Climate and Fisheries: The Past, The Future, and The Need for Coalescence

  • Anne Babcock Hollowed
  • Kevin M. Bailey
Part of the Fish & Fisheries Series book series (FIFI, volume 31)

In this chapter we review the history of fisheries science with respect to climate impacts on fisheries and prognosticate the future of this type of research. Our review of the development of climate and fisheries research reveals that advances in our discipline emerge from the coalescence of four factors: shifts in fisheries economics and policy; developments in theoretical ecology; innovations in small-scale field and laboratory studies; and progress in large-scale fisheries statistics and modeling. Major advances have occurred when scientists interacted in multidisciplinary forums. We find that efforts to understand the impact of climate on the annual production and distribution of fish have produced a primary level of understanding of the processes underlying stock structure, production, and distribution of fish species. We find that ecosystem-based approaches to management have been advocated to a greater or lesser degree throughout the last century. In the future, we expect that advances in scientific understanding and improved computing power will allow scientists to explore the complex nature of environmental interactions occurring at different spatial and temporal scales. New field programs will develop to support the development of spatially explicit models of fish that include complex interactions within and between species, and fish behavior. Field sampling programs will benefit from continuing innovations in technology that improve collection of information on the abundance, distribution of fish, and the environment. New technologies will also be utilized in laboratory studies to rapidly assess the reproductive potential, food habits, and genetic history of fish under different environmental conditions. We expect that interdisciplinary training will continue to serve as a catalyst for new ideas in climate and fisheries. However, as researchers shift their focus from retrospective studies and now-casts to long-term implications of fishing and climate on the ecosystem we expect that training in oceanography, ecological theory, and environmental policy will be needed to provide a foundation for the development of models that depict the trade-offs of nature and human use in a realistic manner. Finally, we challenge fisheries scientists to track the accuracy of long- to medium-term forecasts of future states of nature and the potential impact of climate and fisheries on them.


Fishery Science Stock Assessment Early Life History Maximum Sustainable Yield Walleye Pollock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agostini, V.N., Francis, R.C., Hollowed, A.B., Pierce, S., Wilson, C., and Hendrix, A.N. (2006) The relationship between hake (Merluccius productus) distribution and poleward sub-surface flow in the California Current System. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63, 2648–2659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, K.P. and Ursin, E. (1977) A multispecies extension to the Beverton and Holt theory, with accounts of phosphorous circulation and primary production. Meddeleser af Danmarks Fiskeri- og Havundersoegelser. — og Havunders. N.S. 7, 319–435.Google Scholar
  3. Andrewartha, H.G. and Birch, L.C. (1954) The Distribution and Abundance of Animals. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. 782p.Google Scholar
  4. Arkema, K.K., Abramson, S.C., and Dewsbury, B.M. (2006) Marine ecosystem-based management: from characterization to implementation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4(10), 525–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aydin, K. (2004) Age structure or functional response? Reconciling the energetics of surplus production between single-species models and Ecosim. African Journal of Marine Science 26, 289–301.Google Scholar
  6. Bakun, A. (2001) School-mix feedback: a different way to think about low frequency variability in large mobile fish populations. Progress in Oceanography 49(1–4), 485–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bailey, K.M., Ciannelli, L., Bond, N., Belgrano, A., and Stenseth, N.C. (2005) Recruitment of walleye pollock in a complex physical and biological ecosystem. Progress in Oceanography 67, 24–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baranov, F.I. (1918) On the question of the biological basis of fisheries. Nauchin Issled. Ikhtiologicheskii Inst. Izv 1, 81–128 (in Russian, Translation by W.E. Ricker, 1945).Google Scholar
  9. Baranov, F.I. (1926) On the question of the dynamics of the fishing industry (in Russian, Translation by W.E. Ricker, 1945).Google Scholar
  10. Barber, R.T., Chavez, F.P., and Kogelschatz, J.E. (1985) Biological effects of El Nino, pp. 399–438. In: Vegas, M. (ed.) Seminario Regional Ciencas Tecnologica Agresion Ambiental: El Fenomeno “El Nino.” Contec Press, Lima, Peru.Google Scholar
  11. Baretta, J.W., Ebenhoh, W., and Ruardij, P. (1995) The European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model, a complex marine ecosystem model. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 33, 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beamish, R.J. and Bouillon, D.R. (1993) Pacific salmon production trends in relation to climate. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 50, 1002–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beamish, R.J., McFarlane, G.A., and Benson, A. (2006) Longevity overfishing. Progress in Oceanography 68, 289–302.Google Scholar
  14. Beverton, R.J.H. and Holt, S.J., (1957) On the dynamics of exploited fish populations. United Kingdom Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries Investigations Series 2, 19: 533pp.Google Scholar
  15. Blaxter, J.H. and Hempel, G. (1963) The influence of egg size on herring larvae (Clupea harengus L.) Journal du Conseil International pour Exploration de la Mer, 28, 211–240.Google Scholar
  16. Burkenroad, M.D. (1951) Some principles of marine fishery biology. Journal du Conseil, 18, 300–310.Google Scholar
  17. Campana, S.E. and Neilson, J.D. (1985) Microstructure of fish otoliths. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 42, 1014–1032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ciannelli L. and Bailey, K.M. (2005) Landscape (seascape) dynamics and underlying species interactions: the cod-capelin system in the southeastern Bering Sea. Marine Ecolology Progressive Series 291, 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ciannelli, L., Chan, K.S., Bailey, K.M., and Stenseth, N.C. (2004) Non-additive effects of environmental variables on the survival of a large marine fish population. Ecology 85, 3418–3427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chesson, P., 2000. General theory of competitive coexistence in spatially varying environments. Theoretical Population Biology 58, 211–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chesson, P.L. 1984. The storage effect in stochastic population models. Lecture Notes on Biomathematics, 54, 76–89.Google Scholar
  22. Christensen, V. and Walters, C.J. (2004) Ecopath with Ecosim: methods, capabilities, and limitations. Ecological Modeling 172, 109–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Connell, J.H., (1985) The consequences of variation in initial settlement vs. post-settlement mortality in rocky inter-tidal communities. Journal Exploration Marine Biololgy and Ecology 93, 11–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Croll, D.A., Tershy, B.R., Hewitt, R.P., et al. (1998) An integrated approach to the foraging ecology of marine birds and mammals. Deep Sea Research II 45, 1353–1371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cury, P. and Shannon, L. (2004) Regime shifts in upwelling ecosystems: observed changes and possible mechanisms in the northern and southern Benguela. Progress in Oceanography 60, 223–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cushing, D.H. (1975) Marine Ecology and Fisheries. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 278 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Cushing, D.H. (1984) The gadoid outburst in the North Sea. Journal Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 41, 159–166.Google Scholar
  28. De la Mare, W.K. (1996) Some recent developments in the management of marine living resources, pp. 599–616. In: Floyd, R.B., Shepherd, A.W., De Barro, P.J. (eds) Frontiers of Population Ecology. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  29. DeMaster, D., Fogarty, M., Manson, D., Matlock, G., and Hollowed, A. (2006) Management of living resources in an ecosystem context, pp. 15–28. In: Murawski, S.A. and Matlock, G.C. (eds) Ecosystem Science Capabilities Required to Support NOAA's Mission in the Year 2020. US Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-74, 97p.Google Scholar
  30. Doherty, P.J., Planes, S., and Mather, P. (1995) Gene flow and larval duration in seven species of fish from the Great Barrier Reef. Ecology 76, 2373–2391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ecosystem Principles Advisory Panel (1999) Ecosystem-based Fishery Management: A report to congress by the Ecosystem Principles Advisory Panel. US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, MD, 54 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Fauchald, P., Mauritzen, M., and Gjosaeter, H. (2006) Density-dependent migratory waves in the marine pelagic ecosystem. Ecology 87(11), 2915–2924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fluharty, D. (2005) Evolving ecosystem approaches to management of fisheries in the USA. Marine Ecology Progressive Series 300, 248–253.Google Scholar
  34. Fogarty, M.J., Sissenwine, M.P., and Cohen, E.B. (1991) Recruitment variability and the dynamics of exploited marine populations. Trends Ecology and Evolution 6, 241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fox, W.W. (1970) An exponential yield model for optimizing fish populations. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 99, 80–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Frank, K.T., Petrie, B., Choi, J.S., and Leggett, W.C. (2005) Trophic cascades in a formerly cod-dominated ecosystem. Science 308, 1621–1623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Friedman, T. (2005) The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. Farrar Status and Giroux, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Fu, C. and Fanning, L.P. (2004) Spatial considerations in the management of Atlantic cod off Nova Scotia, Canada. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24, 775–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Graham, M. (1935) Modern theory of exploiting a fishery and applications to North Sea trawling. Journal Conseil International pour l'Exploration Mer 10, 264–274.Google Scholar
  40. Hairston, N.G., Smith, F.E., and Slobodkin, L.B. (1960) Community structure, population control and competition. American Naturalist 94, 421–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hanski, I. (1991) Single-species metapopulation dynamics: concepts, models and observations, pp. 17–38. In: Gilpin, M. and Hanski, I. (eds) Metapopulation Dynamics. Academic, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  42. Hermann, A.J., Hinckley, S., Megrey, B.A., and Stabeno, P. (1996) Interannual variability of the early life history of walleye pollock near Shelikof Strait as inferred from a spatially explicit, individual-based model. Fisheries Oceanography 5(Suppl. 1), 39–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hilborn, R., Quinn, T.P., Schindler, D.E., and Rogers, D.E. (2003) Biocomplexity and fisheries sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 6564–6568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hjort, J. (1914) Fluctuations in the great fisheries of northern Europe, viewed in the light of biological research. Rapp. P.-V. Reun. Conseil Permanent International pour Exploration 20, 1–228.Google Scholar
  45. Hjort, J. (1926) Fluctuations in the year classes of important food fishes. Journal du Conseil 1, 5–38.Google Scholar
  46. Holling (1965) The functional response of predators to prey density and its role in mimicry and population regulation. Memoirs of the Entomology Society of Canada 1–85.Google Scholar
  47. Hollowed, A., Ianelli, J.N., and Livingston, P.A. (2000) Including predation mortality in stock assessments: a case study for Gulf of Alaska walleye pollock. ICES Journal Marine Science 57, 279–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hollowed, A.B. and Wooster, W.S. (1992) Variability of winter ocean conditions and strong year classes of northeast Pacific groundfish. ICES Marine Science Symposia, ICES Journal of Marine Science 195, 433–444.Google Scholar
  49. Hollowed, A.B., Hare, S.R., and Wooster, W.S. (2001) Pacific basin climate variability and patterns of Northeast Pacific marine fish production. Progress in Oceanography 49, 257–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hollowed, A.B. Wilson, C.D., Stabeno, P., and Salo, S. (2007) Effect of ocean conditions on the cross-shelf distribution of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and capelin (Mallotus villosus) Fisheries Oceanography 16(2), 142–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Houde, E.D. (1989) Subtleties and episodes in the early life history of fishes. Journal of Fish Biology, 35(Supplement A), 29–38.Google Scholar
  52. Humston, R., Olson, D.B., and Ault, J.S. (2004) Behavioral assumptions in models of fish movement and their influence on population dynamics. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133, 1304–1328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Iles, T.C. and Beverton, R.J.H. (2000) The concentration hypothesis: the statistical evidence. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57, 216–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007. Working Group 1 Report,
  55. Ito, S., Kishi, M.J., Yutaka, K., et al. (2004) Initial design for a fish bioenergetics model of Pacific saury coupled to a lower trophic ecosystem model. Fisheries Oceanography 13(Suppl. 1), 111–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kawasaki, T. (1993) Recovery and collapse of the far eastern sardine. Fisheries Oceanography 2, 244–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kendall, A.W. and Duker, G.J. (1998) The development of recruitment fisheries oceanography in the United States. Fisheries Oceanography 7, 69–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kesteven, G.L. (1972) Science and sea fisheries. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Series B. 32, 325–332.Google Scholar
  59. Laevastu, T. and Larkins, H.A. (1981) Marine Fisheries Ecosystem: Its Quantitative Evaluation and Management. Fishing News Books Ltd., Surrey, England, 159 pp.Google Scholar
  60. Lasker, R. (1981) Factors contributing to variable recruitment of the northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) in the California current: contrasting years, 1975–1978. Rapp. P. –v. Reun. Conseil Intternational pour l'Exploration de la Mer 178, 375–388.Google Scholar
  61. Leaman, B.M. and Beamish, R.J. (1984) Ecological and management implications of longevity in some northeast Pacific groundfishes. International North Pacific Fisheries Commission Bulletin 42, 85–97.Google Scholar
  62. Levin, S.A. (1992) The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73, 1943–1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Levin, S.A. and Pacala, S.W. (1997) Theories of simplification and scaling of spatially distributed processes, pp. 271–295. In: Tilman, D. and Kareiva, P. (eds) Spatial Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  64. Lotka, A. (1925) Elements of Physical Biology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD (Reprinted 1956 by Dover, New York, as Elements of Mathematical Biology).Google Scholar
  65. MacArthur, R.H. and Wilson, E.O. (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  66. MacCall, A.D. (1990) Dynamic Geography of Marine Fish Populations. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA, 153 pp.Google Scholar
  67. Mace, P.M. (2001) A new role for MSY in single-species and ecosystem approaches to fisheries stock assessment and management. Fish and Fisheries 2, 2–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mangel, M. and Levin, P.S. (2005) Regime, phase and paradigm shifts: making community ecology the basic science for fisheries. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 360, 95–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Marquet, P.A., Quinones, R.A. Abades, S, et al. (2005) Scaling and power-laws in ecological systems. Journal of Experimental Biology 208, 1749–1769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. McEvoy, A.F. (1996) Historical interdependence between ecology, production and management in California fisheries, pp. 45–53. In: Bottom, D., Reeves, G. and Brookes, M. (eds) Sustainability Issues for Resource Managers. USDA Forest Service Technical Report PNW-GTR-370.Google Scholar
  71. Megrey, B.A., Rose, K.A., Klumb, R.A., Hay, D.E., Werner, F.E., Eslinger, D.L., and Smith, S.L. (2007) A bioenergetics-based population dynamics model of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) coupled to a lower trophic level nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton model: description, calibration, and sensitivity analysis. Ecological Modeling 202, 144–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Murphy, G.I. (1961) Oceanography and variations in the Pacific sardine population. California Cooperative Fisheries Investigations Report 8, 55–64.Google Scholar
  73. Nelson, W.R., Ingham, M.C., and Schaaf, W.E. (1977) Larval transport and year-class strength of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus. Fisheries Bulletin US 75, 23–41.Google Scholar
  74. Nicholson, A.J. (1933) The balance of animal populations. Journal of Animal Ecology 2, 132–178.Google Scholar
  75. Odum, E.P. (1992) Great ideas in ecology for the 1990s. BioScience 42, 542–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Omori, M. and Kawasaki, T. (1995) Scrutinizing the cycles of worldwide fluctuations in the sardine and herring populations by means of singular spectrum analysis. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Fisheries Oceanography 59, 361–370.Google Scholar
  77. Overland, J.E. and Wang, M. (2007) Future regional Arctic Sea ice declines. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L17705, doi: 10.1029/2007GL030808.Google Scholar
  78. Pascoe, S. (2006) Economics, fisheries and the marine environment. ICES Journal of Marine Science 63, 1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Paine, R.T. (1969) A note on trophic complexity and community stability. American Naturalist 103, 91–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Parrish, R.H., Nelson, C.S., and Bakun, A. (1981) Transport mechanisms and reproductive success of fishes in the California Current. Biological Oceanography 1, 175–203.Google Scholar
  81. Pope, J.G. (1972) An investigation of the accuracy of virtual population analysis using cohort analysis. International Commission Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Research Bulletin 9, 65–74.Google Scholar
  82. Porter, S.M., Ciannelli, L., Hillgruber, N., Bailey, K.M., Chan, K.S., Canino, M.F., and Haldorson, L.J. (2005) Environmental factors influencing larval walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma feeding in Alaskan waters. Marine Ecology Progressive Series 302, 207–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Quinn, T.J. and Collie, J.S. (2005) Sustainability in single-species population models. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B 360, 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Restrepo, V.R. (1999) Proceedings of the Fifth National NMFS Stock Assessment Workshop. Providing Scientific Advice to Implement the Precautionary Approach Under the Manguson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-40, 160 pp.Google Scholar
  85. Rice, J. (2001) Implications of variability on many time scales for scientific advice on sustainable management of living marine resources. Progress in Oceanography 49(1–4), 189–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ricker, W.E. (1954) Stock and recruitment. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 11, 559–623.Google Scholar
  87. Rijnsdorp, A.D., van Beek, F.Z., Flatman, S., et al. (1992) Recruitment of sole stocks, Solea solea (L.), in the northeast Atlantic. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 29, 173–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rooper, C.N., Gunderson, D.R., and Armstrong, D.A. (2006) Evidence for resource partitioning and competition in nursery estuaries by juvenile flatfish in Oregon and Washington. Fisheries Bulletin US 104, 616–622.Google Scholar
  89. Rose, K.A., Christensen, S.W., and DeAngelis, D.L. (1993) Individual-based modeling of populations with high mortality: a new method based on following a fixed number of model individuals. Ecological Modeling 68, 273–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rothschild, B.J. (2007) Coherence of Atlantic cod stock dynamics in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136, 858–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rozwadowski, H.M. (2002) The Sea Knows No Boundaries. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  92. Russell, F.S., Southward, A.J., Boalch, G.T., and Butler, E.I. (1971) Changes in biological conditions in the English Channel off Plymouth during the last half century. Nature 234, 468–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sale, P. (1991) The Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs. Academic, New York.Google Scholar
  94. Sanchirico, J.N. and Hanna. S. (2004) Navigating US Fishery Management into the 21st century. Marine Resource Economics 19, 395–406.Google Scholar
  95. Schaefer, M.B. (1954) Some aspects of the dynamics of populations important to management of the commercial marine fisheries. Bulletin of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission 1(2), 27–56.Google Scholar
  96. Schunte, J.T., Maunder, M.N., and Ianelli, J.N. (2007) Designing tools to evaluate fishery management strategies: can the scientific community deliver? ICES Journal of Marine Science 64, 1077–1084.Google Scholar
  97. Sheridan, S., Ferguson, J.W., and Downing S.L. (eds) (2007) Report of the National Marine Fisheries Service Workshop on Advancing the State of Electronic Tag Technology and Use in Stock Assessments August 23–25, 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum, 93p.Google Scholar
  98. Sette, O.E. (1943) Biology of the Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) of North America. Part 1: early life history, including growth, drift, and mortality of the egg and larval populations. US Fisheries Wildlife Service, Fisheries Bulletin 50, 149–237.Google Scholar
  99. Sinclair, M. (1988) The member vagrant hypothesis, pp. 67–77. In: Marine Populations An Essay on Population Regulation and Speciation. Washington Sea Grant Program, University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  100. Skud, B.E. (1982) Dominance in fishes: their relation between environment and abundance. Science 216, 144–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Smedbol, R.K. and Wroblewski, J.S. (2002) Metapopulation theory and northern cod population structure: interdependency of subpopulations in a recovery of a groundfish population. Fisheries Research 55, 161–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Smith, T.D. (1994) Scaling Fisheries. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  103. Smith, E.P., Orvos, D.R., and Cairns Jr., J. (1993) Impact assessment using before-after-control-impact (BACI) model: concerns and comments. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 50, 627–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Solemdal, P., Dahl, E., Danielssen, D.S., and Moksness, E. (1984) Historic review, pp. 17–45. In: Dahl, E., Danielssen, D.S., Moksness, E and Solemdal, P (eds) The Propagation of Cod Gadus morhua L. Flodevigen rapportser 1, 1984. Institute of Marine Research, Flodevigen, Norway.Google Scholar
  105. Solhaug, T. and Saetersdal, G. (1972) The development of fishery research in Norway in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the light of the history of the fisheries. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh series B 32, 399–412.Google Scholar
  106. Soutar, A. and Isaacs, J.D. (1974) Abundance of pelagic fish during the 19th and 20th centuries as recorded in anaerobic sediments of the Californias. Fisheries Bulletin, US 72, 257–273.Google Scholar
  107. Stenseth, N.Chr., Bjornstand, O.N., Falck, W., et al. (1999) Dynamics of coastal cod populations: intra- and intercohort density dependence and stochastic processes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 266, 1645–1654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Steele, J.H. (2004) Regime shifts in the ocean: reconciling observations and theory. Progress in Oceanography 60, 135–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Taylor, L.R. (1961) Aggregation, variance and the mean. Nature 189, 732–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Thompson, W.F. (1950) The Effect of Fishing on Stocks of Halibut in the Pacific. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  111. Thompson, W.F. and Bell, F.H. (1934) Biological statistics of the pacific halibut fishery. 2. Effect of changes in intensity upon total yield and yield per unity of gear. Report International Fisheries (Pacific Halibut) Commission 8, 49 pp.Google Scholar
  112. Uda, M. (1972) Historical development of fisheries oceanography in Japan. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Series B 32, 391–398.Google Scholar
  113. Volterra, V. (1926) Variations and fluctuations of the number of individuals of animal species living together, pp. 409–448. In: Chapman, R.N. (ed.) Animal Ecology, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  114. Von Bertalanffy, L., 1938. A quantitative theory of organic growth (inquiries on growth laws II) Human Biology 10(2): 181–213.Google Scholar
  115. Walford, L.A. (1938) Effect of currents on distribution and survival of the eggs and larvae of the haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on Georges Bank. Bulletin of the US Bureau of Fisheries 49, 1–73.Google Scholar
  116. Walters, C. and Kitchell, J. (2001) Cultivation/depensation effects on juvenile survival and recruitment: implications for the theory of fishing. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58, 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wilson, C.D., Hollowed, A.B., Shima, M., Walline, P., and Stienessen, S. (2003) Interactions between commercial fishing and walleye pollock. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 10, 61–77.Google Scholar
  118. Wooster, W.S. (1961) Fisheries oceanography. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Report 8, 73–74.Google Scholar
  119. Wooster, W.S. (1988) Immiscible investigators: oceanographers, meteorologists, and fishery scientists. Fisheries 13, 18–21.Google Scholar
  120. Wright, S. (1943) Isolation by distance. Genetics 28, 114–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Babcock Hollowed
    • 1
  • Kevin M. Bailey
    • 1
  1. 1.Alaska Fisheries Science CenterSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations