Effects of Supplementing LCPUFA to the Diet of Pregnant Women: Data from RCT

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 646)

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation on pregnancy outcomes were recently systematically reviewed for both low-risk (uncomplicated) and high-risk pregnancies. The duration of pregnancy was found to be significantly enhanced by n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in low-risk (two systematic reviews, weighted mean difference: 2.55 and 1.57 days, 95% CI: 1.13–4.07 and 0.35–2.78 days), but not in high-risk pregnancies. The relative risk of giving birth before the 34th week of gestation was found to be reduced by n-3 LCPUFA supplementation both in low-risk (0.69, 95% CI: 0.49–0.99) and in high-risk (0.39, 95% CI: 0.19–0.84) pregnancies. Recent evidence indicates that enhancement of maternal intake of n-3 LCPUFA prolongs the duration of gestation in low-risk pregnancies and may contribute to the prevention of early preterm birth in both low-risk and high-risk pregnancies.

Keywords

Docosahexaenoic acid long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid pregnancy 

References

  1. Cohen, J.T., D.C. Bellinger, W.E. Connor, B.A. Shaywitz (2005) “A quantitative analysis of prenatal intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognitive development.” Am J Prev Med 29:366–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Decsi, T. and B. Koletzko (2000) “Role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in early human neurodevelopment.” Nutr Neurosci 3:293–306.Google Scholar
  3. Decsi, T. and B. Koletzko (2005) “N-3 fatty acids and pregnancy outcomes.” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 8:161–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dunstan, J.A., T.A. Mori, A. Barden, L.J. Beilin, A.L. Taylor, P.G. Holt, S.L. Prescott (2003) “Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: a randomized, controlled trial.” J Allergy Clin Immunol 112:1178–1184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Helland, I.B., L. Smith, K. Saarem, O.D. Saugstad, Drevon, C.A. (2003) “Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age.” Pediatrics 111:e39–e44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Horvath, A., B. Koletzko, H. Szajewska (2007) “Effect of supplementation of women in high-risk pregnancies with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.” Brit J Nutr 10:1–7 (Epub ahead of print).Google Scholar
  7. Krauss-Etschmann, S., R. Shadid, C. Campoy, E. Hoster, H. Demmelmair, M. Jiménez, A. Gil, M. Rivero, B. Veszprémi, T. Decsi, B.V. Koletzko, Nutrition and Health Lifestyle (NUHEAL) Study Group (2007) “Effects of fish-oil and folate supplementation of pregnant women on maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid: a European randomized multicenter trial.” Am J Clin Nutr 85:1392–1400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Makrides, M., L. Duley, S.F. Olsen (2006) “Marine oil, and other prostaglandin precursor, supplementation for pregnancy uncomplicated by pre-eclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD003402.Google Scholar
  9. Malcolm, C.A., R. Hamilton, D.L. McCulloch, C. Montgomery, L.T. Weaver (2003a) “Scotopic electroretinogram in term infants born of mothers supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44:3685–3691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Malcolm, C.A., D.L. McCulloch, C. Montgomery, A. Shepherd, L.T. Weaver (2003b) “Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and visual evoked potential development in term infants: a double blind, prospective, randomised trial.” Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 88:F383–F390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Simmer, K (2001) “Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000376.Google Scholar
  12. Szajewska, H., A. Horvath, B. Koletzko (2006) “Effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of women with low-risk pregnancies on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials” Am J Clin Nutr 83:1337–1344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Uauy, R., D.R. Hoffman, P. Mena, A. Llanos, E.E. Birch (2003) “Term infant studies of DHA and ARA supplementation on neurodevelopment: results of randomized controlled trials.” J Pediatr 143:S17–S25.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2009

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations