The Urban Environment

  • Rob Roggema


The main effects of climate change in urban environments are heat-stress and flooding. In order to mitigate these effects the city needs to adapt and anticipate. The most fundamental solution would be to relocate urban areas towards places that are less likely to suffer from heat or rainwater. However, although this rigorous solution might be effective from a heat and water point of view, replacement of large groups of people is not as easy. The solutions to keep a comfortable living environment in the city at a high quality level needs to be found in the creation of space for green and water. Green and blue structures in the city pattern not only create a pleasant environment, they also solve excessive heat problems and water surpluses. It is clear that in times of extreme weather events like heavy rains a city with large spaces where the water can be stored is far more flexible and will face less problems than a dense and paved one. The effect of green spaces with water on the temperature is positive. A city with large green spaces is much more comfortable during a heat wave than a city without these spaces. The temperature rise in green cities is much lower than in other ones. In the design for new urban areas and for urban regeneration areas the integration of space for green and blue elements is essential for a future urban climate in which people are not to suffer from uncomfortable circumstances or even become victims of the city.


Heat Wave Flood Risk Green Space Public Space Physiological Equivalent Temperature 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ten BoerThe Netherlands

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