Rice Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors for Small GTPase OsRac1 Involved in Innate Immunity of Rice
Small GTPase OsRac1 is a key regulator for induction of immune responses in rice. Activation of OsRac1 induces NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, PR gene expression, production of antimicrobial compounds, and lignification, which result in enhanced resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae. Inhibition of OsRac1 function suppresses the hypersensitive response induced by avirulent M. oryzae. Thus, it is likely that OsRac1 plays important roles in R protein-mediated resistance and basal resistance. However, how OsRac1 is activated during immune response remains unknown. Recently, a new type of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac/Rop GTPase has been found in plants, termed PRONE-type GEF. We found eleven PRONE-type RacGEFs in rice, which may be involved in regulation of OsRac1 in innate immunity response. Recently, the PRONE-type GEF was found to interact with receptor-like protein kinase similar to R-proteins and PAMPs receptors such as Xa-21, Pi-d2, FLS2 and EFR, suggesting that the OsRacGEFs may regulate both PAMPs- and R protein-mediated disease resistance through activation of OsRac1 in rice.
KeywordsRac Small GTPase Guanine nucleotide exchange factor
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