• L. Bucci
  • R. Ostan
  • M. Capri
  • S. Salvioli
  • E. Cevenini
  • L. Celani
  • D. Monti
  • C. Franceschi

The function of immune system depends on a subtle and well tuned network of humoral mediators, collectively called cytokines, responsible for differentiation, proliferation and survival of lymphoid cells. They include colony stimulating factors, and cytokines such as interferons and tumor necrosis factors (TNFs). These molecules constitute a complex network: cytokines, such as IL-2, have a particular importance for the proliferation and differentiation of T, B, and NK cells. IL-2 and IL-10 lead to an increased production of IgM, IgG and IgA, whereas IL-4 and IL- 13 induce IgE and IgG4 synthesis. Other cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α are considered proinflammatory agents, and play an important role in the immune response and inflammation.


Metabolic Syndrome Muscle Wasting Thymic Involution Thymic Output Immunological Space 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Bucci
    • 1
  • R. Ostan
    • 2
  • M. Capri
    • 1
    • 3
  • S. Salvioli
    • 1
    • 3
  • E. Cevenini
    • 3
  • L. Celani
    • 3
  • D. Monti
    • 2
  • C. Franceschi
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Experimental PathologyUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Experimental Pathology and OncologyUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  3. 3.CIG-Interdepartmental Center “L. Galvani”University of BolognaBolognaItaly

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