Ordinal Measurements with Interval Constraints in the EIA Process for Siting a Waste Storage Area
We describe application of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedure for siting a waste storage area. The world’s largest biofuel-based combined heat and power (CHP) plant was built in Pietarsaari, Finland. The plant produces certain byproducts, such as flue dust and bottom ash, which need to be processed and stored to prevent releases to the environment. Different storage sites will have different impacts on people, nature, and the economy. Cardinal measurement of the different impacts was considered too costly. Instead, ordinal measurement of all criteria was applied; i.e., experts ranked the alternative storage sites according to each criterion. In addition to pure ordinal information, the experts were able to state that some ordinal intervals were more significant than others. To properly treat this kind of information, we extended the Ordinal Stochastic Multicriteria Acceptability Analysis (SMAA-O) MCDA method and used it to evaluate the acceptability of the different sites. Three of the alternatives were found acceptable subject to some valuations and one of them was acceptable subject to a wide range of different valuations. This alternative was then chosen for implementation.
KeywordsEnvironmental Impact Assessment Environmental Impact Assessment Traffic Noise Cardinal Measurement Ordinal Measurement
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.David, H.A. 1970. Order Statistics. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
- 2.2. EU. 1997. COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 97/11/EC of 3 March 1997 amending Directive 85/337/EEC on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. The Council of the European Union.Google Scholar
- 6.IAIA. 1999. Principles of EIA Best Practice. IAIA — International Association for Impact Assessment.Google Scholar
- 11.Maystre, L.Y., Picted, J., Simos, J. 1994. Méthodes Multicritéres ELECTRE. Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes, Lausanne, Switzerland.Google Scholar
- 12.Ministry of Environment. 1994. The Act on Environmental Impact Assessment Procedure. Helsinki, Ministry of Environment.Google Scholar
- 14.Roy, B. 1996. Multicriteria Methodology for Decision Aiding. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
- 15.Tervonen, T., Figueira, J. 2007. A survey on Stochastic Multicriteria Acceptability Analysis methods. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (in press), DOI: 10.1002/mcda.407.Google Scholar
- 16.Vainikka, P., Helynen, S., Hillebrand, K., Nickull, S., Nylund, M., Roppo, J. Yrjas, P. 2004. Alholmens Kraft: optimised multifuel CHP with high performance and low emissions at Pietarsaari pulp and paper mills. Proceedings: PulPaper Conference, June 1–3, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
- 17.Vincke, Ph. 1992. Multicriteria Decision-Aid. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar