Differentiation and Diversification
The development of post-secondary education outside universities has first of all been characterised by the continuous establishment of new study programmes and courses. The classic programmes for teacher training, technical education, and nursing have been succeeded by numerous other vocationally oriented training programmes as well as basic academic courses. In addition, professional programmes have often developed a number of different specialities. Thus, an ever-increasing functional differentiation has taken place, in recent times partly as a result of modularisation. This strategy has allowed for the creation of many new small courses designed to cater for particular demands in society for specialist competence (Neave 2000), and this process still continues.
The development of post-secondary education outside universities is also a story of the establishment of separate schools for the different programmes. Teachers were educated in teacher training schools, nurses in nursing schools, social workers in social work schools, pre-school teachers in their own institutions, artists and designers in academies, musicians in conservatories, and so forth. This differentiation of study programmes in autonomous institutions was followed by a parallel diversification of organisational forms, school owners, funding, admission requirements, curricula, and qualifications of staff, in turn leading to a heterogeneous education sector.
KeywordsHigh Education Institution Teacher Training Study Programme Professional School Organisational Field
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