Effect of Buildings on Free-Field Ground Motion

  • Marco Mucciarelli
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC)

The idea that during an earthquake the vibration of buildings may transmit back to the soil a quantity of energy able to modify the ground motion was theoretically postulated by Wong and Trifunac (1975) and Wirgin and Bard (1996). During an earthquake it is difficult to measure and to separate the source and site effects from that of the oscillating building (Chavez Garcia and Cardenas-Soto, 2002). Again, it is most difficult to separate the quantity of energy related by a single vibrating building from the effects of the others and to separate them from the energy of incident wave train. To estimate the quantity of energy that building can release back to the soil controlled conditions experiments have been carried out. The first experiment has been performed by Jennings (1970), during forced vibration of buildings, while Kanamori et al. (1991) studied the effects of high-rise buildings in Los Angeles, whose vibration was caused by the sonic boom of the Space Shuttle. Recent active experiments have been carried out by Guéguen et al. (2000) and Guéguen and Bard (2005) on a five-story RC-building model (1:3) located in the EuroSeisTest site at Volvi (GR), by Mucciarelli et al. (2003) on a base isolated building during a release test and by Gallipoli et al. (2006) taking advantage of a controlled demolition experiment at Bagnoli (IT). Recent passive tests using ambient noise are described in Gallipoli et al. (2004) and Cornou et al. (2004). The conclusions of all these experiments confirm the importance that buildings may have as seismic sources. On the other hand, numerical simulation were made on idealised models of city-soil interaction: see, e.g., Tsogka and Wirgin (2003), Kham et al. (2006), Ditommaso et al. (2007).

References

  1. Chavez-Garcia, F.J. and M. Cardenas-Soto (2002). The contribution of the built environment to the free-field ground motion in Mexico City, Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 22, 773–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cornou, C., Guéguen, P., Bard, P.-Y., and E. Haghshenas (2004). Ambient noise energy bursts observation and modeling: Trapping of harmonic structure-soil induced—waves in a topmost sedimentary layer, J. Seismol., 8(4), 507–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ditommaso, R., Gallipoli, M.R., Mucciarelli, M., and F.C. Ponzo (2007). Effect of vibrating building on “free field” ground motion: from the Bagnoli experiment to many-buildings simulation, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Earthq. Geotech. Eng., CD-ROM edition, Paper No. 1388. Springer, ISBN 978-1-4020-5893-6Google Scholar
  4. Gallipoli, M.R., Mucciarelli, M., Castro, R.R., Monachesi, G., and P. Contri (2004). Structure, soil-structure response and effects of damage based on observations of horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios of microtremors, Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 24, 487–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gallipoli, M.R., Mucciarelli, M., Ponzo, F., Dolce, M., D'Alema, E., and M. Maistrello (2006). Buildings as a seismic source: analysis of a release test at Bagnoli, Italy, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 96, 2457–2464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guéguen, P. and P.-Y. Bard (2005). Soil-structure and soil-structure-soil interaction: experimental evidence at the Volvi test site, J. Earthq. Eng., 9(5), 657–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guéguen, P., Bard, P.-Y., and C.S. Oliveira (2000). Experimental and numerical analysis of soil motion caused by free vibration of a building model, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 90(6), 1464–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jennings, P.C. (1970). Distant motion from a building vibration test, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 60, 2037–2043Google Scholar
  9. Kanamori, H., Mori, J., Anderson, D.L., and T.H. Heaton (1991). Seismic excitation by the space shuttle Columbia, Nature, 349, 781–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kham, M., Semblat, J.-F., Bard, P.-Y., and P. Dangla (2006). Seismic site—city interaction: main governing phenomena through simplified numerical models, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 96, 1934–1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mucciarelli, M., Gallipoli, M.R., Ponzo, C.F., and M. Dolce (2003). Seismic waves generated by oscillating building, Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 23, 255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Tsogka, C. and A. Wirgin (2003). Simulation of seismic response in an idealized city, Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 23, 391–402Google Scholar
  13. Wirgin, A. and P.-Y. Bard (1996). Effects of building on the duration and amplitude of ground motion in Mexico City, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 86, 914–920Google Scholar
  14. Wong, H.L. and M.D. Trifunac (1975). Two dimensional antiplane building-soil-building interaction for two or more buildings and for incident plane SH waves, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 65, 1863–1885Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Mucciarelli
    • 1
  1. 1.DiSGGUniversità della BasilicataPotenzaItaly

Personalised recommendations