Sensory Transduction Network of E. coli
The genome of Escherichia coli K12 encodes at least 6 classes of sensor proteins: 30 histidine protein kinases, 5 methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, 23 membrane components of the sugar:phosphotransferase system (PTS), 29 proteins with diguanylate cyclase and/or c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase activity and two predicted serine/threonine protein kinases. The full signal transduction network additionally includes 32 response regulators, numerous chemotaxis proteins, PTS components, adenylate cyclase, CRP, and uncharacterized c-di-GMP-responsive components. Bacterial response to environmental signals can occur on several levels: the level of individual genes and proteins (changes in gene expression, post-translational regulation), the whole-cell level (chemotaxis), and the multicellular level (biofilm formation). All signal transduction systems are energy-dependent but their energy expenditure is miniscule compared to that of the processes they regulate. A better understanding of the signal transduction mechanisms and integration of these mechanisms into the metabolic pathway model of the E. coli cell will remain major challenges for systems biology.
KeywordsMetabolic Network Response Regulator Histidine Kinase Metabolic Reconstruction Output Domain
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