Integrated Pest Management in Europe – History, Policy, Achievements and Implementation

  • Bernd Freier
  • Ernst F. Boller


Inspired by the pioneering work in Canada and California in the early 1950s, the first European IPM task force – the “Working Group for Integrated Plant Protection in Fruit Orchards” – was established by the International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC) in 1959. From the beginning, the implementation of IPM proved to be a problem because of its complicated and non-uniform requirements and insufficient economic benefits. In spite of these obstacles, IPM has become an accepted model for plant protection in all European countries and in the European Union. More than 30 working groups of the West and East Palaearctic Regional Sections of the IOBC (IOBC/wprs and eprs) organise research programs and information exchanges and actively promote the implementation of IPM into practice. IPM can be well implemented within the scope of Integrated Production (IP). Respective IP guidelines developed by IOBC/wprs working groups and local production organisations are currently being used, particularly in pome fruits and grapes. Studies have shown that IPM systems yield greater biodiversity and reduce pesticide use by at least 20% compared to conventional farming, as assessed using the treatment index. Some countries, such as Denmark, Germany and Switzerland, have developed national pesticide reduction programs. The European Union also supports IPM by issuing regulations and directives and by funding research programs. National action plans shall help to achieve faster and more consistent implementation of IPM in the Member States.


IPM Europe IOBCwprs biological control integrated production 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd Freier
    • 1
  • Ernst F. Boller
  1. 1.Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Strategies and Technology Assessment in Plant ProtectionJulius Kuehn Institute (JKI)D-14532 KleinmachnowGermany

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