Ground Penetrating Radar for Buried Landmine and IED Detection

  • David J. Daniels
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics book series (NAPSB)


Detection of landmines using electromagnetic induction (EMI) techniques is well established and a range of metal detectors is commercially available. Recent developments using dual sensor technology combining EMI and ground penetrating radar (GPR) have enabled improved discrimination against small metal fragments to be demonstrated in live minefields. Reductions of up to 7:1 compared with the standard metal detector have been achieved in the field by hand held systems such as the UK-German MINEHOUND/VMR2 system and the US AN/PSS-14 (formerly HSTAMIDS: Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System).

Stand off vehicle based radar systems are now being trialled in realistic conditions. Airborne systems have also been trialled, but as yet have some way to go to deliver useful performance. These three distinct modes of operation pose fundamentally different challenges in terms of the physics of propagation and the radar system design and will be discussed.

End user expectations in terms of performance are challenging and at present only the hand held detectors are approaching these needs. This chapter reviews the high-level performance requirements from an OA perspective in order to set the performance envelopes of the radar designs. We also address the fundamental challenges in terms of propagation, proximity to the ground surface; ground topography and signal to noise and signal to clutter bandwidth of operation with reference to both close in and stand off landmine and IED detection. A review of the performance of GPR systems at the higher TRL levels is provided.

A key issue in comparing the published results of controlled trials relates to statistics of the depth of cover, the soil propagation characteristics, and the type of landmine, the sample size, the physical placement of the landmine as well as the characteristics of the clutter. This chapter will also highlight the future engineering challenges to achieve not only detection but recognition and identification using GPR.


Landmine detection radar ground penetrating radar 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Daniels D J, Ground Penetrating Radar, ISBN 0863413609, IEE (Radar, Sonar and Naviga tion) 2004Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Daniels D J, An Assessment of the fundamental performance of GPR against buried land mines, SPIE Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets Xll, Paper 6553-16, SPIE 2007, 13 April, 2006, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Daniels D J, Curtis P, MINEHOUND trials in Bosnia, Angola and Cambodia, Proceedings of the SPIE Defense and Security Conference 2006, 17–23 April, 2006, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daniels D J, Curtis P, Lockwood O, Classification of landmines using GPR, IEEE RadarCon 2008, 26–30 May, 2008, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doheny R C et al., Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) field evaluation in Namibia, Proceedings of the SPIE Defense and Security Conference, 16–21 April 2006, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Firoozabadi R, Miller E L, Rappaport, C M, Morgenthaler A W, Sub-surface sensing of buried objects under a randomly rough surface using scattered electromagnetic field data, IEEE Trans on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Jan 2007, Volume 45, No 1, pp 93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guidebook on Detection Technologies and Systems for Humanitarian Demining, Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lopera O, Milisavljevie N, Daniels D, Macq B, Time-frequency domain signature analysis of GPR data for landmine identification, Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar, 2007 4th Interna tional Workshop 27–29 June 2007, pp 159–162Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Simonsen K, Statistical considerations in designing tests of mine detection systems 1 Measures related to the probability of detection, Sandia Report SAN98-1769/1Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Skolnik M, Radar Handbook, 2nd Edition, ISBN 007057913X, McGraw-Hill, New York, Chap 11, Radar Cross Section of Targets, 1990Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Streich R, Van der Kruk J, Accurate imaging of multicomponent GPR data based on exact radiation patterns, IEEE Trans on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Jan 2007, Volume 45 No 1 pp 93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Voles R, Confidence in trials of landmine detection systems, Mathematics Today April 2000Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wong D, Nguyen L, Gaunaurd D, Radar classification of landmines by time-frequency analy sis, Proc. SPIE 6566, 65660F, 2007Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Daniels
    • 1
  1. 1.Chief Consultant SensorsERA Technology, UKLeatherheadUK

Personalised recommendations