Quantum Algorithmic Complexities
As already emphasized in Chapter 4 information is physical and the limits to information processing tasks are ultimately set by the underlying physical laws. For instance, the standing models of computation are based on the physics of deterministic and/or stochastic classical processes; instead, quantum computation theory [66, 128, 224, 165, 71] studies the new possibilities offered by a model of computation based on quantum mechanical laws. The birth of such a theory finds a technological motivation in the high pace at which chip miniaturization proceeds. Indeed, information processing at the atomic level, namely at a scale where the physical laws are those of quantum mechanics, might soon become a concrete practical issue .
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