Searching for Effectors of Magnaporthe oryzae: A Multi-Faceted Genomics Approach

  • Ryohei Terauchi
  • Joe Win
  • Sophien Kamoun
  • Hideo Matsumura
  • Hiromasa Saitoh
  • Hiroyuki Kanzaki
  • Kentaro Yoshida
  • Matt Shenton
  • Thomas Berberich
  • Shizuko Fujisawa
  • Akiko Ito
  • Yoshitaka Takano
  • Yukio Tosa
Conference paper

Abstract

In 2005, a draft sequence of Magnaporthe oryzae isolate 70–15 genome was published (Dean et al. 2005). Complete rice genome sequence was also published in the same year (International Rice Genome Sequencing Project, 2005). As a result, study of the Magnaporthe-rice interaction has entered the “post-genomics” era. The challenge now is how to make use of this large amount of information to improve our understanding of this interaction. By employing genomics information, we are trying to identify and characterize Magnaporthe effectors directly involved in molecular interactions between the pathogen and the host. In this paper, we present a short review of phytopathogen effectors and Magnaporthe avirulence factors. We then briefly describe our current approach to identify new effectors from Magnaporthe.

Keywords

DNA polymorphisms Effector Signal peptide SuperSAGE 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bohnert, H.U., Fudal, I., Dioh, W., Tharreau, D., Notteghem, J.L., Lebrun, M.H. (2004). A putative polyketide synthase-peptide synthetase from Magnaporthe grisea signals pathogen attack to resistant rice. Plant Cell 16, 2499–2513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Catanzariti, A.-M., Dodds, P.N., Lawrence, G.L., Ayliffe, M.A., Ellis, J.G. (2006). Haustorially expressed secreted proteins from flax rust are highly enriched for avirulence elicitors. Plant Cell 18, 243–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Comai, L., Young, K., Till,B.J., Reynolds, S.H., Greene, E.A., Codomo, C.A., Enns, L.C., Johnson, J.E., Burtner, C., Odden, A.R. et al. (2004). Efficient discovery of DNA polymorphism in natural populations by EcoTILLING. Plant J. 37, 778–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. da Cunha, L., Sreerekha, M.-V., Mackey, D. (2007). Defense suppression by virulence effectors of bacterial phytopathogens. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 10, 349–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dean, R.A., Talbot, N.J., Eboole, D.J., Farman, M.L., Mitchell, T.K., Orbach, M.J., Thon, M., Kulkarni, R., Xu, J.-R., Pan, H. et al. (2005). The genome sequence of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Nature 434, 980–986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dixon, M.S., Jones, D.A., Keddie, J.S., Thomas, C.M., Harrison, K., Jones, J.D. (1996). The tomato Cf-2 disease resistance locus comprises two functional genes encoding leucine-rich repeat proteins. Cell 84, 451–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dodds, P.N., Lawrence, G.J., Catanzariti, A., Ayliffe, M.A., Ellis, J.G. (2004). The Melampsora lini AvrL567 avirulence genes are expressed in haustoria and their prodicts are recognized inside plant cells. Plant Cell 16, 755–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ellis, J.G., Dodds, P.N., Lawrence, G.J. (2007). The role of secreted proteins in diseases of plants caused by rust, powdery mildew and smut fungi. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 10, 326–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Emmert-Buck, M.R., Bonner, R.F., Smith, P.D., Chuaqui, R.F., Zhuang, Z., Goldstein, S.R., Weiss, R.A., Liotta, L.A. (1996). Laser capture microdissection. Science 274, 998–1001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Farman, M.L., Leong, S. (1998). Chromosome walking to the AVR1-CO39 avirulence gene of Magnaporthe grisea: Discrepancy between the physical and genetic maps. Genetics 150,1049–1058.Google Scholar
  11. Farman, M.L., Eto, Y., Nakao, T., Tosa, Y., Nakayashiki, H., Mayama, S., Leong, S.A. (2002). Analysis of the structure of the AVR1-CO39 avirulence locus in virulent rice-infecting isolates of Magnaporthe grisea. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 15, 6–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (2005). The map-based sequence of the rice genome. Nature 436, 793–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jia, Y., McAdams, S.A., Bryan, G.T., Hershey, H.P., Valent, B. (2000). Direct interaction of resistance gene and avirulence gene products confers rice blast resistance. EMBO J. 19, 4004–4014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kamoun, S. (2007). Groovy times: filamentous pathogen effectors revealed. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 10, 358–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kämper, J., Kahmann, R., Bolker, M., Ma, L.J., Brefort, T., Saville, B.J., Banuett, F., Kronstad, J.W., Gold, S.E., Muller, O. et al. (2006). Insights from the genome of the biotrophic fungal plant pathogen Ustilago maydis. Nature 441, 97–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kang, S., Sweigard, J.A., Valent, B. (1995). The PWL host specificity gene family in the rice blast fungus Magnaporhte grisea. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 8, 939–948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kemen, E., Kemen, A.C., Rafiqi, M., Hempel, U., Mendgen, K., Hahm, M., Voegele, R.T. (2005). Identification of a protein from rust fungi transferred from haustoria into infected plant cells. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 19, 1130–1139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Luderer, T., Takken, F.L., de Wit, P.J., Joosten, M.H. (2002). Cladosporium fulvum overcomes Cf-2-mediated resistance by producing truncated AVR2 elicitor proteins. Mol. Microbiol. 45, 875–884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Matsumura, H., Reich, S., Ito, A., Saitoh, H., Kamoun, S., Winter, P., Kahl, G., Reuter, M., Krüger, D.H., Terauchi, R. (2003). Gene expression analysis of plant host-pathogen interactions by SuperSAGE. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100, 15718–15723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nielsen, H., Engelbrecht, J., Brunak, S., Heijne, G. (1997). Identificatoin of prokaryotic and eukaryoteic signal peptides and predicton of their cleavage sites. Protein Eng. 10,1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Orbach, M.J., Farrall, L., Sweigard, J.A., Chumley, F.G., Valent, B. (2000). A telomeric avirulence gene determines efficacy for the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta. Plant Cell 12,2019–2032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ridout, C.J., Skamnioti, P., Porritt, O., Sacristan, S., Jones, J.D.G., Brown, J.K.M. (2006). Multiple avirulence paralogues in cereal powdery mildew fungi may contribute to parasite fitness and defeat of plant resistance. Plant Cell 18, 2402–2414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rooney, H.C., Van’tKlooster, J.W., van der Hoorn, R.A., Joosten, M.H., de Wit, P.J. (2005). Cladosporium Avr2 inhibits tomato Rcr3 protease required for Cf-2-dependent disease resistance. Science 308, 1783–1786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Saha, S., Sparks, A. B., Rago, C., Akmaev, V., Wang, C. J., Vogelstein, B., Kinzeler, K. W., Velculescu, V. E. (2002). Using the transcriptome to annotate the genome. Nat. Biotechnol. 20, 508–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sweigard, J.A., Carroll, A.M., Kang, S., Farrall, L., Chumley, F.G., Valent, B. (1995). Identification, cloning, and characterization of PWL2, a gene for host species specificity in the rice blast fungus. Plant Cell 7, 1221–1233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Till, B.J., Reynolds, S.H., Greene, E.A., Codomo,C.A., Enns, L.C., Johnson, J.E., Burtner, C., Odden, A.R., Young, K., Taylor, N.E. et al. (2003). Large-scale discovery of induced point mutations with high-throughputTILLING. Genome Res. 13, 524–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Torto, T.A., Li, S., Styer, A., Huitema, E., Testa, A., Gow, N.A.R., van West, P., Kamoun, S. (2003). EST mining and functional expression assays identify extracellular effector proteins from the plant pathogen Phytophthora. Genome Res. 13, 1675–1685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tosa, Y., Osue, J., Eto, Y., Oh, H.-S., Nakayashiki, H., Mayama, S., Leong, S.A. (2005). Evolution of an avirulence gene AVR1-CO39, concomitant with the evolution and differentiation of Magnaporthe oryzae. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 18, 1148–1160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Velculescu, V., Zhang, L., Vogelstein, B., Kinzler, K.W. (1995). Serial analysis of gene expression. Science 270, 484–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Voinnet, O. (2005). Induction and suppression of RNA silencing: insights from viral infections. Nat. Rev. Genet. 6, 206–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryohei Terauchi
    • 1
  • Joe Win
  • Sophien Kamoun
  • Hideo Matsumura
  • Hiromasa Saitoh
  • Hiroyuki Kanzaki
  • Kentaro Yoshida
  • Matt Shenton
  • Thomas Berberich
  • Shizuko Fujisawa
  • Akiko Ito
  • Yoshitaka Takano
  • Yukio Tosa
  1. 1.Iwate Biotechnology Research Center, KitakamiJapan

Personalised recommendations