noncarpellary pollination and “hyperstigma” in an angiosperm (Tambourissa religiosa, Monimiaceae). Experientia 35: 45.Google Scholar
  966. Endress PK. 1980a. Floral structure and relationships of Hortonia (Monimiaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 133: 199–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  967. Endress PK. 1980b. Ontogeny, function, and evolution of extreme floral construction in Monimiaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 134: 79–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  968. Endress PK. 1983. Dispersal and distribution in some small archaic relic angiosperm families (Austrobaileyaceae, Eupomatiaceae, Himantandraceae, Idiospermaceae-Calycanthaceae). Sonderb. Nat. Wiss. Habmurg 7: 201–217.Google Scholar
  969. Endress PK. 1992. Protogynous flowers in Monimiaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 181: 227–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  970. Endress PK, FLS Igersheim, and A Igersheim. 1997. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the Laurales. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 125: 93–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  971. Endress PK and DH Lorence. 1983. Diversity and evolutionary trends in the floral structure of Tambourissa (Monimiaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 143: 53–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  972. Esenbeck N., von. 1836. Systema Laurinarum. Berlin. Fahn A and IW Bailey. 1957. Nodal anatomy and primary vascular cylinder of Calycanthaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 38: 107–117.Google Scholar
  973. Foreman DB. 1984. The morphology and phylogeny of the Monimiaceae (sensu lato) in Australia. Ph.D. Thesis, University of New England, Armidale.Google Scholar
  974. Foreman DB. 1987. Notes on the wood anatomy of Idiospermum australiense (Idiospermaceae). Muelleria 6: 329–333.Google Scholar
  975. Foreman DB and FB Sampson. 1987. Pollen morphology of Palmeria scandens and Wilkiea huegeliana (Monimiaceae). Grana 26: 127–133.Google Scholar
  976. Gardner RO. 1974. Trinucleate pollen in Beilschmiedia Nees (Lauraceae). New Zealand J. Bot. 12: 243–244.Google Scholar
  977. Garratt GA. 1934. Systematic anatomy of the woods of the Monimiaceae. Trop. Woods 39: 18–44.Google Scholar
  978. Goldblatt P. 1976. Chromosome number in Gomortega keule. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 207–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  979. Goldblatt P. 1979. Chromosome number in two primitive dicots, Xymalos monospora (Monimiaceae) and Piptocalyx moorei (Trimeniaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 66: 898–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  980. Gottlieb OR. 1972. Chemosystematics of the Lauraceae. Phytochemistry 11: 1537–1570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  981. Grant V. 1950. The pollination of Calycanthus occidentalis. Am. J. Bot. 37: 294–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  982. Heilborn O. 1931. Studies on the taxonomy, geographical distribution, and embryology of the genus Siparuna. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 25: 202–228.Google Scholar
  983. Heo K, Y Kinoto, M Riveros, and H Tobe. 2004. Embryology of Gomortegaceae (Laurales): Characteristics and character evolution. J. Plant Res. 117: 221–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  984. Heo K and H Tobe. 1995. Embryology and relationships of Gyrocarpus and Hernandia (Hernandiaceae). J. Plant Res. 108: 327–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  985. Heo K, H van der Werff and H Tobe. 1998. Embryology and relationships of Lauraceae. Bot. J. Linn Soc. 126: 295–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  986. Hesse M and K Kubitzki. 1983. The sporoderm ultra-structure in Persea, Nectandra, Hernandia, Gomortega, and some other Lauralean genera. Plant Syst. Evol. 141: 299–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  987. Hiepko P. 1965. Vergleichend-morphologische und en-twick-lungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen über das Perianth bei den Polycarpicae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 84: 359–508.Google Scholar
  988. Hyland B. 1989. A revision of Lauraceae in Australia (excluding Cassytha). Austral. Syst. Bot. 2: 135–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  989. Kamelina OP. 1981a. Monimiaceae. In: MS Yakovlev, ed. Comparative embryology of flowering plants: Winteraceae-Juglandaceae, pp. 65–69. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  990. Kamelina OP. 1981b. Calycanthaceae. In: MS Yakovlev, ed. Comparative embryology of flowering plants: Winteraceae-Juglandaceae, pp. 69–74. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  991. Kasapligil B. 1951. Morphological and ontogenetic studies on Umbellularia californica Nutt. and Laurus nobilis L. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 25: 115–240.Google Scholar
  992. Kimoto Y and H Tobe. 2001. Embryology of Laurales: a review and perspectives. J. Plant Res. 114: 247–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  993. Klucking EP. 1987. Leaf venation patterns: Lauraceae. Cramer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  994. Kostermans AJG. 1957. Lauraceae. Reinwardtia 4: 193–256.Google Scholar
  995. Kostermans AJGH. 1988. Materials for a revision of Lauraceae: 5. Reinwardtia 10(5): 439–469.Google Scholar
  996. Kubitzki K. 1969. Monographic der Hernandiaceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 89: 78–209.Google Scholar
  997. Kubitzki K. 1981. The tubular exine of Lauraceae and Hernandiaceae: A novel type of exine structure in seed plants. Plant Syst. Evol. 138: 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  998. Kubitzki K. 1993a. Calycanthaceae. In: K. Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 197–200. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  999. Kubitzki K. 1993b. Gomortegaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 318–320. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  1000. Kubitzki K. 1993c. Hernandiaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 334–338. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  1001. Kubitzki K and H Reznik. 1966. Flavonoid-Muster der Polycarpicae als systematisches Merkmal: I. Übersicht über die Familien. Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 42: 445–470.Google Scholar
  1002. Leinfellner W. 1966. Über die Karpelle verschiedener Magnoliales: II. Xymalos, Hedicarya, und Siparuna (Monimiaceae). Oesterr. Bot. Z. 113: 448–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1003. Leinfellner W. 1968. Über die Karpelle verschiedener Magnoliales: VI. Gomortega keule (Gomortegaceae). Oesterr. Bot. Z. 115: 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1004. Lemesle R and Y Pichard. 1954. Les caracteres histo-logiques du bois des Monimiacees. Rev. Gen. Bot. 61: 69–95.Google Scholar
  1005. Li J, J Ledger, T Ward, and P del Tredici. 2004. Phylogenetics of Calycanthaceae based on molecular and morphological data, with a special reference to divergent paralogues of the nrDNA its region. Harvard Papers Bot. 9: 69–82.Google Scholar
  1006. Li Y and PT Li. 1999. Epidermal features of the leaves of Calycanthaceae. J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 7: 202–206.Google Scholar
  1007. Li Y and PT Li. 2000. Cladistic analysis of Calycanthaceae. J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 8: 275–281.Google Scholar
  1008. Li Y and PT Li. 2000. Origin, evolution and distribution of the Calycanthaceae. Guihaia. 20: 295–300.Google Scholar
  1009. Liu L, RH Chang, HE Liu, YQ Zhu, C Zhou, and SF Ye. 1995. Essential oil components in leaves of seven species in Calycanthaceae and their significance for taxonomy. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 33: 171–174.Google Scholar
  1010. Longo B. 1899. Osservazioni sulle Calycanthaceae. Ann. R. 1st. Bot. Roma 9 (I): 1–16.Google Scholar
  1011. Lorence DH. 1985. A Monograph of the Monimiaceae (Laurales) in the Malagasy Region (SW Indian Ocean). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 72: 142–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1012. Lorence DH. 1987. The fruits of Decarydendron (Monimiaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74: 445–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1013. Lorence DH, VE Zenger, and P Vinay. 1984. Pollen morphological studies on the Monimiaceae of the Malagasy Region. Grana 23: 11–22.Google Scholar
  1014. Ly Thi Ba. 1962. Embryogénie des Calycanthacées. Développ-ment d'embryon chez le Chimonanthus fragrans Lidl. Compt. Rend. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 254: 1323–1325.Google Scholar
  1015. Martinez-Laborde J. 1988. Some comments on a recent classifi-cation of the Monimiaceae. Taxon 37: 834–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1016. Mathur SL. 1968. Development of female gametophyte of Calycanthus fertilis Walt. Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India 34B(6): 323–329.Google Scholar
  1017. Mauritzon J. 1935. Zur Embryologie von Peumus boldus. Arch. Bot. 11: 317–327.Google Scholar
  1018. Meeuse ADJ. 1993. Evolutionary history and classification of the Laurales, especially of the Monimiaceae: deductions based on fossil records and on the Anthocorm theory. Rheedea 3: 35–49.Google Scholar
  1019. Mez C. 1888. Morphologische Studien über die Familie der Lauraceen. Verh. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenburg 30: 1–31.Google Scholar
  1020. Mirande M. 1905. Recherches sur le developpement et 1'anat-omie des Cassythacees. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 9, 1–2: 181–285.Google Scholar
  1021. Mohana Rao PR. 1986. Seed and fruit anatomy in Gyrocarpus americanus with a discussion on the affinities of Hernandiaceae. Israel J. Bot. 35: 133–152.Google Scholar
  1022. Money LL, IW Bailey, and BGL Swamy 1950. The morphology and relationships of the Monimiaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 31: 372–404.Google Scholar
  1023. Nemirovich-Danchenko EN. 1988. Lauraceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, vol. 2, pp. 75–84. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  1024. Nicely KA. 1965. A monographic study of the Calycanthaceae. Castanea 30: 38–81.Google Scholar
  1025. Ning JC. 1993. A palynological study of Calycanthaceae. Cathaya 5: 179–188.Google Scholar
  1026. Nozeran R and L Bancilhon. 1960. La structure florale de Laurus nobilis L. Naturalia Monspel. Bot. 12: 41–48.Google Scholar
  1027. Oginuma K and H Tobe. 2006. Chromosome evolution in the Laurales based on analyses of original and published data. J. Plant Res. 119: 309–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1028. Pal S. 1975. Studies in Lauraceae: II. Some aspects of embryology of Cinnamomum cecidodaphne Meissn. Geobios 2: 83–84.Google Scholar
  1029. Pal S. 1976. Pollen grains of some Lauraceae. J. Palynol. 12: 55–62.Google Scholar
  1030. Patel RN. 1973. Wood anatomy of the Dicotyledons indigenous to New Zealand: 3. Monimiaceae and Atherospermataceae. New Zealand J. Bot. 11: 587–598.Google Scholar
  1031. Perkins J. 1925. Übersicht über die Gattungen der Monimiaceae. Leipzig.Google Scholar
  1032. Peter J. 1920. Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte einiger Caly-canthaceen. Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 14: 59–84.Google Scholar
  1033. Philipson WR. 1986. Monimiaceae. In: CGGJ van Steenis, ed. Flora Malesiana, ser. 1, 10: 255–326. Noordhoff, Leyden.Google Scholar
  1034. Philipson WR. 1987. A classification of the Monimiaceae. Nord. J. Bot. 7: 25–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1035. Philipson WR. 1988. A classification of the Monimiaceae: An additional note. Nord. J. Bot. 8: 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1036. Philipson WR. 1993. Amborellaceae, Monimiaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 92–93, 426–437. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/ New YorkGoogle Scholar
  1037. Pichon P. 1948. Les Monimiacees: Famille heterogene. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 2(20): 383–384.Google Scholar
  1038. Pignal M, B Lugardon, J Jeremie, and A le Thomas. 1999. Morphologie et ultrastructure du pollen des Siparunaceae (Laurales). Grana 38: 210–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1039. Poole I and H Gottwald. 2001. Monimiaceae sensu lato, an element of gondwanan polar forests: Evidence from late Creaceous-Early Tertiary wood flora of Antarctica. Austral. Syst. Bot. 14: 207–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1040. Quinlan CE. 1919. Contributions toward a knowledge of the anatomy of the lower dicotyledons: III. The anatomy of the stem of the Calycanthaceae. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh 52: 517–530.Google Scholar
  1041. Raj B and H van der Werff. 1988. A contribution to the pollen morphology of Neotropical Lauraceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 130–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1042. Raven PH, DW Kyhos, and S Marion. 1971. Chromosome number and relationships in Annoniflorae. Taxon 20: 479–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1043. Record SJ and RW Hess. 1942. American timbers of the family Lauraceae. Trop. Woods 69: 7–35.Google Scholar
  1044. Reece Ph C. 1939. The floral anatomy of the avocado (Persea americana). Am. J. Bot. 26: 429–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1045. Reiche K. 1896. Zur Kenntniss von Gomortega nitida R. et Pav. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 14: 225–233.Google Scholar
  1046. Renner SS. 1998. Phylogenetic affinities of Monimiaceae based on cpDNA gene and spacer sequences. Perspectives in Plant Ecol., Evol. and Syst. 1: 61–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1047. Renner SS. 1999. Circumscription and phylogeney of the Laurales: evidence from molecular and morphological data. Am. J. Bot. 86: 1301–1315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1048. Renner SS and A Chanderbali. 2000. What is the relationship among Hernandiaceae, Lauraceae, and Monimiaceae, and why is this question so difficult to answer? Int. J. Plant Sci. 161(Suppl.): 109–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1049. Renner SS, AE Schwarzbach, and L Lohmann. 1997. Phylogenetic position and floral function of Siparuna (Siparunaceae: Laurales). Int. J. Plant Sci. 158(Suppl.): 89–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1050. Richter HG. 1980. On the occurrence, morphology, and taxo-nomic implications of crystalline and siliceous inclusions in the secondary xylem of Lauraceae and related families. Wood Sci. Techn. 14: 35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1051. Richter HG. 1981. Anatomic des sekundaren Xylems und der Rinde der Lauraceae. Sonderbd. Naturwiss. Verh. Hamburg 5: 1–148.Google Scholar
  1052. Richter HG. 1985. Wood and bark anatomy of Lauraceae II. Licaria Aublet. IAWA Bull. n. s. 6: 187–199.Google Scholar
  1053. Rickson FR. 1979. Ultrastructural development of the beetle food tissue of Calycanthus flowers. Am. J. Bot. 66: 80–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1054. Rohwer JG. 1993. Lauraceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 366–391. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  1055. Rohwer JG. 1994. A note on the evolution of stamens in the Laurales, with emphasis on the Lauraceae. Bot. Acta 107: 103–110.Google Scholar
  1056. Rohwer JG. 2000. Toward a phylogenetic classification of the Lauraceae: evidence from matK sequences. Syst. Bot. 25: 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1057. Rohwer JG, HG Richter, and H van der Werff. 1991. Two new genera of neotropical Lauraceae and critical on the generic delimitation. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 78: 388–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1058. Romanov MS, PK Endress, AVFCh Bobrov, AP Melikian, and AP Bejerano. 2007. Fruit structure and systematics of Monimiaceae (Laurales). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 153: 265–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1059. Sampson FB. 1969. Studies on the Monimiaceae: I. Floral morphology and gametophyte development of Hedycarya arborea J. R. et G. Forst. (subfamily Monimioideae). Austral. J. Bot. 17: 403–424. II. Floral morphology of Laurelia novae-zelandiae A. Cunn. (subfamily Atherospermoideae). New Zealand J. Bot. 7: 214–240. III. Gametophyte development of Laurelia novae-zelandiae A. Cunn. (subfamily Atherospermoideae). Austral. J. Bot. 17: 425–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1060. Sampson FB. 1976. Aperture orientation in Laurelia pollen (Atherospermataceae syn. subfamily Atherospermoideae of Monimiaceae). Grana 15: 153–157.Google Scholar
  1061. Sampson FB. 1977. Pollen tetrads of Hedycarya arborea J. R. et G. Forst. (Monimiaceae). Grana 16: 61–73.Google Scholar
  1062. Sampson FB. 1982. Variation in position of the nascent generative cell in pollen of Hedycarya (Monimiaceae). Grana 21: 9–14.Google Scholar
  1063. Sampson FB. 1996. Pollen morphology and ultrastructure of Laurelia, Laureliopsis and Dryadodaphne (Athero-spermataceae [Monimiaceae]). Grana 35: 257–265.Google Scholar
  1064. Sampson FB. 1997. Pollen morphology and ultrastructure of Australian Monimiaceae — Austromatthaea, Hedycarya, Kibara, Leviera, Steganthera and Tetrasynandra. Grana 36: 135–145.Google Scholar
  1065. Sampson FB and DB Foreman. 1988. Pollen morphology of Atherosperma, Daphnandra, and Doryphora (Atherosper-mataceae [Monimiaceae]). Grana 27: 17–25.Google Scholar
  1066. Sastri RLN. 1952. Studies in Lauraceae: I. Floral anatomy of Cinnamomum iners Reinw. and Cassytha filiformis Linn. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 31: 240–246.Google Scholar
  1067. Sastri RLN. 1958. Studies in Lauraceae: II. Embryology of Cinnamomum and Litsea. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 37: 266–278.Google Scholar
  1068. Sastri RLN. 1962. Studies in Lauraceae: III. Embryology of Cassytha. Bot. Gaz. 123: 197–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1069. Sastri RLN. 1963. Studies in Lauraceae: I V. Comparative embryology and phylogeny. Ann. Bot. 27: 425–433.Google Scholar
  1070. Sastri RLN. 1965. Studies in Lauraceae: V. Comparative morphology of the flower. Ann. Bot. 29: 39–44.Google Scholar
  1071. Schaeppi H. 1953. Morphologische Untersuchungen an den Karpellen der Calycanthaceaen. Phytomorphology 3: 112–118.Google Scholar
  1072. Schaeppi H and F Steindl. 1950. Vergleichend-mor-phologische Untersuchungen am Gynoeceum der Ro-soideen. Ber. Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 60: 15–50.Google Scholar
  1073. Schaffner JH. 1904. The jacket layer in Sassafras. Ohio Naturalist 4: 191–193.Google Scholar
  1074. Schodde R. 1970. Two new suprageneric taxa in the Monimiaceae alliance (Laurales). Taxon 19: 324–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1075. Schroeder CA. 1940. Floral abnormality in the Avocado. Yearb. Calif. Avocado Assoc. 1940: 36–39.Google Scholar
  1076. Schroeder CA. 1952. Floral development, sporogenesis, and embryology in the Avocado, Persea americana. Bot. Gaz. 113: 270–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1077. Schurhoff PN. 1923. Zur Apogamie von Calycanthus. Flora 116: 73–84.Google Scholar
  1078. Shutts CF. 1960. Wood anatomy of Hernandiaceae and Gyrocarpaceae. Trop. Woods 113: 85–123.Google Scholar
  1079. Smith GH. 1928. Vascular anatomy of Ranakan flowers: II. Menispermaceae, Calycanthaceae, Annonaceae. Bot. Gaz. 85: 152–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1080. Sohma K. 1985. Ultrastructure of pollen wall of Lindera umbellata Thunb. var. membranacea (Maxim.) Momiyama (Lauraceae). Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ., 4th ser. (Biol.), 39: 13–19.Google Scholar
  1081. Staedler YM, PH Weston, and PK Endress. 2007. Floral phyllotaxis and floral architecture in Calycanthaceae (Laurales). Int. J. Pant Sci. 168: 285–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1082. Stern WL. 1954. Comparative anatomy of xylem and phylogeny of Lauraceae. Trop. Woods 100: 1–72.Google Scholar
  1083. Stern WL. 1955. Xylem anatomy and relationships of Gomortegaceae. Am. J. Bot. 42: 874–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1084. Sterner RW and DA Young. 1980. Flavonoid chemistry and phy-logenetic relationships of the Idiospermaceae. Syst. Bot. 5: 432–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1085. Tackholm G and E Soderberg. 1917. Über die Pollen-entwicklung bei Cinnamomum nebst Erorterungen tiber die phyloge-netische Bedeutung des Pollentyps. Arkiv Bot. 15: 1–14.Google Scholar
  1086. Thorne RF. 1974. A phylogenetic classification of the Annoniflorae. Aliso 8: 147–209.Google Scholar
  1087. Tiagi YD. 1963. Vascular anatomy of the flower of certain species of the Calycanthaceae. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 58: 224–234.Google Scholar
  1088. Ueda KA, A Nakano, R Rodriguez, C Ramirez, and H Hishida. 1997. Molecular phylogeny of the Gomortegaceae, a Chilean endemic monotypic, and endangered family. Notic. Biol. 5: 124.Google Scholar
  1089. Van der Merwe JJM, AE van Wyk, and PDF Kok. 1988. Dahlgrenodendron: A remarkable new genus from Natal and Pondoland. S. Afr. J. Bot. 54: 80–88.Google Scholar
  1090. Van der Merwe JJM, AE van Wyk, and PDF Kok. 1990. Pollen types in the Lauraceae. Grana 29: 185–196.Google Scholar
  1091. Van der Werff H. 1991. A key to the genera of Lauraceae in the New World. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 78: 377–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1092. Van der Werff H and PK Endress. 1991. Gamanthera (Lauraceae): A new genus from Costa Rica. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 78: 401–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1093. Van der Werff H and HG Richter. 1996. Toward an improved classification of Lauraceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83: 409–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1094. Van Heel WA. 1971a. The labyrinth seed of Hernandia feltata Meissn. In: DC. K. Nederl. Akad. Wet. Proc., ser. C., 74: 46–51.Google Scholar
  1095. Van Heel WA. 1971b. The distally lobed inner integument of Hernandia peltata Meissn. in DC. (Hernandiaceae). Blumea 19: 147–148.Google Scholar
  1096. Vyshenskaya TD. 1988. Monimiaceae, Atherospermataceae, Siparunaceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, vol. 2, pp. 56–68. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  1097. Walker JW. 1976. Evolutionary significance of the exine in the pollen of primitive angiosperms. In: IL Ferguson and J Muller, eds. The evolutionary significance of the exine. Linn. Soc. Symposium ser. 1, pp. 251–308. London.Google Scholar
  1098. Weber J. 1981. A taxonomic revision of Cassytha (Lauraceae) in Australia. J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 3: 187–262.Google Scholar
  1099. Weberling F. 1985. Zur Infloreszenzmorphologie der Lauraceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 107: 395–414.Google Scholar
  1100. Wilson CL. 1976. Floral anatomy of Idiospermum aus-traliense (Idiospermaceae). Am. J. Bot. 63: 987–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1101. Wilson CL. 1979. Idiospermum australiense (Idiospermaceae): Aspects of vegetative anatomy. Am. J. Bot. 66: 280–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1102. Young DA and RW Sterner. 1981. Leaf flavonoids of primitive dicotyledonous angiosperms: Degeneria vitiensis and Idiospermum australiense. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 9: 185–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1103. Zhou S, SS Renner, and J Wen. 2006. Molecular phylogeny and intra- and intercontinental biogeography of Calycanthaceae. Molec. Phylog. Evol. 39: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1104. Baldacci A. 1894. Affinita delle Aristolochiaceae e dei genera aristolochiacei. Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1894: 49–54.Google Scholar
  1105. Balfour E. 1957. The development of the vascular systems in Macropiper excelsum Forst.: 1. The embryo and seedling. Phytomorphology 7: 354–364.Google Scholar
  1106. Balfour E. 1958. The development of the vascular systems in Macropiper excelsum Forst.: II. The nature stem. Phytomorphology 8: 224–233.Google Scholar
  1107. Behnke H-D. 1971. Zum Feinbau der Siebröhrenplasti-den von stolochia und Asarum (Aristolochiaceae). Planta 97: 62–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1108. Behnke H-D. 2002. Sieve-element plastids and evolution of Monocotyledons, with emphasis on Melanthiaceae sensu lato and Aristolochiaceae-Asaroideae, a putative Dicotyledon sister group. Bot. Rev. 68: 524–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1109. Bernardello G, GJ Anderson, P Lopez, MA Cleland, TF Stuessy, and DK Crawford. 1999. Reproductive biology of Lactoris fernandeziana (Lactoridaceae). Am. J. Bot. 86: 829–840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1110. Blot J. 1960. Contribution a l'etude cytologique du genre Peperomia. Rev. Gen. Bot. 67: 522–535.Google Scholar
  1111. Bornstein AJ. 1989. Taxonomic studies in the Piperaceae—1. The pedicellate Pipers of Mexico and central America (Piper subg. Arctottonia). J. Arnold Arbor. 70: 1–55.Google Scholar
  1112. Bornstein AJ. 1991. The Piperaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor., Suppl. ser., 1: 349–366.Google Scholar
  1113. Bouman F. 1971. Integumentary studies in the Polycarpicae: 1. Lactoridaceae. Acta Bot. Neerl. 20: 565–569Google Scholar
  1114. Bowman TC. 1973. Comparative morphological investigations on the Aristolochiaceae. Ph.D. Thesis, Arizona State University.Google Scholar
  1115. Brantjes NBM. 1980. Flower morphology of Aristolochia species and the consequences of pollination. Acta Bot. Neerl. 29: 212–213.Google Scholar
  1116. Brauner S, DJ Crawford, and TF Stuessy. 1992. Ribosomal DNA and RAPD variation in the rare plant family Lactoridaceae. Am. J. Bot. 79: 1436–1439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1117. Brown WH. 1908. The nature of the embryo sac of Peperomia. Bot. Gaz. 46: 445–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1118. Burger W. 1977. The Piperales and the monocots. Bot. Rev. 43: 345–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1119. Campbell DH. 1901. The embryo sac of Peperomia. Ann. Bot. 15: 103–118.Google Scholar
  1120. Cariquist S. 1964. Morphology and relationships of Lactoridaceae. Aliso 4: 421–435.Google Scholar
  1121. Cariquist S. 1990. Wood anatomy and relationships of Lactoridaceae. Am. J. Bot. 77: 1498–1505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1122. Carlquist S. 1993. Wood and bark anatomy of Aristolochiaceae — systematic and habital correlations.. IAWA Bull. 14: 341–357.Google Scholar
  1123. Carlquist S, K Dauer, and SY Nishimura. 1995. Wood and stem anatomy of Saururaceae with reference to ecology, phylogeny, and origin of the monocotyledons. IAWA Bull. 16: 133–150.Google Scholar
  1124. Cammerloher H. 1923. Zur Biologic der Blüte von. Aristolochia grandiflora Swartz. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 40: 385–393.Google Scholar
  1125. Correns C. 1891. Beiträge zur biologischen Anatomie der Aristolochia-Blüte. Jahrb. Wiss. Bot. 22: 161–189.Google Scholar
  1126. Crawford DJ, TF Stuessy, MB Cosner, D Haines, D Wiens, and P Penalillo. 1994. Lactoris fernandeziana (Lactoridaceae) on the Juan Fernandez Islands: allozyme uniformity and field observations. Conserv. Biol. 8: 277–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1127. Crawford DJ, TF Stuessy, and MO Silva 1986. Leaf flavonoid chemistry and the relationships of the Lactoridaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 153: 133–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1128. Dasgupta A and PC Datta. 1976. Cytotaxonomy of Piperaceae. Cytologia 41: 697–706.Google Scholar
  1129. Datta PC and A Dasgupta. 1977. Comparison of vegetative anatomy of Piperales. Parts I and 2. Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hungar. 28: 81–96, 97–110.Google Scholar
  1130. Daumann E. 1959. Zur Kentniss der Blütennektarien von Aristolochia. Preslia 31: 359–372.Google Scholar
  1131. De Figuereido RA and M Sazima. 2000. Pollination biology of Piperaceae species in southeastern Brazil. Ann. Bot. 85: 455–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1132. Dickison WC. 1992. Morphology and anatomy of the flower and pollen of Saruma henryi Oliv.: A phylogenetic relict of the Aristolochiaceae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 119: 392–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1133. Ding Hou. 1983. Florae Malesianae Precursores LXV: Notes on Aristolochiaceae. Blumea 29: 229–249.Google Scholar
  1134. Ding Hou. 1984. Aristolochiaceae. In: CGGJ van Steenis, ed. Flora Malesiana, ser. 1, 10 (1): 53–108. Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  1135. Edwards JG. 1920. Flower and seed of Hediosmum nutans. Bot. Gaz. 70: 409–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1136. Engler A. 1886. Über Familien der Lactoridaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 8: 53–56.Google Scholar
  1137. Erdtman G. 1964. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis den Pollenmorphologie von Lactoris fernandeziana und Drimys winteri. Grana Palynol. 5: 33–39.Google Scholar
  1138. Fagerlind F. 1940. Die Entwicklung des Embryosackes bei Peperomia pellucida. Arkiv Bot. 29 (17): 1–15.Google Scholar
  1139. Figueiredo RA de and M Sazima. 2000. Pollination biology of Piperaceae species in southeastern Brazil. Ann. Bot. 85: 455–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1140. Fisher GC. 1914. Seed development in the genus Peperomia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 41: 137–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1141. González F. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of the subfamily Aristolochioideae (Aristolochiaceae). Am. J. Bot. 84(6): 198 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  1142. González F. 1999a. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aristolochioideae (Aristolochiaceae). Ph.D. thesis. The City University of New York.Google Scholar
  1143. González F. 1999b. Inflorescence morphology and the systemat-ics of Aristolochiaceae. Syst. Geogr. Plant 68: 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1144. Gonzáles F and P Rudall. 2001. The questionable affinities of Lactoris: evidence from branching pattern, inflorescence morphology, and stipule development. Am. J. Bot. 88: 214–2150.Google Scholar
  1145. González F and DW Stevenson. 2000a. Gynostemium development in Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 122: 249–291.Google Scholar
  1146. González F and DW Stevenson. 2000b. Perianth development and systematics of Aristolochia. Flora 195: 370–391.Google Scholar
  1147. González FA and Stevenson DW. 2002. A phylogenetic analysis of the subfamily Aristolochioideae (Aristolochiaceae). Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat. 26(98): 25–57.Google Scholar
  1148. González F, PJ Rudall, and CA Furness. 2001. Microsporogenesis and systematics of Aristolochiaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 137: 221–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1149. Gregory MP. 1956. A phyletic rearrangement in the Aristolochiaceae. Am. J. Bot. 43: 110–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1150. Guedes M. 1968. La feuille vegetative et perianthe dequelques Aristolochia. Flora B 158: 167–179.Google Scholar
  1151. Hagerup O. 1961. The perianthium of Aristolochia elegans Mast. Bull. Res. Council Israel IOD: 348–351.Google Scholar
  1152. Hegnauer R. 1960. Chemotaxonomische Betrachtungen: II. Phytochemische Hinweise für die Stellung der Aristo-lochiaceae im System der Dicotyledonen. Die Pharmazie 15: 634–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  1153. Holm T. 1926. Saururus cernuas L.: A morphological study. Am. J. Sei., 5th ser., 12: 162–168.Google Scholar
  1154. Huber H. 1985. Samenmerkmale und Gliederung der Aristolochiaceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 107: 277–320.Google Scholar
  1155. Huber H. 1993. Aristolochiaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed., The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 129–140. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  1156. Jacobsson-Stiasny E. 1918. Zur Embryologie der Aristo-lochiaceae. Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturw. Kl., 95: 1–13.Google Scholar
  1157. Jaramillo MA and PS Manos. 2001. Phylogeny and patterns of floral diversity in the genus Piper (Piperaceae). Am. J. Bot. 88: 706–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1158. Jaramillo MA, PS Manos, and EA Zimmer. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of the perianthless Piperales: Reconstructing the evolution of floral development. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 403–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1159. Johnson DS. 1900. On the endosperm and embryo of Peperomia pellucida. Bot. Gaz. 30: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1160. Johnson DS. 1902. On the development of certain Piperaceae (Piper adunca, P medium, Heckeria umbellata). Bot. Gaz. 34: 321–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1161. Johnson DS. 1914. Studies on the development of the Piperaceae: II. The structure and seed development of Peperomia hispi-dula. Am. J. Bot. 1: 323–329, 357–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1162. Johri BM and SP Bhatnagar. 1955. A contribution to the morphology and life history of Aristolochia. Phyto-morphology 5: 123–137.Google Scholar
  1163. Kamelina OP. 1997. An addition to the embryology of Lactoridaceae and Fouquieriaceae. Bot. Zhurn. 82: 25–29 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  1164. Kanta K. 1962. Morphology and embryology of Piper nigrum L. Phytomorphology 12: 207–221.Google Scholar
  1165. Kelly LM. 1997a. Floral morphology, homology, and phyloge-netic relationships in Aristolochiaceae. Am. J. Bot. 84(6): 207 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  1166. Kelly LM. 1997b. A cladistic analysis of Asarum (Aristolochiaceae) and implications for the evolution of herkogamy. Am. J. Bot. 84: 1752–1765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1167. Kelly LM. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships in Asarum (Aristolochiaceae) based on morphology and ITS sequences. Am. J. Bot. 85: 1454–1467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1168. Kelly LM and F González. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in Aristolochiaceae. Syst. Bot. 28: 236–249.Google Scholar
  1169. Kubitzki K. 1993. Lactoridaceae. In: K Kubitzki, ed. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 2, pp. 359–361. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.Google Scholar
  1170. Lammers TG, TF Stuessy, and MO Silva. 1986. Systematic relationships of the Lactoridaceae: An endemic family of the Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile. Plant Syst. Evol. 152: 3–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1171. Lebot V and J Levesque. 1989. The origin and distribution of Kava (Piper methysticum Forst.f., Piperaceae): A phy-tochemical approach. Allertonia 5: 223–281.Google Scholar
  1172. Lei L-G and H-X Liang. 1998a. Floral development in dioecious species and trends of floral evolution in Piper sensu lato. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 127: 225–237.Google Scholar
  1173. Lei L-G and H-X Liang. 1998b. Pollen morphology and its taxo-nomic significance of Piperaceae. Acta Bot. Yunn. 20: 427–433.Google Scholar
  1174. Lei L-G and H-X Liang. 1999. Variations in floral development in Peperomia (Piperaceae) and their taxonomic implications. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 131: 423–431.Google Scholar
  1175. Lei L-G, Z-Y Wu, and H-X Liang. 2002. Embryology of Zippelia begoniaefolia (Piperaceae) and it systematic relationships. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 140: 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1176. Leinfellner W. 1953. Die hypopeltaten Brakteen von Peperomia. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 100: 601–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1177. Leins P and C Erbar. 1985. Ein Beitrag zur Blütenent-wicklung der Aristolochiaceen, einer Vermittlergruppe zu den Monokotylen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 107: 343–368.Google Scholar
  1178. Leins P and C Erbar. 1995. Das frühe Differenzierungsmuster in den Blüten von Saruma henryi Oliv. (Aristolochiaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 117: 365–376.Google Scholar
  1179. Leins P, C Erbar, and WA van Heel. 1988. Note on the floral development of Thottea (Aristolochiaceae). Blumea 33: 357–370.Google Scholar
  1180. Liang H-X. 1991. Karyomorphology of Gymnotheca and phy-logeny of four genera in Saururaceae. Acta Bot. Yunn. 13: 303–307.Google Scholar
  1181. Liang H-X. 1992. Study on the pollen morphology of Saururaceae. Acta Bot. Yunn. 14: 401–404.Google Scholar
  1182. Liang H-X. 1994. On the systematic significance of floral organo-genesis in Saururaceae. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 32: 425–432.Google Scholar
  1183. Liang H-X. 1995. On the evolution and distribution in Saururaceae. Acta Bot. Yunn. 17: 255–267.Google Scholar
  1184. Liang H-X and SC Tucker. 1989. Floral development in Gymno-theca chinensis (Saururaceae). Am. J. Bot. 76: 806–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1185. Liang H-X and SC Tucker. 1990. Comparative studies of the floral vasculature in Saururaceae. Am. J. Bot. 77: 607–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1186. Liang H-X and SC Tucker. 1995. Floral ontogeny of Zippelia begoniaefolia and its familial affinity: Saururaceae or Piperaceae? Am. J. Bot. 82: 681–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1187. Ling HX, KY Pan, and ZD Chen. 1996. Floral organogenesis in Saururus chinensis (Saururaceae). Acta Phytotax. Sinica 34: 565–568.Google Scholar
  1188. Lorch JW. 1959. The perianth of Aristolochia: A new interpretation. Evolution 13: 415–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1189. Majumdar GP and P Pal. 1961. Developmental studies: VI. The morphology of the so-called stipule of Piper, etc. Proc. Nad. Inst. Sci. India 27: 26–39.Google Scholar
  1190. Ma Jin-shuang. 1990. The geographical distribution and the system of Aristolochiaceae. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 28(5): 345–355.Google Scholar
  1191. Mathew PJ and Mathew PM. 2001. Pollen morphology of some members of Piperaceae and its bearing on the systematics and phylogeny of the family. Rheedea 11(2): 65–78.Google Scholar
  1192. Mathew PJ, PM Mathew, and P Pushpangadan. 1999. Cytology and its bearing on the systematics and phylogeny of the Piperaceae. Cytologia (Japan). 64: 301–307.Google Scholar
  1193. Meeuse ADJ. 1971. Interpretative gynoecial morphology of the Lactoridaceae and the Winteraceae: a re-assessment. Acta Bot. Neerl. 20: 221–238.Google Scholar
  1194. Meeuse ADJ. 1972. Taxonomic affinities between Piperales and Polycarpicae and their implications in interpretative floral morphology. Adv. Plant Morph. 1972: 3–27.Google Scholar
  1195. Meng SW, ZD Chen, DZ Li, and HX Liang. 2002. Phylogeny of Saururaceae based on mitochondrial matR gene sequence data. J. Plant Res. 115(1118): 71–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1196. Meng S-W, D-Z Li, H-Z Liang. 2001. The phylogeny of Saururaceae based on 5.8S rDNA sequences. Acta Bot. Yunn. 23: 309–312.Google Scholar
  1197. Meng SW, and H Liang. 1997. Comparative embryology on Saururaceae. Acta Bot. Yunn. 19(1): 67–74.Google Scholar
  1198. Metcalfe CR. 1987. Lactoridaceae. In: CR Metcalfe, ed. Anatomy of the dicotyledons, 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 147–151. Claredon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  1199. Mi Qiu-wen and Yang Chun-shu. 1991. Pollen morphology of Asarum in China. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 29(2): 164–171.Google Scholar
  1200. Miyoshi N and H Kato. 1982. Pollen morphology by means of scanning electron microscope: 5. Angiospermae (Piperales, Podostemonales). Jpn. J. Palynol. 28: 7–11.Google Scholar
  1201. Mohana Rao PR. 1989. Seed and fruit anatomy in Aristolochia and Asarum with a discussion of the affinities of Aristolochiaceae. Swamy Bot. Club 6(3–4): 105–119.Google Scholar
  1202. Morawetz W. 1985. Beiträge zur Karyologie und Systematik der Gattung Thottea (Aristolochiaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 107: 1–4.Google Scholar
  1203. Murty YS. 1958. Studies in the order Piperales: II. A contribution to the study of vascular anatomy of the flower of Peperomia. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 37: 474–491.Google Scholar
  1204. Murty YS. 1959a. Studies in the order Piperales: III. A contribution to the study of floral morphology of some species of Peperomia. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 38: 120–139.Google Scholar
  1205. Murty YS. 1959b. Studies in the order Piperales: V. A contribution to the study of floral morphology of some species of Piper. VI. A contribution to the study of floral morphology of Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 49B: 52–65, 82–85.Google Scholar
  1206. Murty YS. 1959c. Studies in the order Piperales: VII. A contribution to the study of morphology of Saururus cernuus L. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 38: 195–203.Google Scholar
  1207. Murty YS. 1960a. Studies in the order Piperales: 1. A contribution to the study of vegetative anatomy of some species of Peperomia. Phytomorphology 10: 50–59.Google Scholar
  1208. Murty YS. 1960b. Studies in the order Piperales: VIII. A contribution to the morphology of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Phytomorphology 10: 329–341.Google Scholar
  1209. Nair NC and KR Narayanan. 1962. Studies on the Aristolochiaceae: I. Nodal and floral anatomy. Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India 28B: 211–227.Google Scholar
  1210. Neinhuis C, KW Hilu, and T Borsch. 2000. Systematics of Aristolochiaceae: Molecular evidence. Am. J. Bot. 87(Suppl. 6): 146.Google Scholar
  1211. Neinhuis C, S Wanke, KW Hilu, K Müller, and T Borsch. 2005. Phylogeny of Aristolochiaceae based on parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of trnL-trnF sequences. Plant Syst. Evol. 250: 7–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1212. Nickrent D, A Blarer, Y-L Qiu, DE Soltis, PS Soltis, and M Zanis. 2002. Molecular data place Hydnoraceae with Aristolochiaceae. Am. J. Bot. 89: 1809–1817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1213. Nikiticheva ZI. 1981. Embryological features of some Piperales. Acta Soc. Bot. Polon. 50: 329–332.Google Scholar
  1214. Nikiticheva ZI. 1988. Piperaceae, Peperomiaceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, vol. 2, pp. 97–104. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  1215. Nikiticheva ZI, MS Yakovlev, and TA Plyushch. 1981. The development of ovule, embryo sac, embryo, and endosperm in some species of the genus Peperomia (Piperaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 66: 513–523 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  1216. Nishida R, JD Weintraub, P Feeny and H Fukami. 1993. Aristolochic acids from Thottea spp. (Aristolochiaceae) and osmeterial secretions of Thottea-feeding troidine swallowtail larvae (Papilionidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 19: 1587–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1217. Okada H. 1986. Karyomorphology and relationships in some genera of Saururaceae and Piperaceae. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 99: 289–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1218. Pant DD and R Banerji. 1965. Structure and ontogeny of sto-mata in some Piperaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 59: 223–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1219. Parmer VS, et al. 1998. Polyphenols and alkaloids from Piper species. Phytochemistry 49: 1069–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1220. Pfluge GM. 1956. Phyletic rearrangement in the Aristolochiaceae. Am. J. Bot. 43: 110–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1221. Plisko MA. 1988. Saururaceae. In: A Takhtajan, ed. Comparative seed anatomy, vol. 2,pp. 93–96. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).Google Scholar
  1222. Plyushch TA. 1982a. Ultrastructure of Peperomia blanda L. (Piperaceae) embryo sac. Ukrain. Bot. Zhur. 39(4): 88–91 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  1223. Plyushch TA. 1982b. Ultrastructure of Peperomia blanda (Piperaceae) embryo sac in the process of fertilization. Ukrain. Bot. Zhurn. 39 (6): 30–36 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  1224. Pontieri V and TL Sage. 1997. Characterization of pollen/carpel interaction following self and crosspollination in the paleo-herb family: Saururaceae. Am. J. Bot. 84(Suppl. 6): 65.Google Scholar
  1225. Prakash N, JF Brown, and Y-H Wang. 1994. An embryological study of kava, Piper metjysticum. Austral. J. Bot. 42: 231–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1226. Quibell CH. 1941. Floral anatomy and morphology of Anemopsis californica. Bot. Gaz. 102: 749–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1227. Raju MVS. 1961. Morphology and anatomy of the Saururaceae: 1. Floral anatomy and embryology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 48: 107–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1228. Remizowa M, PJ Rudall, and D Sokoloff. 2005. Evolutionary transitions among flowers of perianthless Piperales: inferences from inflorescence and flower development in the anomalous species Peperomia fraseri (Piperaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 166: 925–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1229. Renuka C and K Swarupanandan. 1986. Morphology of the flower in Thottea siliquosa and the existence of staminodes in Aristolochiaceae. Blumea 31: 313–318.Google Scholar
  1230. Rohweder O and E Treu-Koene. 1971. Bau und morphologische Bedeutung der Infloreszenz von Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae). Vierteljahrsschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 116: 195–212.Google Scholar
  1231. Sampson FB. 1995. Pollen morphology of Lactoridaceae: A re-examination. Grana 34: 100–107.Google Scholar
  1232. Samuel R and W Morawetz. 1989. Chromosome evolution within Piperaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 166(1–2): 105–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  1233. Samuelson G. 1914. Über die Pollenentwicklung von Annona und Aristolochia und ihre systematische Bedeutung. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 8: 181–189.Google Scholar
  1234. Sastrapradja S. 1968. On the morphology of the flower in Peperomia (Piperaceae) species. Ann. Bogor. 4: 235–244.