Rethinking the Status of Indigenous Peoples in International Environmental Decision-Making: Pondering the Role of Arctic Indigenous Peoples and the Challenge of Climate Change

Chapter
Part of the Environment & Policy book series (ENPO, volume 50)

Abstract

Global environmental problems – climate change being a major one – pose challenges to state-controlled international governance in many ways. One of the inherent limitations of present international law – particularly from the viewpoint of indigenous peoples – relates to international decision-making concerning the environment. The focus of this article is the rights and role of indigenous peoples in this context.

The problem of climate change, particularly in relation to Arctic indigenous peoples has been taken as a special case. The aim of this article is to show how impacts of climate change threaten many fundamental human rights of indigenous peoples, particularly in the Arctic area. However, as will be discussed, traditional human rights mechanisms are not necessarily capable of offering effective protection of the rights of indigenous peoples against global environmental interference such as climate change. For this reason, the aim of this article is to examine the possibilities for indigenous peoples to participate in international environmental decision-making.

One interesting and a unique exception to the general NGO model is found in the structure of the Arctic Council. The model of the Arctic Council in relation to indigenous peoples will be studied in this article, keeping in mind the possibilities of also using this model in other international environmental regimes.

References

  1. Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Protocol of San Salvador), San Salvador, E1 Salvador (1988, 17 November). Entry into force November 16, 1999. O.A.S. Treaty Series No 69 (1988).Google Scholar
  2. African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. (1981, June 27). OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5. 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982), 1520 U.N.T.S. 217.Google Scholar
  3. American Convention on Human Rights, San Jose, Costa Rica. (1969, 22 November). Entry into force July 18, 1978. O.A.S. Treaty Series No. 36, 1144 U.N.T.S. 123. Reprinted in Basic Documents Pertaining to Human Rights in the Inter-American System, OEA/Ser.L.V/II.82 doc.6 rev.1.Google Scholar
  4. American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. Bogota, Colombia. (1948). Retrieved August 10, 2008, from http://www.hrcr.org/docs/OAS_Declaration/oasrights.html.
  5. American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (proposed). OEA/Ser.L/V/II.110, Doc. (2001, 22 March). Retrieved November 6, 2007, from http://cidh.org/Indigenas/ Indigenas.en.01/index.htm.
  6. Anaya, S. J. (2004). Indigenous peoples in international law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). (2004). Impacts of the warming Arctic. Overview report. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). (2005). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Arctic Council website. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from http://www.arctic-council.org.
  10. Arctic Council. (1998). Arctic Council Rules of Procedure. First Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, Iqualuit, Canada, September 17–18, 1998. Retrieved March 10, 2007, from http://arctic-council.npolar.no/Archives/Founding%20Docs/Arctic%20Council%C2%A0_%C2%A0Rules %20of%20Procedure.htm.
  11. Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS). (1991). Declaration on the protection of the Arctic environment and the Arctic environmental protection strategy. Retrieved November 26, 2007, from http://www.arctic-council.org.
  12. Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR). (2004). Akureyri, Iceland: Stefansson Arctic Institute.Google Scholar
  13. Barsh, R. L. (2007). Indigenous peoples In D. Bodansky, J. Brunnée, & E. Hey (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of international environmental law (pp. 830–851). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bloom, E. (1999). The establishment of the Arctic Council. American Journal of International Law, 93, 712–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brunnée, J. (2007). Common areas, common heritage and common concern. In D. Bodansky, J. Brunnée, & E. Hey (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of international environmental law (pp. 550–573). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Buergenthal, T. (1975). The revised OAS Charter and the protection of human rights. American Journal of International Law, 69(4), 828–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Case concerning the Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Ltd. (New Application 1962) (Belgium v. Spain). 1970 I.C.J. 3, 33–34.Google Scholar
  18. Case concerning East Timor (Portugal v. Australia). 1995 I.C.J. 90, 29.Google Scholar
  19. Cassel, D. (2000). Inter-American human rights law, soft and hard. In D. Shelton (Ed.), Commitment and compliance: The role of non-binding norms in the international legal system (pp. 393–418). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Cassese, A. (1995). Self-determination of peoples, a legal reappraisal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Cassidy, F. (1991). Self-determination, sovereignty, and self-government. In F. Cassidy (Ed.), Aboriginal self-determination [proceedings of a conference held September 30-October 3, 1990] (pp. 1–14). Lantzville, BC and Halifax, NS: Oolichan Books and the Institute for Research on Public Policy.Google Scholar
  22. Charter of the United Nations, San Francisco., 26 June 1945. Retrieved August 10, 2008, from http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/.
  23. Climate change in the Arctic: Human rights of Inuit interconnected with the world. (2003, December 10). 9th Conference of parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Milan, Italy. Inuit in global issues, 17. ICC. Retrieved December 11, 2007, from http://www.inuitcircumpolar.com/index.php?ID=253&Lang=En.
  24. Commission on Human Rights (CHR). (1990). Report of the Commission on Human Rights at its forty-sixth session. (1990). E/1990/22-E/CN.4/1990/94.Google Scholar
  25. Commission on Human Rights (CHR), Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. (1992, July 3). The realization of economic, social and cultural rights, final report submitted by Mr. Danilo Türk, Special Rapporteur. CHR Sub-Commission 44th session, item 8 of the provisional agenda, E/CN.4/Sub. 2/1992/16. Retrieved January 17, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/ E.CN.4.Sub.2.1992.16.En?Opendocument.
  26. Commission on Human Rights. (1995, March 3). Resolution 1995/32. United Nations. Retrieved August 10, 2008, from http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/ E.CN.4.RES.1995.32.En?OpenDocument.
  27. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ComESCR). (2000a). CESCR concluding observations on Finland 01/12/2000, E/C.12/1/Add. 52. Retrieved January 18, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/E.C.12.1.Add.52.En?Opendocument.
  28. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ComESCR). (2000b). Report on the 22nd, 23rd and 24th sessions, UN Doc. E/C.12/2000/21. Retrieved January 19, 2007, from http://www.un.org/documents/ecosoc/docs/2001/e2001-22.pdf.
  29. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ComESCR). (2001a). CESCR concluding observations on Colombia. UN Doc. E/C.12/Add.1/74, 2001. Retrieved January 19, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/975c32e988faf98a8025648a004ecd6f? Opendocument.
  30. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ComESCR). (2001b). CESCR concluding observations on Panama. UN Doc. E/C.12/1/Add.64, 2001. Retrieved January 19, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/E.C.12.1.Add.64.En?Opendocument.
  31. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ComESCR). (2002). CESCR general comment No. 15, on the right to water (CESCR Arts. 11 and 12). UN Doc. E/C.12/2002/11. Retrieved January 17, 2007, from http://www.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cescr/comments.htm.
  32. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ComESCR). (2003). Concluding observations on the Russian Federation. UN Doc. E/C.12/1/Add.94, 2003. Retrieved January 19, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/E.C.12.1.Add.94.En?Opendocument.
  33. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ComESCR). (2004). CESCR concluding observations on Ecuador. UN Doc. E/C.12/1/Add. 100, 2004. Retrieved January 19, 2007 from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/E.C.12.1.Add.100.En?Opendocument.
  34. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD). (1996). General Recommendation No. 21: Right to self-determination, 23/08/96. Retrieved March 10, 2008, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/dc598941c9e68a1a8025651e004d31d0? Opendocument.
  35. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. (1997). General recommendation XXIII on indigenous peoples, 18 August 1997, A/52/18, Annex V (1997) para. 1. Retrieved January 19, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/73984290dfea022b802565160056fe1c? Opendocument.
  36. Consultative meeting on the protection of the Arctic environment. Rovaniemi, September 20–26, 1989. (1989). Report and Annex I:1. Helsinki.Google Scholar
  37. The Convention on Biological Diversity, Nairobi, 5 June 1992. 1760 U.N.T.S., 79; 31 I.L.M., 818 (1992).Google Scholar
  38. Crawford, J. (1997). State practice and international law in relation to unilateral secession, report to Government of Canada concerning unilateral secession by Quebec, 19 February 1997. Retrieved March 10, 2008, from http://www.tamilnation.org/selfdetermination/ 97crawford.htm#concl.
  39. Crawford, J. (2005). The right of self-determination in international law: Its development and future. In P. Alston (Ed.), Peoples’ rights (pp. 7–67). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Declaration of Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, General Assembly Resolution 2625 (XXV), 24 October 1970.Google Scholar
  41. Department of Justice Canada. (1997). Reference to the Supreme Court of Canada summary of experts’ report. Retrieved March 10, 2008, from http://www.canada.justice.gc.ca/en/news/nr/ 1997/expsum.html.
  42. Doelle, M. (2005). From hot air to action? Climate change, compliance and the future of international environmental law. Toronto, Canada: Thomson, Carswell.Google Scholar
  43. Donnelly, J. (1998). International human rights. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  44. Downey, D., & Fenge, F. (Eds.) (2003). Northern lights against POPs: Combating toxic threats in the Arctic. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Draft United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (1994 version), 1994/45. United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/E.CN.4.SUB.2.RES.1994.45.En.
  46. Draft United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2006 version). A/HRC/ 1/L.10, 30 June 2006. Retrieved November 19 from http://www.iwgia.org/graphics/Synkron- Library/Documents/InternationalProcesses/HR%20Council/HRCouncil1streport2006.pdf
  47. European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Rome, November 1950. ETS No. 5, 213 U.N.T.S. 222. Entered into force 3 September 1953, amended by Protocols No. 3, 5, 8, and 11, which entered into force on 21 September 1970, 20 December 1971, 1 January 1990, and 1 November 1998 respectively.Google Scholar
  48. Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1 August 1975. 14 I.L.M. 1292 (1975).Google Scholar
  49. Flöjt, M. (2003). Arktinen episteeminen yhteisö kansainvälisessä POPs-neuvotteluissa [The Arctic epistemic community in the international POPs negotiations]. In M. Luoma-Aho, S. Moisio & M. Tennberg (Eds.), Politiikan tutkimus Lapin yliopistossa [Political Research at the University of Lapland] (pp. 359–374). Rovaniemi: P.S.C. Inter, University of Lapland.Google Scholar
  50. Gibson, M. A., & Schullinger, S. B. (1998). Answers from the ice edge: The consequences of climate change on life in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Arctic Network & Greenpeace USA.Google Scholar
  51. Government Bill No 248/1994 on the inclusion of the provisions on Sami cultural autonomy in the Finnish Constitution and other domestic legislation.Google Scholar
  52. Hague Declaration on the Environment, 11 March1989. 28 I.L.M. 1308, Retrieved November 27, 2007 from http://www.nls.ac.in/CEERA/ceerafeb04/html/documents/lib_int_ c1s2_hag_230300.htm.
  53. Hannikainen, L. (1998). Peremptory norms (jus cogens) in international law: Historical development, criteria, present status. Helsinki, Finland: Finnish Lawyers’ Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  54. Hanski, R., & Scheinin, M. (2003). Leading cases of the Human Rights Committee. Turku/Åbo: Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University.Google Scholar
  55. Heinämäki, L. (2004). Environmental rights protecting the way of life of Arctic indigenous peoples: ILO Convention No 169 and the UN Draft Declaration on Indigenous Peoples. In T. Koivurova, T. Joona, & R. Schnoro (Eds.), Arctic governance (pp. 231–259). Juridica Lapponica 29. Rovaniemi, Finland: The Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, University of Lapland.Google Scholar
  56. Harris, R. (2008, March 14). Greenhouse gas emissions rise in China. NPR online service. Retrieved August 10, 2008, from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php? storyId=88251868.
  57. Henriksen, J. B. (2001). Implementation of the right to self-determination of indigenous peoples. Indigenous Affairs, 3/01, 7–21. International Working Group for Indigenous Affairs.Google Scholar
  58. Henriksen, J. B., Scheinin, M., & Åhren, M. (2005). Saamelaisten itsemääräämisoikeus [The right of Saami to self-determination]. In Draft Nordic Saami Convention [draft booklet, background material for the Saami Convention] (pp. 263–315).Google Scholar
  59. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1984a). Communication No 167/1984: Canada. Lubicon Lake Band v. Canada. 10/05/90, CCPR/C/38/D/167/1984. UN Doc. A/45/40, Vol. 2. Retrieved January 21, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/ c316bb134879a76fc125696f0053d379?Opendocument.
  60. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1984b). General Comment No. 12 (1984). Retrieved March 20, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf.
  61. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1993/2000). Apirana Mahuika et al v. New Zealand. Communication No. 547/1993, views of November 16, 20005. Retrieved January 21, 2007, from http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/undocs/547-1993.html.
  62. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1994a). General Comment No. 23(50) concerning ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, 6 April 1994. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.5 (1994) UN Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev. 5.Google Scholar
  63. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1994b, November 8). Ilmari Länsman et al v. Finland, views of 26 October 1994. Communication No. 511/1992. Finland. CCPR/C/ 52/D/511/1992. Retrieved January 21, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/ 7e86ee6323192d2f802566e30034e775?Opendocument and www1.umn.edu/humanrts/undocs/ html/vws511.htm.
  64. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1995). J. Länsman et al v. Finland. Communication No. 671/1995). UN Doc. CCPR/C/58/D/671/1995. Retrieved November 21, 2007, Retrieved January 21, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/67b455218 cbd622d80256714005cfdad?Opendocument.
  65. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1997). A. Äärelä and J. Näkkäläjärvi v. Finland Communication No. 779/1997. UN Doc. CCPR/C/73/D/779/1997.Google Scholar
  66. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1999a). Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Canada 07/04/99, UN. HRC, 65th session, at para. 8, UN Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add. 105 (1999). Retrieved January 21, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/ e656258ac70f9bbb802567630046f2f2?Opendocument.
  67. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1999b). Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Chile. 30/03/99, CCPR/C/79/Add.104. Retrieved January 21, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CCPR.C.79.Add.104.En?Opendocument.
  68. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1999c).Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Finland. UN Doc. CCPR/CO/82/FIN (2004). Retrieved January 21, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CCPR.CO.82.FIN.En?Opendocument.
  69. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1999d). Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Mexico. UN Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.109 (1999). Retrieved January 21, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/E.C.12.1.Add.41.En?Opendocument.
  70. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1999e). Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Norway. 01/11/99, CCRP/C/79/Add. 112. Retrieved March 5, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CCPR.C.79.Add.112.En?Opendocument.
  71. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (1999f). Kitok v. Sweden, Report of the Human Rights Committee, 43 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 40), at 221, UN Doc. A/43/40.Google Scholar
  72. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (2000a). Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Australia. 28/07/2000, CCPR/CO/69/AUS. Retrieved January 21, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/A.55.40,paras.498-528.En?Opendocument.
  73. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (2000b). Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Denmark. UN Doc. CCPR/CO/70/DNK (2000). Retrieved January 21, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CCPR.CO.70.DNK.En?Opendocument.
  74. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (2001). J. and E. Länsman et al. v. Finland. Communication No. 1023/2001. UN Doc. CCPR/C/83/D/1023/2001 (2005). Retrieved January 21, 2007 from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/fa24fc7cd513751bc1256fe900525608? Opendocument (visited 21 January 2007).
  75. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (2002). Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Sweden. 20/04/2002, U.N. HRC, 74th session, at para. 15, UN Doc. CCPR/CO/74/SWE (2002). Retrieved January 21, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/ doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CCPR.CO.74.SWE.En?Opendocument.
  76. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (2006a). Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: Canada. UN Doc. CCPR/C/CAN/CO/5. Retrieved January 21, 2007, from http:// www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CCPR.C.CAN.CO.5.En?Opendocument.
  77. Human Rights Committee (HRC). (2006b). Concluding Observation of the Human Rights Committee: United States. UN Doc. CCPR/C/USA/CO/3. 15 September 2006. Retrieved March 5, 2007, from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/ CCPR.C.USA.CO.3.En?Opendocument.
  78. Human Rights Council. (2006, June 30). Human Rights Council Report 2006. A/HRC/1/L.10. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from http://www.iwgia.org/graphics/Synkron-Library/Documents/InternationalProcesses/HR%20Council/HRCouncil1streport2006.pdf.
  79. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (2000). Indigenous peoples and sustainable development in the Canadian Arctic. A Canadian contribution to the land use dialogue at the 8th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 24 to May 5, 2000. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/pub/indigen/ipsdca_e.html.
  80. Indigenous Caucus Intervention of the International Indigenous Forum on Climate Change during the High Level Segment of the 9th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, Milan, December 10, 2003. (2003). Retrieved December 12, 2007, from http://www.klimabuendnis.org/english/politics/4122.htm.
  81. Indigenous peoples’ caucus statement for the multi-stakeholder dialogue on governance, partnership and capacity-building. (2002). In Preparation for the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Para. 4, ‘Sustainable development governance at all levels’, 27 May 2002. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from http://www.nciv.net/engels/wssd/docs/ IPC%20General%20Statement%20MSD.doc.
  82. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR). (1983). Report on the situation of human rights of a segment of the Nicaraguan population of Miskito origin. 76, OEA/Ser.L/V/II.62, doc.10, rev. 3 (1983).Google Scholar
  83. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR). (1985). Case of Yanomami Indians, Case 7615 (Brazil), Resolution No. 12/85. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.66 doc. 10 rev. 1 (1985). Retrieved November 8, 2007, from http://www.cidh.org/annualrep/84.85eng/Brazil7615.htm.
  84. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR). (1994). Annual report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 1993. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.85 doc. 9 rev. (1994).Google Scholar
  85. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR). (1997, April 24). Report on the human rights situation in Ecuador. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.96. Retrieved October 31, 2007, from http://cidh.org/countryrep/ecuador-eng/index%20-%20ecuador.htm.
  86. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR). (1998). Report No 38/99, OEA/Ser.L/V/II.95 Doc. 7 rev.Google Scholar
  87. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR). (2000). Rules of Procedure of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Approved by the Commission at its 109th special session held from December 4 to 8, 2000 and amended at its 116th regular period of sessions, held from October 7–25, 2002. Retrieved August 2, 2008, from http://www.oas.org/xxxvga/english/doc_referencia/Reglamento_CIDH.pdf.
  88. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR). (2002). Report No. 75/02, Case 11.140 (United States). Case of Mary and Carrie Dann. United States. Retrieved October 31, 2007, from http://www.cidh.oas.org/annualrep/2002eng/USA.11140.htm
  89. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR). (2004). Maya indigenous communities of the Toledo District (Belize Maya), Case 12.053. Report No. 40/04. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.122 Doc. 5 rev. 1 at 727 (2004). Retrieved November 1, 2007, from http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cases/40-04.html.
  90. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. (IACHR). (2006, November 16). Letter from Ariel E. Dulitzki, Assistant Executive Secretary to Paul Crowley, Legal Representative for Sheila Watt-Cloutier. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from http://graphics8.nytimes.com/ packages/pdf/science/16commissionletter.pdf.
  91. Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR). (2001). The Mayagna (Sumo) Awas Tingni Community v. Nicaragua, Judgment of August 31, 2001, Inter-Am. Ct. HR., (Ser.C), No. 79 (2001). Retrieved January 22, 2007, from http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/ iachr/AwasTingnicase.html.
  92. Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR). (2007). Saramaka people v. Suriname, Judgment of November 28, 2007, Preliminary Objections, Merits, Reparations and Costs (2007). Retrieved September 2008, from http://www.corteidh.or.cr/docs/ casos/articulos/seriec_172_ing.pdf.
  93. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007). Summary for policymakers. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr_spm.pdf.
  94. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 20 December, 1965. General Assembly resolution 2106 (XX), Annex, 20 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 14), at 47, UN Doc. A/6014 (1966), 660 U.N.T.S. 195, entered into force Jan. 4, 1969.Google Scholar
  95. International Court of Justice. (1949). Reparation for injuries suffered in the service of the United Nations, Advisory Opinion, International Court of Justice Reports, Report No. 174.Google Scholar
  96. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR), New York, 16 December 1966, UN General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI). Entry into force 23 March 1976. Retrieved August 10, 2008, from http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_ccpr.htm.
  97. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR). UN General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966. Entry into force 3 January 1976. Retrieved August 10, 2008, from http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_cescr.htm.
  98. International Human Rights Law and Practice – Committee of the International Law Association (ILA). (2004). Final report on the impact of findings of the United Nations human rights treaty bodies. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from http://www.ila-hq.org/html/layout_committee.htm.
  99. International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention No. 107 concerning the protection and integration of indigenous and other tribal and semi-tribal populations in independent countries, 5 June 1957, 328 U.N.T.S. 247.Google Scholar
  100. International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention No. 169 on indigenous and Tribal Peoples, 27 June 1989. Entry into force 5 September 1991. ILM 28:1382. 72 ILO Official Bull. 59.Google Scholar
  101. International Labour Organization (ILO). (1993). ILO convention on indigenous and Tribal Peoples, 1989 (No. 169): A manual. Retrieved March 13, 2008, from http://www.oit.org/public/english/standards/egalite/itpp/convention/index.htm.
  102. Inuit Circumpolar Converence (ICC). (2003). ICC executive council resolution 2003-1. Retrieved December 5, 2007, from http://www.inuit.org/index.asp?lang=eng&num=244.
  103. Jones, P. (1999). Human rights, group rights, and peoples’ rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 21(1), 80–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Joona, T. (2005). The political recognition and ratification of ILO Convention No. 169 in Finland, with Some Comparison to Sweden and Norway. Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 23(3), 245–372, 305–320.Google Scholar
  105. Kingsbury, B. (2003). Indigenous peoples in international law: A constructivist approach to the Asian controversy. In J. Anaya (Ed.), International law and indigenous peoples (pp. 211–254). Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing Company; Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  106. Koivurova, T. (2002). Environmental impact assessment in the Arctic: A study of international legal norms. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.Google Scholar
  107. Koivurova, T. (2008). From high hopes to disillusionment: Indigenous peoples’ struggle to (re)gain their right to self-determination. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 15, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Koivurova, T., & Heinämäki, L. (2006). The participation of indigenous peoples in international norm-making in the Arctic. Polar Record, 42(221), 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. (2003). International Court of Justice. Requested for Advisory Opinion, 2003 I.C.J. 428, 155.Google Scholar
  110. Lindroth, M. (2006). Indigenous-state relations in the UN: establishing the indigenous forum. Polar Record, 42(222), 239–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. MacKay, F. (2005). Cultural rights. In M. E. Salomon (Ed.), Economic, social and cultural rights: A guide for minorities and indigenous peoples (pp. 83–93). Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved January 18, 2007, from http://www.minorityrights.org/admin/Download/pdf/MRG-ECOSOC.pdf.
  112. Malanczuk, P. (1997). Akehurst’s modern introduction to international law. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  113. Meijknecht, A. (2001). Towards international personality: The position of minorities and indigenous peoples in international law. Antwerpen: Intersentia–Hart.Google Scholar
  114. Metcalf, C. (2004, Winter). Indigenous rights and the environment: Evolving international law. Ottawa Law Review, 35(1), 103–140.Google Scholar
  115. Myntti, K. (1996). National minorities, indigenous peoples and various models of political participation. In F. Horn (Ed.), Minorities and their right of political participation (pp. 1–26). Juridica Lapponica No. 16. Rovaniemi, Finland: University of Lapland, The Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law.Google Scholar
  116. Nunavut Land Claims Agreement (Agreement between the Inuit of the Nunavut settlement area and her majesty the Queen in the right of Canada). Iqualuit, 25 May 1993. Retrieved March 9, 2008, from http://npc.nunavut.ca/eng/nunavut/nlca.pdf.
  117. Oldham, P., & Frank, M. A. (2008). ´We the peoples…’: The United Nations declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples. Anthropology Today, 24(2), 5–9. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/action/showPdf?submitPDF=Full+Text+PDF+ %285%2C273+KB%29&doi=10.1111%2Fj.1467-8322.2008.00569.x&cookieSet=1.
  118. Petition to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Violations Resulting from Global Warming Caused by the United States (Inuit petition), December 7, 2005 by Sheila Watt-Cloutier et al. with support of Inuit Circumpolar Council. Retrieved June 23, 2008, from http://www.inuitcircumpolar.com/files/uploads/icc-files/FINALPetitionICC.pdf.
  119. Reference Re Secession of Quebec. (1998, August 20). Supreme Court of Canada. 2 S.C.R. 217, Reprinted in 37 I.L.M. 1340, 1373 (1998). Retrieved March 7, 2008, from http://scc.lexum.umontreal.ca/en/1998/1998rcs2-217/1998rcs2-217.html.
  120. Request for a hearing on the relationship between global warming and human rights. (2007, January 15). Letter from Sheila Watt-Cloutier, Martin Wagner and Daniel Magraw to Santiago Canton, Executive Secretary, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved January 13, 2008, from http://www.ciel.org/Publications/IACHR_Letter_15Jan07.pdf.
  121. The response of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. (2007, February 1). Letter from Ariel E. Dulitzky, Assistant Executive Secretary, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights to Sheila Watt-Cloutier, Martin Wagner and Daniel Magraw. Retrieved January 13, 2008, from http://www.ciel.org/Publications/IACHR_Response_1Feb07.pdf.
  122. Rio Declaration on the Environment and Development, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3–14 June 1992. UN Doc. A/Conf.151/26/Rev.1 (Vol. 1) (1993), I.L.M 876.Google Scholar
  123. Rothwell, D. R. (1996). The polar regions and the development of international law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Salick, J., & Byg, A. (Eds.) (2007). Indigenous peoples and climate change. Oxford: A Tyndall Centre Publication, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.Google Scholar
  125. Sands, P., & Fabra, A. (2002). Report of the Joint OHCHR – UNEP Meeting of Experts on Human Rights and the Environment, 14–15 January 2002.Google Scholar
  126. Scheinin, M. (2000a). The Right to enjoy a distinct culture: Indigenous land and competing uses of land. In T.S. Orlin, A. Rosas, & M. Scheinin (Eds.), The jurisprudence of human rights law (pp. 159–222). Turku/Åbo: Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University.Google Scholar
  127. Scheinin, M. (2000b). The right to self-determination under the covenant on civil and political rights. In P. Aikio & M. Scheinin (Eds.), Operationalizing the right of indigenous peoples to self-determination (pp. 179–199). Turku/Åbo: Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University.Google Scholar
  128. Scrivener, D. (1999). Arctic environmental cooperation in transition. Polar Record, 35(192),51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Shelton, D. (2001). Environmental rights. In P. Alston (Ed.), Peoples’ rights (pp. 185–258). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  130. Shelton, D. (2002). Environmental rights in multilateral treaties adopted between 1991 and 2001. Environmental Policy and Law, 32, 70–77.Google Scholar
  131. Simon, M. (1990). Proposed objectives for an Arctic sustainable and equitable development strategy. In Protecting the Arctic environment [Report on the Yellowknife Preparatory Meeting, Yellowknife NWT, Canada, April 18–23,1990]. Annex II: 15. Ottawa.Google Scholar
  132. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. 23 May 2001. UN Doc. UNEP/POPS/COMF/4, App II (2001). 40 I.L.M. 532 (2001).Google Scholar
  133. Swepston, L. (1998). Economic, social and cultural rights under the 1989 ILO Convention. In F. Horn (Ed.), Economic, social and cultural rights of the Sami, international and national aspects (pp. 38–46). Rovaniemi: University of Lapland, Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law.Google Scholar
  134. Tahvanainen, A. (2005a). The treaty-making capacity of indigenous peoples. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 12, 397–419.Google Scholar
  135. Tahvanainen, A. (2005b). Valmius valtiosopimusten solmimiseen: alkuperäiskansoja koskeva yhteenveto [The treaty-making capacity: A summary concerning indigenous peoples]. In the Draft Nordic Saami Convention [draft booklet, background material for the Saami Convention].Google Scholar
  136. Tauli-Corpuz, V., & Lynge A. (2008). Impact of climate change mitigation measures on indigenous peoples and on their territories and lands [submission by UNPFII members]. 7th session of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, New York, 21 April–2 May 2008. E/C.19/2008/10. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/session_seventh.html#Documents.
  137. Taylor, P. (1998). An ecological approach to international law, responding to challenges of climate change. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  138. Tennberg, M. (1996, December). Indigenous peoples’ involvement in the Arctic Council, Northern Notes, IV, 21–32, December 1996. Retrieved October 17, 2007 from http://arcticcircle.uconn.edu/NatResources/Policy/tennberg.html
  139. Tomei, M., & Swepston, L. (2000). Indigenous and tribal peoples: A Guide to ILO Convention No 169. International Labour Organisation.Google Scholar
  140. Ulfstein, G. (2005). Indigenous peoples’ right to land. In: von Bogdandy, A. & Wolfrum, R. (Eds.), Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, [Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht] (Vol. 8, 2004, pp. 1–47). Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.Google Scholar
  141. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. 13 September 2007. United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from http://www.iwgia.org/ graphics/Synkron-Library/Documents/InternationalProcesses/DraftDeclaration/07-09-13ResolutiontextDeclaration.pdf.
  142. United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). (2006). Press release from 61st General Assembly, 3rd Committee, 53rd Meeting, Retrieved November 15, 2007, from http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/gashc3878.doc.htm.
  143. United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). (2007, September 13). 61st session of the General Assembly [webcast]. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from http://www.un.org/webvast/ga2007.html.
  144. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII). (n.d.a). Mandate. Retrieved December 16, 2007, from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/about_us.html.
  145. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII). (n.d.b). Permanent forum, members. Retrieved December 16, 2007, from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/ en/members.html.
  146. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII). (2008a). 7th session of the UNPFII, New York, 21 April–2 May 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/session_seventh.html#Documents.
  147. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII). (2008b). Statement by the Arctic Caucus – Inuit Circumpolar Council and the Saami Council [Presented by Patricia Cochran, Chair, Inuit Circumpolar Council, 7th session, New York, 21 April to 2 May 2008]. Retrieved June 2, 2008, from http://www.docip.org/Online-Documentation.32.0.html?&L=0.
  148. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII). (2008c, April 18). The UN declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples, treaties and the right to free, prior and informed consent: The framework for a new mechanism for reparations, restitution and redress. UNPFII 7th session, New York, 21 April–2 May. 2008E/C.19/2008/CPR.12. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/session_seventh.html#Documents.
  149. United Nations Secretary-General. (1949). The main types and causes of discrimination. UN Publication 49 XIV.3.Google Scholar
  150. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948, Paris. Retrieved August 10, from http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html.
  151. The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. 23 May 1969. Into force 27 January 1980. 1155 U.N.T.S., 331, 8 I.L.M., 679.Google Scholar
  152. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. (1993). Adopted 12 July 1993, World Conference on Human Rights on 14–25 June 1993, UN Doc. A/CONF.157/23.Google Scholar
  153. Wagner, M., & Goldberg, D. M. (2004, December 14). An Inuit Petition to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights for parties to the framework convention on climate change. Buenos Aires. Retrieved October 30, 2007, from http://www.ciel.org/Publications/ COP10_Handout_EJCIEL.pdf.
  154. Watt-Cloutier, S. (2003, December 10). Speech Notes for Sheila Watt-Cloutier, Chair, Inuit Circumpolar Conference. 9th Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Milan. Inuit in Global Issues, 17. ICC. Retrieved December 11, 2007, from http://www.inuitcircumpolar.com/index.php?ID=253&Lang=En.
  155. Willis D. (2004, July 30). Sea engulfing Alaskan village. BBC News. Retrieved October 23, 2007, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3940399.stm.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of LaplandFinland
  2. 2.Lapin yliopisto, Arktinen Keskus, PL 122Finland

Personalised recommendations