Protein-Energy Malnutrition as a Determinant for Immuno-Senescence
Human aging is associated with a loss of function involving organs or systems leading to pathologies such as cognitive impairment, macular degeneration, sarcopenia, frailty, cancer and increased susceptibility to infections. The erosion of the immune system is one of the age-associated failures observed. The delayed time for recovery and the increased susceptibility to infections with aging are directly associated with immune dysfunctions. Moreover, interventions aiming to protect the aged population such as vaccination have a limited efficiency. The eroded innate and adaptive immunity are responsible for this phenomenon. Several prophylactic and therapeutic approaches could restore immune function of immuno-depressed individuals. The nutritional approach is suitable for the aged-population since it requires less care than any medical approach and its cost is much lower which is an important factor when considering the health burden costs. Nevertheless, it is necessary to carefully and critically analyze the recent development in this field. In this review, we will first discuss the age-associated changes in immune functions, collectively named immune-senescence then discuss the age-associated changes in nutritional intake and metabolism with a particular interest in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) to finally outline some of the candidate interventions to protect against PEM and immuno-senescence.
KeywordsLipid Raft Ghrelin Level Rosmarinic Acid Nutr Health Aging Membrane Raft
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ambrus JL Sr, Ambrus JL Jr (2004) Nutrition and infectious diseases in developing countries and problems of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 229:464–472Google Scholar
- Aruoma OI (2003) Methodological considerations for characterizing potential antioxidant actions of bioactive components in plant foods. Mutat Res 523–524:9–20Google Scholar
- Baur JA, Pearson KJ, Price NL, Jamieson HA, Lerin C, Kalra A, Prabhu VV, Allard JS, Lopez-Lluch G, Lewis K, Pistell PJ, Poosala S, Becker KG, Boss O, Gwinn D, Wang M, Ramaswamy S, Fishbein KW, Spencer RG, Lakatta EG, Le Couteur D, Shaw RJ, Navas P, Puigserver P, Ingram DK, de Cabo R, Sinclair DA (2006) Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a highcalorie diet. Nature 444:337–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gao X, Kuo J, Jiang H, Deeb D, Liu Y, Divine G, Chapman RA, Dulchavsky SA, Gautam SC (2004) Immunomodulatory activity of curcumin: suppression of lymphocyte proliferation, development of cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and cytokine production in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol 68:51–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Johnson K, Kligman EW (1992) Preventive nutrition: disease-specific dietary interventions for older adults. Geriatrics 47:39–40, 45–49Google Scholar
- Latham MC (1990) Protein-energy malnutrition–its epidemiology and control. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 10168–10180Google Scholar
- Lesourd B (2004) Nutrition: a major factor influencing immunity in the elderly. Nutr Health Aging 8:28–37Google Scholar
- Zeyda M, Szekeres AB, Saemann MD, Geyeregger R, Stockinger H, Zlabinger GJ, Waldhausl W, Stulnig TM (2003) Suppression of T cell signaling by polyunsaturated fatty acids: selectivity in inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor activation. J Immunol 170:6033–6039PubMedGoogle Scholar