Conclusion: “Indigenization” of Education Reforms Through Capacity Development
Generally speaking, we believe that the promotion of high-quality basic education has been considered as the public policy that should be pursued by governments of developing countries. However, the developing countries of today, under the influence of neoliberalism ideology, are in favor of the promotion of decentralization of educational management and finance, and of education reforms through deregulation and privatization based on market forces. Therefore, as a means of diffusing quality basic education, while placing emphasis on the role of government, efficiency is being pursued in the process of diffusing basic education by means of reviewing the roles of central and regional governments, the introduction of market forces, and the law of competition. Above all, it is said that in regard to education management, if authority and finance can be devolved to the regions and if the local government and community actively take part in the decision-making process with the result that these bodies strengthen their capacity in taking on practical responsibilities, then highly cost-effective management and efficient practices would be possible (McGinn and Welsh 1999).
What is more, as Southeast Asian countries including three countries of Indochina comprise multicultural, multiethnic, and multilingual communities, there are regional and/or ethnic differences in attitudes toward education. Therefore, if one tries to impose a policy to promote a uniform basic education, local needs are not met, with the danger that nonefficiency of education management and practices may even result. In this regard, the majority of basic education support involving EFA goals is being conducted in the context of decentralization.
KeywordsCoherence Malaysia Decen Indonesia
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