Advertisement

Managing Parthenium Weed Across Diverse Landscapes: Prospects and Limitations

  • K. Dhileepan
Part of the Invading Nature – Springer Series In Invasion Ecology book series (INNA, volume 5)

Abstract

Parthenium is a weed of global significance affecting many countries in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. Parthenium causes severe human and animal health problems, agricultural losses as well as serious environmental problems. Management options for parthenium include chemical, physical, legislative, fire, mycoherbicides, agronomic practices, competitive displacement and classical biological control. The ability of parthenium to grow in a wide range of habitats, its persistent seed bank, and its allelopathic potential make its management difficult. No single management option would be adequate to manage parthenium across all habitats, and there is a need to integrate various management options (e.g. grazing management, competitive displacement, cultural practices) with classical biological control as a core management option.

Keywords

Parthenium hysterophorus Biological control Integrated weed management 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamson DC (1996) Introducing dynamic considerations when economically evaluating weeds. Masters Thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  2. Adamson DC, Bray S (1999) The economic benefit from investing in insect biological control of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus). School of Natural and Rural Systems Management, University of Queensland, Brisbane, p. 44.Google Scholar
  3. Adhikari B, Tiwari S (2004) Parthenium hysterophorus L.: highly allergic invasive alien plant growing tremendously in Nepal. Botanica Orientalis 4:36–37.Google Scholar
  4. Adkins SW, Navie SC, Dhileepan K (2005) Parthenium weed in Australia: research progress and prospects. In: Prasad TVR, Nanjappa H V, Devendra R et al. (eds) Proceedings of the second international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 11–27.Google Scholar
  5. Akula B, Kondap SM (1997) Studies on control of Parthenium hysterophorus L. by allelopathy. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 44–49.Google Scholar
  6. Angiras NN, Saini JP (1997) Distribution, menace and management of Parthenium hysterophorus L. in Himachal Pradesh. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthe-nium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 13–15.Google Scholar
  7. Anjum T, Bajwa R (2005) Biocontrol potential of grasses against Parthenium hysterophorus. In: Prasad TVR, Nanjappa H V, Devendra R et al. (eds) Second international conference on parthe-nium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 143–146.Google Scholar
  8. Anjum T, Bajwa R, Javaid A (2006) Biological control of Parthenium. I. Effect of Imperata cylindrica on distribution, germination and seedling growth of Parthenium hysterophorus L. In: Proceedings of the fourth world congress on allelopathy, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, pp. 297–300.Google Scholar
  9. Anonymous (2003) Incursion of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus) in Papua New Guinea. Pest Alert No. 30, Plant Protection Service, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, p. 2.Google Scholar
  10. Auld BA, Hosking J, McFadyen RE (1982–1983) Analysis of the spread of tiger pear and parthe-nium weed in Australia. Australian Weeds 2:56–60.Google Scholar
  11. Bagyanarayana G, Manoharachary C (1997) Studies on Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola a potential mycoherbicide. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) Proceedings of the first international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 95–96.Google Scholar
  12. Basappa H (1997) Incidence of biocontrol agent Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister on Parthenium hysterophorus L. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 81–84.Google Scholar
  13. Basappa H (2005) Parthenium an alternate host of sunflower necrosis disease and thrips. In: Ramachandra Prasad TV, Nanjappa HV, Devendra R et al. (eds) Second international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 83–86.Google Scholar
  14. Bennett FD (1976) A preliminary survey of the insects and diseases attacking Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Compositae) in Mexico and the USA to evaluate the possibilities of its biological control in Australia. Mimeographical Report, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Trininad, 18 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Bhatia S, Choudhary R, Singh M (2005) Current status of the invasive weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) and impact of defoliation by the biocontrol agent Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Jammu (J&K), India. Eighth International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions, 5–12 September 2005, Katowice, Poland (Abstract).Google Scholar
  16. Bhumannavar BS, Balasubramanian C, Ramani S (1998) Life table of the Mexican beetle Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister on parthenium and sunflower. Journal of Biological Control 12:101–106.Google Scholar
  17. Bowen (2001) A study of the extent of alien species invasion into the Lubombo Conservancy, Swaziland. http://www.questoverseas.com/activeafrica/documents /AstudyOfTheExtentSwazi land.doc.
  18. Brooks SJ, Vitelli JS, Rainbow AG (2004) Developing best practice roadside Parthenium hysterophorus L. control. In: Sindel BM, Johnson SB (eds) Proceedings of the fourteenth Australian weeds conference, Weed Society of New South Wales, Australia, pp. 195–198.Google Scholar
  19. CABI (2004) Parthenium fact sheet. In: Crop Protection Compendium CD-ROM. CAB International, UK.Google Scholar
  20. Chakravarthy AK, Bhat NS (1994) The beetle (Zygogramma conjuncta Rogers), an agent for the biological control of weed, Parthenium hysterophorus L. in India feeds on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Journal of Oilseeds Research 11:122–125.Google Scholar
  21. Chakravarthy AK, Bhat NS (1997) Ecology of the beetle Zygogramma conjuncta (Rogers) on Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 74–77.Google Scholar
  22. Chakravarthy AK, Bhat NS, Sridhar S (1994) The beetle Zygogramma conjuncta (Rogers), a bio-agent for the control of the weed, Parthenium hysterophorus L. is oligophagous. Science and Culture 60:61–62.Google Scholar
  23. Chakravarthy AK, Cox ML, Bhat NS, Sridhar S, Thyagaraj NE (1996) Identification, host specificity and infestation of Zygogramma conjuncta Rogers on Helianthus annus L. In: Ambrose DP (ed) Biological and cultural control of insect pests, an Indian scenario, Adeline, Thirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India, pp. 243–250.Google Scholar
  24. Cheney M (1998) Determination of the prevalence of sensitivity to Parthenium in areas of Queensland affected by the weed. Master of Public Health thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 118.Google Scholar
  25. Chippendale JF, Panetta FD (1994) The cost of parthenium weed to the Queensland cattle industry. Plant Protection Quarterly 9:73–76.Google Scholar
  26. Dale IJ (1981) Parthenium weed in the Americas: a report on the ecology of Parthenium hysterophorus in South, Central and North America. Australian Weeds 1:8–14.Google Scholar
  27. Da Silva MC, Izidine S, Amuda AB (2004) A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. South African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30. SABONET, Pretoria, 185 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Dawson J, Sarkar PA (1997) Effect of pre-emergence herbicides in controlling Parthenium hysterophorus L. and associated weeds in greengram. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, p. 115.Google Scholar
  29. Deshpande KS, Deshpande UK, Baig MMV (1997) Managing parthenium: Achilles' heel undamaged. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 97–98.Google Scholar
  30. Dhawan DR, Dhawan P, Gupta SK (1997) Allelopathic potential of some leguminous plant species towards Parthenium hysterophorus L. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 53–55.Google Scholar
  31. Dhileepan K (2001) Effectiveness of introduced biocontrol insects on the weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research 91:167–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dhileepan K (2003a) Current status of the stem-boring weevil Listronotus setosipennis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) introduced against the weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in Australia. Biocontrol Science and Technology 13:3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dhileepan K (2003b) Seasonal variation in the effectiveness of leaf-feeding beetle Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and stem-galling moth Epiblema strenuana (Lepidoptera: Totricidae) as biocontrol agents on the weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 93:393–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dhileepan K (2004) The applicability of the plant vigor and resource regulation hypotheses in explaining Epiblema gall moth-Parthenium weed interactions. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 113:63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dhileepan K (2007) Biological control of parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus) in Australian rangeland translates to improved grass production. Weed Science 55:497–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dhileepan K, McFadyen RE (1997) Biological control of parthenium in Australia — progress and prospects. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume I, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 40–44.Google Scholar
  37. Dhileepan K, McFadyen RE (2001) Effects of gall damage by the introduced biocontrol agent Epiblema strenuana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on the weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae). Journal of Applied Entomology 125:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dhileepan K, Madigan B, Vitelli M et al. (1996) A new initiative in the biological control of parthenium. In: Shepherd RCH (ed) Proceedings of the eleventh Australian weeds conference, Weeds Society of Victoria, Australia, pp. 309–312.Google Scholar
  39. Dhileepan K, Setter S, McFadyen RE (2000a) Impact of defoliation by the introduced biocontrol agent Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on parthenium weed in Australia. BioControl 45:501–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dhileepan K, Florentine SK, Lockett CJ (2006) Establishment, initial impact and persistence of parthenium summer rust Puccinia melampodii in north Queensland. In: Preston C, Watts JH, Crossman ND (eds) Proceedings of the fifteenth Australian weeds conference, Weed Management Society of South Australia, Adelaide, pp. 577–580.Google Scholar
  41. Dhiman SC, Bhargava ML (2005) Seasonal occurrence and bio-control efficacy of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Parthenium hysterophorus. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences 13:81–84.Google Scholar
  42. Dixit A, Bhan VM (1997) Management of parthenium through herbicides. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 99–100.Google Scholar
  43. Evans HC (1983) Parthenium project: report on a visit to Mexico to survey fungal pathogens of Parthenium hysterophorus. L. (Compositae). March–May 1983. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, UK, p. 19.Google Scholar
  44. Evans HC (1987) Life cycle of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola, a potential biological control agentof Parthenium hysterophorus. Transactions of theBritish MycologicalSociety 88:105–111.Google Scholar
  45. Evans HC (1997a) Parthenium hysterophorus: a review of its weed status, and the possibilities for biological control. Biocontrol News and Information 18:89–98.Google Scholar
  46. Evans HC (1997b) The potential of neotropical fungal pathogens as classical biological control agents for management of Parthenium hysterophorus L. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) Firstinternational conference on parthenium management,UniversityofAgricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 55–62.Google Scholar
  47. Fauzi MT, Tomley AJ, Dart PJ, Ogle HJ, Adkins SW (1999) The rust Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola, a potential biocontrol agent of Parthenium weed: environmental requirements for disease progress. Biological Control 14:141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fessehaie R, Chichayibelu M, Giorgis MH (2005) Spread and ecological consequences of Parthenium hysterophorus in Ethiopia. Arem 6:11–21.Google Scholar
  49. Firehun Y, Tamado T (2006) Weed flora in the Rift Valley sugarcane plantations of Ethiopia as influencedbysoiltypesandagronomicpractises.WeedBiologyandManagement 6:139–150.Google Scholar
  50. Florentine SK, Raman A, Dhileepan K (2002) Response of the weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) to the stem gall-inducing weevil Conotrachelus albocinereus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomologia Generalis 26:195–206.Google Scholar
  51. Frew M, Solomon K, Mashilla D (1996) Prevalence and distribution of Parthenium hysterophorus L in eastern Ethiopia. In: Fessehaie R (ed) Proceedings of the first annual conference, Ethiopian Weed Science Society, 24–25 Nov. 1993, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Arem 1:19–26.Google Scholar
  52. Gautam RD, Aslam Khan M, Samyal A et al. (2005a) Survey of plants suppressing Parthenium hysterophorus Linnaeus in Delhi. In: Prasad TVR, Nanjappa H V, Devendra R et al. (eds) Second international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 94–97.Google Scholar
  53. Gautam RD, Aslam Khan M, Samyal A (2005b) Release, recovery and establishment of Mexican beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) on Parthenium hysterophorus Linnaeus proliferating in and around Delhi. Journal of Entomological Research 29:167–172.Google Scholar
  54. Gautam RD, Khan MA, Garg AK (2006) Ecological adaptability and variations among population of Mexican beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera). Journal of Entomological Research 30:21–23.Google Scholar
  55. Govindappa MR, Chowda Reddy RV, Devaraja et al. (2005) Parthenium hysterophorus: a natural reservoir of tomato leaf curl begomovirus. In: Prasad TVR, Nanjappa HV, Devendra R et al. (eds) Second international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 80–82.Google Scholar
  56. Graham GC, Lang CL (1998) Genetic analysis of relationship of parthenium occurrences in Australia and indications of its origins. Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Pest Management, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia (Internal Report).Google Scholar
  57. Grice AC, Brown JR (1996) Repeated fire in the management of invasive tropical shrubs. In: Hunt LP, Sinclair R (eds) Proceedings of 9th biennial Australian rangeland conference, Australian Rangeland Society, Port Augusta, South Australia, pp. 171–172.Google Scholar
  58. Griffiths MW, McFadyen RE (1993) Biology and host-specificity of Platphalonidia mystica (Lep, Cochylidae) introduced into Queensland to biologically control Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae). Entomophaga 38:131–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gupta PR, Sood A (2002) Spread of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister in Himachal Pradesh. Insect Environment 8:101–102.Google Scholar
  60. Gupta PR, Sood A (2005) Biological observations on Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister on congress grass (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) and its activity in mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh. Pest Management and Economic Zoology 13:21–27.Google Scholar
  61. Gupta RK, Khan MS, Bali K et al. (2004) Predatory bugs of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister: an exotic beetle for biological suppression of Parthenium hysterophorus L. Current Science 87:1005–1010.Google Scholar
  62. Handa S, Sahoo B, Sharma VK (2001) Oral hyposensitization in patients with contact dermatitis from Parthenium hysterophorus. Contact Dermatitis 44:299–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Haseler WH (1976) Parthenium hysterophorus L. in Australia. PANS 22:515–580.Google Scholar
  64. Hilliard OM (1977) Compositae in Natal. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 659 pp.Google Scholar
  65. Holden ANG, Parker A, Tomley AJ (1995) Host range screening of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola for the biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus in Queensland. In: Delfosse ES, Scott RR (eds) Proceedings of the eight international symposium on biological control of weeds, DSIR/CSIRO, Melbourne, pp. 555–560.Google Scholar
  66. Holman DJ (1981) Parthenium weed threatens Bowen Shire. Queensland Agricultural Journal 107:57–60.Google Scholar
  67. Jadhav RB, Varma A (2001) Results of field introduction and establishment of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister against Parthenium hysterophorus L., weed around sugarcane growing areas of Pravaranagar (Maharashtra). Indian Journal of Sugarcane Technology 16:66–69.Google Scholar
  68. Jaipal S (2007) Potential of Mexican beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata in suppression of Parthenium hysterophorus in the Indian subtropics (abstract). XII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, La Grande Motte, France, 22–27 April 2007.Google Scholar
  69. Javaid A, Anjum T (2005) Parthenium hysterophorus L. —a noxious alien weed. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 11:1–6.Google Scholar
  70. Javaid A, Shabbir A (2007) First report of biological control of rthenium hysterophorus by Zygogramma bicolorata in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 18:199–200.Google Scholar
  71. Javaid A, Anjum T, Bajwa R (2005) Biological control of Parthenium. II. Allelopathic effect of Desmostachya bipinnata on distribution and early seedling growth of Parthenium hysterophorus L. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology 2:459–463.Google Scholar
  72. Jayanth KP (1987a) Introduction and establishment of Zygogramma bicolorata on Parthenium hysterophorus in Bangalore, India. Current Science 56:310–311.Google Scholar
  73. Jayanth KP (1987b) Investigations on the host-specificity of Epiblema strenuana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), introduced for biological control trials against Parthenium hysterophorus in India. Journal of Biological Control 1:133–137.Google Scholar
  74. Jayanth KP, Bali G (1993a) Temperature tolerance of Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) introduced for biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in India. Journal of Entomological Research 17:27–34.Google Scholar
  75. Jayanth KP, Bali G (1994a) Biological control of parthenium by the beetle Zygogramma bicolorata in India. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 42:207–213.Google Scholar
  76. Jayanth KP, Nagarkatti S (1987) Investigations on the host-specificity and damage potential of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) introduced into India for biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus. Entomon 12:141–145.Google Scholar
  77. Jayanth KP, Visalakshy PNG (1994a) Dispersal of the parthenium beetle Zygogramma bicolorata (Chrysomelidae) in India. Biocontrol Science and Technology 4:363–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jayanth KP, Visalakshy PNG (1994b) Field evaluation of sunflower varieties for susceptibility to the parthenium beetle Zygogramma bicolorata. Journal of Biological Control 8:48–52.Google Scholar
  79. Jayanth KP, Visalakshy PNG (1996) Succession of vegetation after suppression of parthenium weed by Zygogramma bicolorata in Bangalore, India. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 12:303–309.Google Scholar
  80. Jayanth KP, Mohandas S, Ashokan R et al. (1993) Parthenium pollen induced feeding by Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on sunflower. Bulletin of Entomological Research 83:595–598.Google Scholar
  81. Jayanth KP, Visalakshy PNG, Ghosh SK et al. (1997) Feasibility of biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus by Zygogramma bicolorata in the light of the controversy due to its feeding on sunflower. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 45–51.Google Scholar
  82. Jayanth KP, Visalakshy PNG, Chaudhary M et al. (1998) Age-related feeding by the Parthenium beetle Zygogramma bicolorata on sunflower and its effect on survival and reproduction. Biocontrol Science and Technology 8(1R):117–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Jayasurya AHM (2005) Parthenium weed – status and management in Sri Lanka. In: Prasad TVR, Nanjappa H V, Devendra R et al. (eds) Second international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 36–43.Google Scholar
  84. Jeyalakshmi C, Doraisamy S, Paridasan VV (2005) Biodiversity of fungal pathogens affecting Parthenium hysterophorus L. in Tamil Nadu, India. In: Prasad TVR, Nanjappa H V, Devendra R et al. (eds) Second international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 98–101.Google Scholar
  85. Joel DM, Liston A (1986) New adventive weeds in Israel. Israel Journal of Botany 35(1R):215–223.Google Scholar
  86. Joshi S (1991a) Biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) by Cassia uniflora Mill (Leguminosae), in Bangalore, India. Tropical Pest Management 37(1R):182–184.Google Scholar
  87. Joshi S (1991b) Interference effects of Cassia uniflora Mill on Parthenium hysterophorus L. Plant and Soil 132(1R):213–218.Google Scholar
  88. Kadhane DL, Jangde CR, Sadekar RD et al. (1992) Parthenium toxicity in buffalo calves. Journal of Soils and Crops 21(1R):69–71.Google Scholar
  89. Kandasamy OS, Sankaran S (1997) Management of parthenium using competitive crops and plants. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume I, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 33–36.Google Scholar
  90. Kauraw LP, Chile A, Bhan VM (1997a) Effect of marigold (Tegetes papula Linn.) population on the growth and survival of Parthenium hysterophorus L. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 39–40.Google Scholar
  91. Kauraw LP, Chile A, Bhan VM (1997b) Evaluation of Fusarium pallidorseum (Cooke) Sacc. for the biocontrol of Parthenium hysterophorus L. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume I, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 70–74.Google Scholar
  92. Khosla SN, Sobti SN (1979) Parthenium — a national health hazard, its control and utility — a review. Pesticides 13(1R):121–127.Google Scholar
  93. Kohli RK, Batish DR, Singh HP (1997) Management of Parthenium hysterophorus L. through an integrated approach. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthe-nium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 6–62.Google Scholar
  94. Kololgi PD, Kololgi SD, Kololgi NP (1997) Dermatologic hazards of parthenium in human beings. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume I, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 18–21.Google Scholar
  95. Kulkarani KA, Kulkarani NS, Santoshkumar GH (2000) Loss estimation in sunflower due to Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister. Insect Environment 6(1R):10–11.Google Scholar
  96. Kumar ARV (1992) Is the Mexican beetle Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) expanding its host range? Current Science 63(1R):729–730.Google Scholar
  97. Kumar PS, Evans HC (2005) The mycobiota of Parthenium hysterophorus in its native and exotic ranges: opportunities for biological control in India. In: Prasad TVR, Nanjappa H V, Devendra R et al. (eds) Proceedings of the second international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 107–113.Google Scholar
  98. Macdonald IAW, Reaser JK, Bright C et al. (eds) (2003) Invasive alien species in southern Africa: national reports and directory of resources. Global Invasive Species Programme, Cape Town, South Africa.Google Scholar
  99. Mahadevappa M (1997) Ecology, distribution, menace and management of parthenium. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume I, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  100. Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) (1997) First international conference on parthenium management, Volumes I & II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India.Google Scholar
  101. Manickam K, Doraisamy S, Sankaran S (1997a) Epidemiology and host range studies on powdery mildew (Oidium parthenii S & U) of Parthenium hysterophorus L. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume I, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 75–76.Google Scholar
  102. Manickam K, Doraisamy S, Sankaran S (1997b) Inhibitory effect of Fusarium moniliforme on seed germination of Parthenium hysterophorus L. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 90–91.Google Scholar
  103. Maninder S, Singh J, Brar KS, Bakhetia DRC (1998) Spread of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister on Parthenium in Punjab and adjoining states. Insect Environment 4(1R):83Google Scholar
  104. McClay AS (1979) Preliminary report on the biology and host-specificity of Smicronyx lutulentus Dietz (Col.: Curculionidae), a potential biocontrol agent for Parthenium hysterophorus L. Unpublished report, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Mexican sub-station, Monterrey, Mexico, 10 pp.Google Scholar
  105. McClay AS (1980) Studies of some potential biocontrol agents for Parthenium hysterophorus in Mexico. In: Delfosse ES (ed) Proceedings of the fifth international symposium on biocontrol of weeds, CSIRO, Australia, pp. 471–482.Google Scholar
  106. McClay AS (1985) Biocontrol agents for Parthenium hysterophorus from Mexico. In: Delfose ES (ed) Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on biological control of weeds, Agriculture Canada, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 771–778.Google Scholar
  107. McClay AS (1987) Observations on the biology and host specificity of Epiblema strenuana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), a potentialbiocontrolagent for Parthenium hysterophorus (Compositae). Entomophaga 32(1R):23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. McClay AS, McFadyen RE, Bradley JD (1990) Biology of Bucculatrix parthenica Bradley sp. n. (Lepidoptera: Bucculatricidae) and its establishment in Australia as a biological control agent for Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceace). Bulletin of Entomological Research 80(1R):427–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. McClay AS, Palmer WA, Bennett FD et al. (1995) Phytophagous arthropods associated with Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae)inNorth America.Environmental Entomology 24(1R):796–809.Google Scholar
  110. McFadyen PJ (1976) A survey of insects attacking Parthenium hysterophorus L. (F. Compositae) in South America. Internal report, Department of Lands, State Government of Queensland, Australia, p. 8Google Scholar
  111. McFadyen PJ (1979) A survey of insects attacking Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Compositae) in Argentina and Brazil. Dusenia 11(1R):42–45.Google Scholar
  112. McFadyen RE (1985) The biological control programme against Parthenium hysterophorus in Queensland. In: Delfosse ES (ed) Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on the biological control of weeds, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 789–796.Google Scholar
  113. McFadyen RE (1987) The effect of climate on the stem-galling moth Epiblema strenuana. In: Lemerle D, Leys AR (eds) Proceedings of the Seventh Australian Weeds Conference, Weed Society of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, pp. 97–99.Google Scholar
  114. McFadyen RE (1992) Biological control against parthenium weed in Australia. Crop Protection 24(1R):400–407.Google Scholar
  115. McFadyen RE (1995) Parthenium weed and human health in Queensland. Australian Family Physician 24(1R):1455–1459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. McFadyen RE (2000) Biology and host specificity of the stem galling weevil Conotrachelus albocinereus Fielder (Col: Curculionidae), a potential biocontrol agent for parthenium weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) in Queensland, Australia. Biocontrol Science and Technology 10(1R):195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. McFadyen RE, McClay AR (1981) Two new insects for the biological control of parthenium weed in Queensland. In: Wilson BJ, Swarbrick JD (eds) Sixth Australian Weeds Conference, Weed Science Society of Queensland, Australia, pp. 145–149.Google Scholar
  118. McFadyen RE, Withers TM (1997) Report on biology and host-specificity of Carmenta ithacae (Lep: Sesiidae) for the biological control of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus). Internal Report, Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Australia.Google Scholar
  119. Narasimhan TR, Ananth M, Narayana Swamy M et al. (1980) Toxicity of Parthenium hysterophorus L. in cattle and buffaloes. Indian Journal of Animal Science 50(1R):173–178.Google Scholar
  120. Nath R (1981) Note on the effect of Parthenium extract on seed germination and seedling growth in crops. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 51(1R):601–603.Google Scholar
  121. Nath R (1988) Parthenium hysterophorus L. – a general account. Agricultural Review 9(1R):171–179.Google Scholar
  122. Navie SC, McFadyen RE, Panetta FD et al. (1996) The biology of Australian weeds 27. Parthenium hysterophorus L. Plant Protection Quarterly 11(1R):76–88.Google Scholar
  123. Navie SC, Panetta FD, McFadyen RE et al. (1998a) Behaviour of buried and surface-lying seeds of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). Weed Research 38(1R):338–341.Google Scholar
  124. Navie SC, Priest TE, McFadyen RE et al. (1998b) Efficacy of the stem-galling moth Epiblema strenuana Walk. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as a biological control agent for the ragweed parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). Biological Control 13(1R):1–8.Google Scholar
  125. Navie SC, Panetta FD, McFadyen RE et al. (2004) Germinable soil seedbanks of Central Queensland rangelands invaded by the exotic weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. Weed Biology and Management 4(1R):154–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Njoroge JM (1986) New weeds in Kenya coffee. A short communication. Kenya Coffee 51(1R):333–335.Google Scholar
  127. Njoroge JM (1989) Glyphosate (round-up 36% a.i.) low rate on annual weeds in Kenya coffee. Kenya Coffee 54:713–716.Google Scholar
  128. Njoroge JM (1991) Tolerance of Bidens pilosa and Parthenium hysterophorus L. to paraquat (Gramaxone) in Kenya coffee. Kenya Coffee 56:999–1001.Google Scholar
  129. Ntushelo K, Wood AR (2007) Supplementary host specificity testing of Puccinia melampodii, a biocontrol agent of Parthenium hysterophorus (abstract). XII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, 22–27 April 2007, La Grande Motte, France.Google Scholar
  130. O'Donnell C, Adkins SW (2005) Management of parthenium weed through competitive displacement with beneficial plants. Weed Biology and Management 5:77–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Page AR, Lacey KL (2006) Economic impact assessment of Australian weed biological control. Technical Series no. 10, CRC for Australian Weed Management, Adelaide, Australia, p. 150.Google Scholar
  132. Pandey S, Joshi BD, Tiwari LD (2001) The incidence of Mexican beetle Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) from Haridwar and surrounding areas. Journal of Entomological Research 25:145–149.Google Scholar
  133. Parker A, Holden ANG, Tomley AJ (1994) Host specificity testing and assessment of the patho-genicity of the rust, Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola, as a biological control agent of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus). Plant Pathology 43:1–16.Google Scholar
  134. Parsons WT, Cuthbertson EG (2001) Noxious weeds of Australia, 2nd Edition. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia, p. 698.Google Scholar
  135. Patel VN, Viraktamath CA (2005) Dispersal of parthenium biocontrol agent Zygogramma bicol-orata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in sunflower and Parthenium hysterophorus L. In: Prasad TVR, Nanjappa H V, Devendra R et al. (eds) Second international conference on parthe-nium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 120–122.Google Scholar
  136. Patil SA, Jatti PD, Chetti MB, Hiremath SM (1997) A survey of parthenium in Bijapur district – a case study. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 20–23.Google Scholar
  137. Peng CI, Hu LA, Kao MT (1988) Unwelcome naturalisation of Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in Taiwan. Journal of Taiwan Museum 41:95–101.Google Scholar
  138. Picman AK, Towers GHN (1982) Sesquiterpene lactones in various populations of Parthenium hysterophorus. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 10:145–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Rao PVS, Mangala A, Rao BSS et al. (1977) Clinical and immunological studies on persons exposed to Parthenium hysterophorus L. Experientia 33:1387–1388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Rao RDVJP, Govindappa MR, Devaraja et al. (2005) Role of parthenium in perpetuation and spread of plant pathogens. In: Ramachandra Prasad T V, Nanjappa H V, Devendra R et al. (eds) Second international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 65–72.Google Scholar
  141. Rao RS (1956) Parthenium – a new record for India. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 54:218–220.Google Scholar
  142. Robertson LN, Kettle BA (1994) Biology of Pseudoheteronyx sp. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) on the central highlands at Queensland. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 33:181–184.Google Scholar
  143. Sarkar PA (1997) Effect of isoproturon and 2,4-D on Parthenium hysterophorus L. and other weeds in wheat. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First International conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 111–113.Google Scholar
  144. Sarkate MB, Pawar VM (2006) Establishment of Mexican beetle (Zygogramma bicolorata) against Parthenium hysterophorus in Marathwada. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 76:270–271.Google Scholar
  145. Sashidhar KC, Hiremath NV, Bhat ARS, Patil VC (1997) Studies on aeropalynological survey of pollen of parthenium and other species in Bangalore city. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 28–31.Google Scholar
  146. Seier MK (1999) Studies on the rust Puccinia melampodii Diet. and Holw. — a potential biological control agent for parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in Australia. CABI Bioscience UK Centre, Silwood Park, UK (Report submitted to the Queensland Department of Natural Resources & Mines, February 1999).Google Scholar
  147. Seier MK, Tomley AJ (2000) Host range of Puccinia melampodii: implications for its use as a biocontrol agent of parthenium weed in Australia (abstract). In: Spencer NR (ed) Proceedings of the X international symposium on biological control of weeds, Bozeman, MT, p. 686.Google Scholar
  148. Seier MK, Harvey JL, Romero A et al. (1997) Safety testing of the rust Puccinia melampodii as a potential biocontrol agent of Parthenium hysterophorus L. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume I, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 63–69.Google Scholar
  149. Shabbir A, Bajwa R (2006) Distribution of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), an alien invasive weed species threatening the biodiversity of Islamabad. Weed Biology and Management 6:89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sharma TK, Shujauddin (2006) Incidence and biology of Mexican beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata on Parthenium hysterophorous. Bionotes 8:51.Google Scholar
  151. Sharma VK, Sethuraman G, Radhakrishna B (2005) Evolution of clinical pattern of parthenium dermatitis: a case study of 74 cases. Contact Dermatitis 53:84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Singh SP (1997) Perspectives in biological control of parthenium in India. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 22–32.Google Scholar
  153. Sridhara S, Basavaraja BK, Ganeshaiah KN (2005) Temporal variation in relative dominance of Parthenium hysterophorus and its effect on native biodiversity. In: Prasad TVR, Nanjappa H V, Devendra R et al. (eds) Proceedings of the second international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 240–242.Google Scholar
  154. Strathie LW (2007) Managing the impact of parthenium invasions in Africa. Biocontrol News and Information 28: 54N–55N.Google Scholar
  155. Strathie LW, Wood AR, van Rooi C et al. (2005) Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in southern Africa, and initiation of biological control against it South Africa. In: Prasad TVR, Nanjappa H V, Devendra R et al. (eds) Second international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 127–133.Google Scholar
  156. Susilkumar (2000) Impact of the introduced Mexican beetle Zygogramma bicolorata on the suppression of Parthenium hysterophorus: a case study (Abstract). Third International Weed Science Congress, Foz do Iguassu, Brazil.Google Scholar
  157. Susilkumar, Bhan VM (1997) Natural population replacement by Cassia tora at Jabalpur and adjoining areas of Madhya Pradesh. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 41–43.Google Scholar
  158. Susilkumar, Bhan VM (1998) Establishment and dispersal of introduced exotic Parthenium controlling bioagent Zygogramma bicolorata in relation to ecological factors at Vindhyanagar. Indian Journal of Ecology 25: 8–13.Google Scholar
  159. Swamiappan M, Sethupitchai U, Geetha B (1997a) Feeding potential of freshly emerged Z. bicolorata adults on sunflower and parthenium. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume I, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 52–54.Google Scholar
  160. Swamiappan M, Sethupitchai U, Geetha B (1997b) Evaluation of the susceptibility of sunflower cultivars to the Mexican beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister. In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 177–179.Google Scholar
  161. Tamado T, Milberg P (2000) Weed flora in arable fields of eastern Ethiopia with emphasis on the occurrence of Parthenium hysterophorus. Weed Research 40: 507–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Tamado T, Ohlander L, Milberg P (2002a) Interference by the weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. with grain sorghum: influence of weed density and duration of competition. International Journal of Pest Management 48:183–188.Google Scholar
  163. Taye T (2005) Investigation of pathogens for biological control of parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in Ethiopia. Programme and Abstracts of the seventh annual conference of the Ethiopian Weed Science Society, 24–25 November 2005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 21–22.Google Scholar
  164. Taye T (2006) Biological control research on parthenium weed in Ethiopia. In: Fessehaie R, Teklemariam A, Ali K et al. (eds) Proceedings of the second national workshop on invasive alien weeds and insect pests, 6–8 June, 2005, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.Google Scholar
  165. Taye T, Gossmann M, Einhorn G et al. (2002) The potential of pathogens as biological control of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in Ethiopia. Mededelingen — Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent 67: 409–420.Google Scholar
  166. Taye T, Einhorn G, Gossmann M et al. (2004a) The potential of parthenium rust as biological control of parthenium weed in Ethiopia. Pest Management Journal of Ethiopia 8: 39–50.Google Scholar
  167. Taye T, Einhorn G, Metz R (2004b) Parthenium hysterophorus, an invasive species in Ethiopia — investigations on the occurrence and on its pathogens. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 19: 271–278.Google Scholar
  168. Taye T, Obermeier C, Einhorn G et al. (2004c) Phyllody disease of parthenium weed in Ethiopia. Pest Management Journal of Ethiopia 8: 83–95.Google Scholar
  169. Tomley AJ (1990) Parthenium weed rust, Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola. In: Heap JW (ed) Proceedings of the ninth Australian weeds conference, Crop Science Society of South Australia, Adelaide, pp. 511–512.Google Scholar
  170. Tomley AJ (2000) Puccinia melampodii (summer rust) a new biocontrol agent for parthenium weed. In: Swarbrick JT (ed) Proceedings of the sixth Queensland weed symposium, Weed Society of Queensland, Brisbane, pp. 126–129.Google Scholar
  171. Towers GHN (1981) Allergic exzematous contact dermatitis from parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus). In: Wilson BJ, Swarbrick JT (eds) Proceedings of the sixth Australian weeds conference, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, pp. 565–569.Google Scholar
  172. Towers GHN, Rao PVS (1992) Impact of the pan-tropical weed, Parthenium hysterophorus L. on human affairs. In: Richardson RG (ed) Proceedings of the first international weed control congress, Volume I, Weed Science Society, Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 134–138.Google Scholar
  173. Tudor GD, Ford AL, Armstrong TR et al. (1982) Taints in meat from sheep grazing Parthenium hysterophorus. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 22:43–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Uniyal VP, Mukherjee SK, Goyal CP et al. (2001) Defoliation of parthenium by Mexican beetle (Zygogramma bicolorata) in Rajaji National Park. Annals of Forestry 9:327–330.Google Scholar
  175. van der Laan M (2006) Allelopathic interference potential of the alien invader plant Parthenium hysterophorus. MSc Thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 95 pp.Google Scholar
  176. Vikrant P, Verma KK, Rajak RC et al. (2007) Characterization of a phytotoxin from Phoma herbarum for management of Parthenium hysterophorus L. Journal of Phytopathology 154:461–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Viraktamath CA, Bhumannavar BS, Patel VN (2004) Biology and ecology of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister, 1953. In: Joliver P, Santiago-Blay JA, Schmitt M (eds) New developments in the biology of Chrysomelidae, SPB Academic, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp. 767–777.Google Scholar
  178. Vogler W, Navie S, Adkins S et al. (2002) Use of fire to control parthenium weed. A report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Australia, p. 41.Google Scholar
  179. Wedner HJ, Zenger V, Lewis W (1986) Identification of American feverfew (Parthenium hysterophorus) as an allergen in the United-States Gulf-Coast. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 77:198.Google Scholar
  180. Wild CH (1980) Preliminary report on the biology and host-specificity of Hyperodes sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential biological control agent for Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Compositae). Unpublished report, Alan Fletcher Research Station, South American Field Office, Londrina, Brazil, 31 pp.Google Scholar
  181. Wild CH, McFadyen RE, Tomley AJ et al. (1992) The biology and host specificity of the stem-boring weevil Listronotus setosipennis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) — a potential biocontrol agent for Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae). Entomophaga 37:591–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Withers TM (1998) Influence of plant species on host acceptance behaviour of the biocontrol agent Zygogramma bicolorata (Col.: Chrysomelidae). Biological Control 13:55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Withers TM (1999) Examining the hierarchy threshold model in a no-choice feeding assay. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 91:89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Withers TM, McFadyen RE, Marohasy J (1999) Importation protocols and risk assessment of weed biological control agents in Australia: the example of Carmenta nr. ithacae. In: Follett PA, Duan JJ (eds) Nontarget effects of biological control, Kluwer, Boston, pp. 195–214.Google Scholar
  185. Wood AR, Scholler M (2002) Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola on Parthenium hysterophorus in Southern Africa. Plant Disease 86:327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Yadav A, Malik RK, Balyan RS (1997) Evaluation of herbicides against carrot weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). In: Mahadevappa M, Patil VC (eds) First international conference on parthenium management, Volume II, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, pp. 103–105.Google Scholar
  187. Yaduraju NT, Sushilkumar, Prasad Babu MBB et al. (2005) Parthenium hysterophorus — distribution, problems and management strategies in India. In: Prasad TVR, Nanjappa H V, Devendra R et al. (eds) Second international conference on parthenium management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, pp. 6–10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Dhileepan
    • 1
  1. 1.Queensland Department of Primary Industries and FisheriesAlan Fletcher Research StationSherwoodAustralia

Personalised recommendations