Effect of Buildings on Free-Field Ground Motion
The idea that during an earthquake the vibration of buildings may transmit back to the soil a quantity of energy able to modify the ground motion was theoretically postulated by Wong and Trifunac (1975) and Wirgin and Bard (1996). During an earthquake it is difficult to measure and to separate the source and site effects from that of the oscillating building (Chavez Garcia and Cardenas-Soto, 2002). Again, it is most difficult to separate the quantity of energy related by a single vibrating building from the effects of the others and to separate them from the energy of incident wave train. To estimate the quantity of energy that building can release back to the soil controlled conditions experiments have been carried out. The first experiment has been performed by Jennings (1970), during forced vibration of buildings, while Kanamori et al. (1991) studied the effects of high-rise buildings in Los Angeles, whose vibration was caused by the sonic boom of the Space Shuttle. Recent active experiments have been carried out by Guéguen et al. (2000) and Guéguen and Bard (2005) on a five-story RC-building model (1:3) located in the EuroSeisTest site at Volvi (GR), by Mucciarelli et al. (2003) on a base isolated building during a release test and by Gallipoli et al. (2006) taking advantage of a controlled demolition experiment at Bagnoli (IT). Recent passive tests using ambient noise are described in Gallipoli et al. (2004) and Cornou et al. (2004). The conclusions of all these experiments confirm the importance that buildings may have as seismic sources. On the other hand, numerical simulation were made on idealised models of city-soil interaction: see, e.g., Tsogka and Wirgin (2003), Kham et al. (2006), Ditommaso et al. (2007).
- Ditommaso, R., Gallipoli, M.R., Mucciarelli, M., and F.C. Ponzo (2007). Effect of vibrating building on “free field” ground motion: from the Bagnoli experiment to many-buildings simulation, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Earthq. Geotech. Eng., CD-ROM edition, Paper No. 1388. Springer, ISBN 978-1-4020-5893-6Google Scholar
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