Advertisement

Neuro-Endocrine-Immune Network and its Age-Related Changes

  • K. Hirokawa
  • M. Utsuyama

In living beings, external stimuli elicit a behavioral, verbal, or physiological response. The stimuli can be classified into 2 types: ordinary stimuli such as sound, smell, sight, and touch that are received by the sensory organs and pathological stimuli such as bacterial, viral, and fungal infections that are received by the immune system (Fig. 1).

Keywords

Growth Hormone Release Hormone Anterior Hypothalamus Thymic Involution Thymic Hyperplasia Thymic Weight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hirokawa K, Utsuyama M, Makinodan T (2006). Immunity and aging. In: Pathy MSJ, Sinclair AJ, Morley JE (eds). Principles and practice of geriatric medicine. pp 19–36. John Wiley & SonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kandel ER, Schwarz JH, Jessell TM (1991) Principles of neural science, Prentice-Hall International IncGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Downing JE, Miyan JA (2000) Neural immunoregulation: emerging roles for nerves in immune homeostasis and disease. Immunol Today 21:281–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blalock JE (2005) The immune system as the 6th sense. J Intern Med 257:126–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cotman CW, Brinton RE, Galaburda A, MeEwen B, Schneider DM (1985) The neuroimmune endocrine connection. Raven Press. pp1–150Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fabris N, Pierpaolii W, Sorkin E (1972) Lymphocytes, hormones, and ageing. Nature 240:557–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pierpaoli W, Sorkin E (1969) A study on antipituitary serum. Immunology 16:311–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kelly KW, Brief, S, Westly HJ, Novakofski J, Bechtel PJ, Simon J, Walker EB (1986) GH3 pituitary adenoma cells can reverse thymic aging in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83: 5663–5667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Savino W, de Mello-Coelho V, Dardenne M (1995) Control of thymic microenvironment by growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I-mediated circuits. Neuroimmunumodulataion 2:313–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Isakovic K, Jankovic BD (1973) Neuro-endocrine correlates of immune response. II. Changes in the lymphatic organs of brain-lesioned rats. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 45:373–384Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cross RJ, Markesbery WR, Brooks WH, Roszman TL (1984) Hypothalamic-immune interactions: neuromodulation of natural killer activity by lesioning of the anterior hypothalamus. Immunology 51:399–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Frohman LA, Bernardis LL (1968) Growth hormone and insulin levels in weaning rats with ventromedial hypothalamic lesions. J Endocrinol 82:1125–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Paxinos G, Watson C (1986) In: The brain in stereotaxic coordinates. 2nd ed, Acad Press, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Utsuyama M, Kobayashi S, Hirokawa K (1997) Induction of thymic hyperplasia and suppression of splenic T cells by lesioning of anterior hypothalamus in Wistar rats. J Neuroimmunol 77:174–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    de Zegher F, Devlieger H, Eggermont E, Veldhuis JD (1993) Of growth hormone and prolactin hypersecretion by the human infant on the day of birth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 76:1177–1181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Veldhuis JD, Bowers CY (2003) Human GH pulsatility : an ensemble property regulated by age and gender. J Endocrinol Invest 26:799–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Florio T, Ventra C, Postiglione A, Schettini G (1991) Age-related alterations of somatostatin gene expression in different rat brain areas. Brain Res 557:64–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reed DK, Korytko AL, Hipkin R, Wehrenberg WB, Schonbrunn A, Cuttler L (1999) Pituitary somatostatin receptor (sst) 1-5 expression during rat development: Age-dependent expression of sst2. Endocrinology 140:4739–4744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Giustina A, Veldhuis JD (1998) Pathophysiology of the neuroregulation of growth hormone secretion in experimental animals and the human. Endocr Rev 19:717–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Felten DL, Felten SY, Carlson SL, Olschowka JA, Livnat S (1985) Noradrenergic and peptidergic innervation of lymphoid tissue. J Immunol 135:S755–S765Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miles K, Chelmicka-Schorr E, Atweh S, Otten G, Amson BG (1985) Sympathetic ablation alters lymphocyte membrane properties. J Immunol 135:S797–S801Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Besedovsky HO, del Rey A., Sorkin E, Da Prada M, Keller HH (1979) Immunoregulation mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Cell Immunol 48:346–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Munck A, Naray-Fejes-Toth A, Guyre PM (1987) Mechanism of glucocorticoid actions on the immune system. In: Berczi I and Kovacs K (eds) Hormones and Immunity pp.20–37Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ishiyama N, Kitagawa M, Kina I, Hirokawa K (1998) Expression of truncated VCAM-1 in thymocytes and its role during the process of apoptosis. Pathobiology 66:274–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hirokawa K, Sato K,, Makinodan T (1982) Influence of age of thymic graft on the differentiation of T cells in nude mice. Clin Immunol Immunop 24:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kruger TE, Smith LR, Harbour DV,, Blalock JE (1989) Thyrotropin: an endogenous regulator of the in vitro immune response. J Immunol 142:744–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grossman CJ (1985) Interaction between the gonadal steroids and the immune system. Science 227:255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hirokawa K, Okayasu I, Hatakeyama S (1979) Effect of pregnancy and its related hormones on the in vitro proliferation of spleen cells. Acta Pathol Japon 29:837–844Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Brunelli, R, Frasca D, Fattorossi A, Spano M, Baschieri S, D’Amelio R, Zichella L, Doria G (1991) Thymus regeneration induced by gonadectomy in old mice. Characterization of T cell phenotype and mitotic responsiveness. J Immunol Res 3:62–68Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Greenstein BD, Fitzpatrick FTA, Adcock IM, Kendall MD, Wheeler MJJ (1986) Reappearance of the thymus in old rats after orchidectomy: Inhibition of regeneration by testosterone. J Endocrinol 110:417–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Utsuyama M, Hirokawa K (1989) Hypertrophy of the thymus and restoration of immune functions in mice rats by gonadectomy. Mech Ageing Dev 47:175–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Utsuyama M, Hirokawa K, Mancini C, Brunelli R, Leter G, Doria G (1995) Differential effects of gonadectomy on thymic stromal cells in promoting T cell differentiation in mice. Mech Ageing Dev 81:107–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Utsuyama M, Hirokawa K (2002) Differential expression of various cytokine receptors in the brain after stimulation with LPS in young and old mice. Exp Gerontol 37: 411–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nistico G, De Sarro G (1991) Is interleukin 2 a neuromodulator in the brain. Trends Neurosci 14:146–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Godbout JP, Johnson RW (2004) Interleukin-6 in the aging brain. J Neuroimmunol 147:141–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Hirokawa
    • 1
  • M. Utsuyama
  1. 1.Institute for Health and Life SciencesBunkyo-ku, TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations