Numerous herbivores, taxonomically aggregated in the Sternorrhyncha and Lepidoptera, produce sugary secretions that are consumed by entomophagous species. Within the Sternorrhyncha, Aphididae, Cercopidae, Cicadellidae, Coccidae, Fulgoridae, Membracidae, Pseudococcidae, and Psyllidae all have honeydew-producing members (Beattie, 1985; Nickerson et al., 1977). Within the Lepidoptera, the Lycaenidae and Riodinidae (it should be noted that some regard the Riodininae as a subfamily of the Lycaenidae) have a Newcomer’s gland and associated organs on or near the dorsum of the seventh abdominal segment that produces sugary secretions when solicited by ants (Beattie, 1985; Holldobler and Wilson, 1990). These lycaenid-ant interactions are well reviewed by Holldobler and Wilson (1990). Honeydew provides the basis for a fascinating series of ecological interactions with implications for plants, the honeydew-producing herbivores, and the natural enemies of these herbivores.
KeywordsSugar Sucrose Fructose Tryptophan Alkaloid
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