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Risk Assessment and Non-target Effects of Egg Parasitoids in Biological Control

  • Franz Bigler
  • Dirk Babendreier
  • Joop C. van Lenteren
Chapter
Part of the Progress in Biological Control book series (PIBC, volume 9)

Abstract

In the past 100 years many exotic natural enemies have been imported, mass reared and released as biological control agents for pest control (Albajes et al. 1999, van Lenteren 2000, 2003, Lynch et al. 2000, USDA 2001, Mason and Huber 2002, Copping 2004). Although the majority of these releases have not resulted in unwanted side effects, some serious cases of non-target effects by exotic biological control agents against insects and weeds have been recently reported (e.g. Boettner et al. 2000, Follett and Duan 2000, Wajnberg et al. 2000, Louda et al. 2003, van Lenteren et al. 2006a). Due to the current popularity of biological control, many new invertebrate biological control agents will become available. To reduce the chance of releasing exotic natural enemies that might pose a risk for the environment, guidelines and methods are being developed to assist in environmental risk assessment . In this article we show the principles of environmental risk assessment of natural enemies and we discuss in more details a case-study with an egg-parasitoid.

Keywords

Natural Enemy Biological Control Agent Sticky Trap Maize Field European Corn Borer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The development of risk assessment methods and tools was supported by the EU research grant FAIR5-CT97-3489 ERBIC). We are thankful to all partners of the ERBIC project who have contributed to develop the principles of environmental risk assessment of natural enemies, especially Antoon J. M. Loomans, Heikki M.T. Hokkanen, Paul C. J. van Rijn, Matt B. Thomas, Giovanni Burgio and Stefan Kuske.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franz Bigler
    • 1
  • Dirk Babendreier
    • 2
  • Joop C. van Lenteren
    • 3
  1. 1.Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ARTZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.CABI EuropeDelémontSwitzerland
  3. 3.Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

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