The Continent of Europe

  • Harold Kalter

We turn now to a larger stage, that of Europe, historically with a great range of NTD frequency. Again it is this picture and how it evolved especially in the last half of the 20th century that will be concentrated upon here. A country by country survey will demonstrate the static and dynamic aspects of this diversity, its geographic and ethnic patterns. Even quite early this variety had begun to be discovered, and its locations illustrated on a map we have mentioned before, extending from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean (Penrose 1957).


Prenatal Diagnosis Congenital Malformation Spina Bifida Folic Acid Supplementation Total Frequency 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harold Kalter
    • 1
  1. 1.Children’s Hospital Medical Center College of MedicineUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

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