Neuro-Endocrine-Immune Network and its Age-Related Changes

  • K. Hirokawa
  • M. Utsuyama

In living beings, external stimuli elicit a behavioral, verbal, or physiological response. The stimuli can be classified into 2 types: ordinary stimuli such as sound, smell, sight, and touch that are received by the sensory organs and pathological stimuli such as bacterial, viral, and fungal infections that are received by the immune system (Fig. 1).


Growth Hormone Release Hormone Anterior Hypothalamus Thymic Involution Thymic Hyperplasia Thymic Weight 
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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Hirokawa
    • 1
  • M. Utsuyama
  1. 1.Institute for Health and Life SciencesBunkyo-ku, TokyoJapan

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