The Welfare of Pigs pp 237-285

Part of the Animal Welfare book series (AWNS, volume 7) | Cite as

Balance Between Porcine Disease and Welfare

  • Wim J. A. Boersma
  • Jan van der Meulen
  • Theo A. Niewold

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abe, F., Ishibashi, N. and Shimamura, S. (1995) Effect of administration of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria to newborn calves and piglets. Journal of Dairy Science 78, 2838–2846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Albers, G.A., Gray, G.D., Piper, L.R., Barker, J.S., Le Jambre, L.F. and Barger, I.A. (1987) The genetics of resistance and resilience to Haemonchus contortus infection in young merino sheep. International Journal of Parasitology 17, 1355–1363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida, F.R.C.L., Mao, J., Novak, S., Cosgrove, J.R. and Foxcroft, G.R. (2001) Effects of different patterns of feed restriction and insulin treatment during the luteal phase on reproductive, metabolic, and endocrine parameters in cyclic gilts. Journal of Animal Science 79, 200–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Apperloo-Renkema, H.Z., Jagt, T.G., Tonk, R.H. and van der Waaij, D. (1993) Healthy individuals possess circulating antibodies against their indigenous faecal microflora as well as against allogenous faecal microflora: an immunomorphometrical study. Epidemiology & Infection 111, 273–285.Google Scholar
  5. Aubert, A. (1999) Sickness and behaviour in animals: a motivational perspective. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 23, 1029–1036.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey, M.T., Karaszewski, J.W., Lubach, G.R., Coe, C.L. and Lyte, M. (1999) In vivo adaptation of attenuated Salmonella typhymurium results in increased growth upon exposure to norepinephrine. Physiology & Behavior 67, 359–364.Google Scholar
  7. Bailey, M., Plunkett, F.J., Rothkotter, H.J., Vega-Lopez, M.A., Haverson, K. and Stokes, C.R. (2001) Regulation of mucosal immune responses in effector sites. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60, 427–435.Google Scholar
  8. Baratta, M., Saleri, R., Mainardi, G.L., Valle, D., Giustina, A., and Tamanini, C. (2002) Leptin regulates GH gene expression and secretion and nitric oxide production in pig pituitary cells. Endocrinology 143, 551–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barb, C.R., Yan, X., Azian, M.J., Kraeling, R.R., Rampacek, G.B. and Ramsay, T.G. (1998) Recombinant porcine leptin reduces feed intake and stimulates growth hormone secretion in swine. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 15, 77–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barb, C.R., Hausman, G.J. and Houseknecht, K.L. (2001) Biology of leptin in the pig. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 21, 297–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bassaganya-Reira, J., Hontecillas-Magarzio, R., Bregendahl, K., Wannemuehler, M.J. and Zimmerman, D.R. (2001) Effects of dietary conjugated linolic acid in nursery pig of dirty and clean environments on growth, empty body composition and immune competence Journal of Animal Science 79, 714–721.Google Scholar
  12. Bauhofer, A., Witte, K., Celik, I., Pummer, S., Lemmer, B. and Lorenz, W. (2001) Sickness behaviour, an animal equivalent to human quality of life, is improved in septic rats by G-CSF and antibiotic prophylaxis. Langenbecks Archives of Surgery 386, 132–140.Google Scholar
  13. Beattie, V.E., O’Connell, N.E. and Moss, B.W. (2000) Influence of environmental enrichment on the behaviour, performance and meat quality of domestic pigs. Livestock Production Science 65, 71–79.Google Scholar
  14. Bezkorovainy, A. (2001) Probiotics: determinants of survival and growth in the gut. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73, 399S–405S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bianchi, A.T.J., Scholten, J.W., Moonen-Leusen, B.H.W.M. and Boersma, W.J.A. (1999) Development of the natural response of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in pig as a function of organ, age and housing. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 23, 511–520.Google Scholar
  16. Biozzi, G., Cabrera, W.H., Mouton, D. and Ibanez, W.H. (1982) Restricted and general polygenic regulation of antibody responsiveness. In: Benacceraf, B. (Ed.). Immunogentics and Immune regulation. Masson, Italia Editori, Milan, pp. 31–60.Google Scholar
  17. Blecher, S.R., Howie, R., Li, S., Detmar, J. and Blahut, L.M. (1999) A new approach to immunological sexing of sperm. Theriogenology 52, 1309–1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Blomberg, L., Henriksson, A. and Conway, P.L. (1993) Inhibition of adhesion of Escherichia coli K88 to piglet ileal mucus by Lactobacillus spp. Applied Environmental Microbiology 59, 34–39.Google Scholar
  19. Bluthe, R.M., Beaudu, C., Kelley, K.W. and Dantzer, R. (1995) Differential effects of IL-1ra on sickness behavior and weight loss induced by IL-1 in rats. Brain Research 17, 171–176.Google Scholar
  20. Bluthe, R.M., Laye, S., Michaud, B., Combe, C., Dantzer, R. and Parnet, P. (2000) Role of interleukin-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behaviour: a study with interleukin-1 type I receptor-deficient mice. European Journal of Neuroscience 12, 4447–4456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Boersma, W.J.A., Van Rooij, E.M.A., Scholten, J.W., Zwart, R.J., Kimman, T.G. and Bianchi, A. (1998) Silent memory induction in maternal immune young animals. Veterinary Quarterly 20(Suppl. 3), S89–S92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bonham, M., O’Connor, J.M., Hannigan, B.M. and Strain, J.J. (2002) The immune system as a physiological indicator of marginal copper status? British Journal of Nutrition 87, 393–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bonney, E.A. and Matzinger P. (1998) Much IDO about pregnancy. Nature Medicine 4, 1128–1129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Borgsteede, F.H. and Jongbloed, A.W. (2001) Organic pig farming: what about parasitic infections? Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 126, 39–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bornet, F.R., Brouns, F., Tashiro, Y. and Duvillier, V. (2002) Nutritional aspects of short-chain fructoligosaccharides: natural occurrence, chemistry, physiology and health implications. Digestive & Liver Disease 34 S2, S111–S120.Google Scholar
  26. Bos, N.A., Cebra, J.J. and Kroese, F.G. (2000) B-1 cells and the intestinal microflora. Current Topics in Microbiology & Immunology 252, 211–220.Google Scholar
  27. Brandtzaeg, P., Farstad, I.N., Johansen, F.E., Morton, H.C., Norderhaug, I.N. and Yamanaka T. (1999) The B-cell system of human mucosae and exocrine glands.Immunological Reviews 171, 45–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brock, J.H. (1994) Iron in infection, immunity and inflammation and neoplasia. In: Brock, J.H., Halliday, J.W., Pippard, M.J. and Powell, L.W. (Eds.). Iron Metabolism in Health and Disease. Saunders, London pp. 354–389.Google Scholar
  29. Broom, D.M. and Johnson, K.G. (1993) Stress and Animal Welfare. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  30. Brown-Borg, H.M., Klemcke, H.G. and Blecha, F. (1993) Lymphocyte proliferative responses in neonatal pigs with a high and low plasma cortisol concentration after stress induced by restraint. American Journal of Veterinary Research 54, 2015–2020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bruijnzeel, A.W., Stam, R., Compaan, J.C., Akkermans, L.M., Olivier, B. and Wiegant, V.M. (1999) Long term sensitization of Fos-responsivity in the rat central nervous system after a single stressful experience. Brain Research 819, 15–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bruininx, E.M.A.M., Swinkels, J.W.G.M., Parmentier, H.K., Jetten, C.W.J., Gentryc, J.L. and Schrama, J.W. (2000) Effects of an additional iron injection on growth and humoral immunity of weanling pigs. Livestock Production Science 67, 31–39.Google Scholar
  33. Cameron, N.D., Penman, J.C. and McCullough, E. (2000) Serum leptin concentration in pigs selected for high or low daily food intake. Genetical Research 75, 209–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cebra, J.J. (1999) Influences of microbiota on intestinal immune system development. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69, 1064S–1051S.Google Scholar
  35. Chiapelli, F., Manfrini, E., Francheschi, C., Cossarizza, A. and Black, K.L. (1994) Steroid regulation of cytokines. Relevance for TH1- to Th2 shift? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 746, 204–215.Google Scholar
  36. Coleman, G.J., Cronin, G.M. and Spicer, E.M. (1995) Human care and the neonatal pig. In: Varley, M.A. (Ed.). The Neonatal Pig: Development and Survival. CAB International Wallingford U.K., pp. 313–331.Google Scholar
  37. Coop, R.L. and Kyriazakis, I. (1999) Nutrition-parasite interaction. Veterinary Parasitology 84, 187–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cormier, Y., Duchaine, C., Israel-Assayag, E., Bedard, G., Laviolette, M. and Dosman, J. (1997) Effects of repeated swine building exposures on normal naive subjects. European Respiratory Journal 10, 1516–1522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cummins, A.G., Steele, T.W., Brooy, J.T. and Shearman, D.J.C. (1988) Maturation of the rat small intestine at weaning. Changes in the epithelial cell kinetics, bacterial flora and mucosal immune activity. Gut 29, 1672–1679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Czaja, K., Lakomy, M., Kaleczyc, J., Barb, C.R., Rampacek, G.B. and Kraeling, R.R. (2002) Leptin receptors, NPY, and tyrosine hydroxylase in autonomic neurons supplying fat depots in a pig. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 293, 1138–1144.Google Scholar
  41. Daugschies, J.A. (2000) Endoparasites in swine in different age groups and management systems. Berliner & Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 113, 9–33.Google Scholar
  42. De Groot, J., de Jong, I.C., Prelle, I.T. and Koolhaas, J.M. (2000) Immunity in barren and enriched housed pigs differing in baseline cortisol concentration. Physiology & Behavior 71, 217–223.Google Scholar
  43. De Groot, J., Ruis, M.A., Scholten, J.W., Koolhaas, J.M. and Boersma, W.J.A (2001) Long-term effects of social stress on antiviral immunity in pigs. Physiology & Behavior 73, 145–158.Google Scholar
  44. De Jong, I.C., Prelle, I.T., van de Burgwal, J.A., Lambooij, E., Korte, S.M., Blokhuis, H.J. and Koolhaas, J.M. (1998) Effects of strawbedding on physiological responses to stressors and behavior in growing pigs. Physiology & Behavior 64, 303–310.Google Scholar
  45. De Jong, I.C., Prelle, I.T., van de Burgwal, J.A., Lambooij, E., Korte, S.M., Blokhuis H.J. and Koolhaas, J.M. (2000) Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral responses to novelty, learning, and memory, and the circadian rhythm in cortisol in growing pigs. Physiology & Behavior 68, 571–578.Google Scholar
  46. De Jonge, F.H., Bokkers, E.A.M., Schouten, W.P.G. and Helmond, F.A. (1996) Rearing piglets in a poor environment: developmental aspects of social stress in pigs. Physiology & Behavior 60, 389–396.Google Scholar
  47. De Kruijf, J.M. and Welling, A.A.W.M. (1988) The frequency of chronic inflammation in gilts and barrows. Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde 64, 303–310.Google Scholar
  48. De Smit, A.J. (2000) Laboratory diagnosis, epizootiology, and efficacy of marker vaccines in classical swine fever: a review. Veterinary Quarterly 22, 182–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. De Sousa, M., Breedvelt, F., Dynesius-Trentham, R., Trentham, D. and Lum, J. (1988) Iron, iron-binding proteins and immune system cells. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 526, 310–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. De Sousa, M., Reimao, R., Porto, G., Grady, R.W., Hilgartner, M.W. and Giardina, P. (1991) Iron and lymphocytes: reciprocal regulatory interactions. Current Studies in Hematology & Blood Transfusion 58, 171–177.Google Scholar
  51. Deuschle, M., Schweiger, U., Weber, B., Gotthart, U., Korner, A., Schmider, J., Standhardt, H., Lammers, C.H. and Heuser, I. (1997) Diurnal activity and pulsatility of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system in male depressed patients and healthy controls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 82, 234–238.Google Scholar
  52. Dixson, A.F. (1993) Effects of testosterone propionate upon the sexual and aggressive behavior of adult male marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) castrated as neonates. Hormones & Behavior 27, 216–230.Google Scholar
  53. Donham, K.J., Haglind, P., Peterson, Y. and Rylander, R. (1986) Environmental and health studies in swine confinement buildings. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 10, 289–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dotevall, G. (1994) Involvement of cardiac, respiratory and gastrointestinal functions in neural responses to stressful events. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science 29, 374–382.Google Scholar
  55. Drasar, B.S. and Barrow, P. (1985) Intestinal Microbiology (Vol 10). American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  56. Dubos, R., Schaedler, W.R., Costello, R. and Hoet, P. (1965) Indigenous, normal and autochtonous flora of the gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Experimental Medicine 122, 59–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Duchaine, C., Grimard, Y. and Cormier, Y. (2000) Influence of building maintenance, environmental factors, and seasons on airborne contaminants of swine confinement buildings. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 61, 56–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Duncan, I.J.H. (1996) Animal welfare defined in terms of feelings. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A-Animal Science Suppl. 27, 29–35.Google Scholar
  59. Dunsford, B.R., Knabe, D.A. and Haensly, W.E. (1989) Effect of dietary soybean meal on the microscopic anatomy of the small intestine in the early-weaned pig. Journal of Animal Science 67,1855–1863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Ekert, J.E., Gatford, K.L., Luxford, B.G., Campbell, R.G. and Owens, P.C. (2000) Leptin expression in offspring is programmed by nutrition in pregnancy. Journal of Endocrinology 165, R1–R6.Google Scholar
  61. EU (1998) Council directive 98/58/EC concerning the protection of animals kept for farming practices. Located online at: http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/1998/l_221/l_22119980808en00230027.pdf
  62. Ewing, W.N. and Cole, D.J.A. (1994) The Living Gut: An Introduction to Micro-organisms in Nutrition. Context, Dungannon.Google Scholar
  63. Exton, M.S. (1997) Infection-induced anorexia: active host defence strategy.Appetite 29, 369–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Falk, P.G., Hooper, L.V., Midvedt, T. and Gordon, J.I. (1998) Creating and maintaining the gastrointestinal ecosystem: what we know and need to know from gnotobiology. Microbiology & Molecular Biology Reviews 2, 1157–1170.Google Scholar
  65. Famularo, G. and De Simone, C. (1998) Oral bacteriotherapy. Immunology Today 19, 486–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fedorka-Cray, P.J., Bailey, J.S., Stern, N.J., Cox, N.A., Ladely, S.R. and Musgrove, M. (1999) Mucosal competitive exclusion to reduce Salmonella in swine. Journal of Food Protection 62, 1376–1380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Furesz, S.E., Mallard, B.A., Bosse, J.T., Rosendal, S., Wilkie, B.N. and MacInnes, J.I. (1997) Antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-infected and bacterin-vaccinated pigs. Infection and Immunity 65, 358–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gallucci, S. and Matzinger, P. (2001) Danger signals: SOS to the immune system. Current Opinion in Immunology 13, 114–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Genovese, K.J., Anderson, R.C., Harvey, R.B. and Nisbet, D.J. (2000) Competitive exclusion treatment reduces the mortality and fecal shedding associated with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in nursery-raised neonatal pigs. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 64, 204–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Goddeeris, B.M., Boersma, W.J.A., Cox, E., Van der Stede, Y., Koenen, M.E., Vancaeneghem, S., Mast, J. and Van den Broek, W. (2002) The porcine and avian intestinal immune system and its nutritional modulation. In: Blok, M.C., Vahl, H.A., De Lange, L., Van de Braak, A.E., Hemke, G. and Hessing, M. (Eds.). Nutrition and Health of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  71. Griffin, J.F. (1989) Stress and immunity: a unifying concept. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 20, 263–312.Google Scholar
  72. Groves, T.C., Wilkie, B.N., Kennedy, B.W. and Mallard, B.A. (1993) Effect of selection of swine for high and low immune responsiveness on monocyte superoxide anion production and class II MHC antigen expression. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 36, 347–358.Google Scholar
  73. Guay, F., Palin, M.-F., Matte, J.J. and Laforest, J.-P. (2001) Effects of breed, parity, and folic acid supplement on the expression of leptin and its receptors’ genes in embryonic and endometrial tissues from pigs at Day 25 of gestation. Biology of Reproduction 65, 921–927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hammond, E.A., Smart, D., Toulmond, S., Suman-Chauhan, N., Hughes, J. and Hall, M.D. (1999) The interleukin-1 type I receptor is expressed in human hypothalamus. Brain 122, 1697–1707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Harmsen, H.J., Wildeboer-Veloo, A.C., Raangs, G.C., Wagendorp, A.A., Klijn, N., Bindels, J. and Welling, G.W. (2000) Analysis of intestinal flora development in breast fed and formula fed infants by using molecular identification and detection methods. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition 30, 61–67.Google Scholar
  76. Havenaar, R. and Huis in’t Veld, J.H.J. (1992) Probiotics, a general review. In: Wood, B.J.B. (Ed.). The Lactic Acid Bacteria in Health and Disease (Vol 1). Elsevier, New York, pp. 151–170.Google Scholar
  77. Heetkamp, M.J., Schrama, J.W., de Jong, L., Swinkels, J.W., Schouten, W.G. and Bosch, M.W. (1995) Energy metabolism in young pigs as affected by mixing. Journal of Animal Science 73, 3562–3569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hershko, C. (1993) Iron, infection and immune function. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 52, 165–174.Google Scholar
  79. Horn, T., Marx, G. and Borell, E. (1999) Behavior of piglets during castration with and without local anestesia. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 106, 271–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Houdijk, J.G.M., Verstegen, M.W.A., Bosch, M.W. and van Laere, K.J.M. (2002) Dietary fructo-oligosaccharides and transgalacto-oligosaccharides can affect fermentation characteristics in gut contents and portal plasma of growing pigs. Livestock Production Science 73, 175–184.Google Scholar
  81. Houseknecht, K.L. and Portocarrero, C.P. (1998) Leptin and its receptors: regulators of whole-body energy homeostasis. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 15, 457–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Husband, A.J. and Gleeson, M. (1996) Ontogeny of mucosal immunity--environmental and behavioral influences. Brain Behavior & Immunity 10, 188–204.Google Scholar
  83. Hyun, Y., Ellis, M., Riskowski, G. and Johnson, R.W. (1998) Growth performance of pigs subjected to multiple concurrent environmental stressors. Journal of Animal Science 76, 721–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Isolauri, E., Majamaa, H., Arvola, T., Rantala, I., Virtanen, E. and Arvilommi, H. (1993) Lactobacillus casei strain GG reverses increased intestinal permeability induced by cow milk in suckling rats. Gastroenterology 105, 1643–1650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Janssens, C.J., Helmond, F.A. and Wiegant, V.M. (1995) The effect of chronic stress on plasma cortisol concentrations in cyclic female pigs depends on the time of the day. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 12, 167–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Jolie, R., Backstrom, L., Pinckney, R. and Olson, L. (1998) Ascarid infection and respiratory health in feeder pigs raised on pasture or in confinement. Swine Health & Production 6, 115–120.Google Scholar
  87. Joling, P., Mok, K.S., DeVries-Reilingh, G., De Wever, P.J.M., Cornelis, R.S., Oskam, J.P.H. and Henken, A.M. (1993) An evaluation of immune competence in different swine breeds. Veterinary Quarterly 15, 9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Joling, P., Bianchi, A.T.J., Kappe, A.L. and Zwart, R.J. (1994) Distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in thymus, spleen, and peripheral blood of specific pathogen free pigs from 1 to 40 weeks of age. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 40, 105–117.Google Scholar
  89. Kelley, K.W. (1980) Stress and immune function: a bibliographic review. Annales de Recherches Veterinaires 11, 445–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kelley, K.W. (1985) Immunological consequences of changing environmental stimuli. In: Moberg, G.P. (Ed.). Animal Stress. American Physiological Society, Bethesda MD, U.S.A., pp. 193–225.Google Scholar
  91. Kenworthy, R. and Crabb, W.E. (1963) The intestinal flora of young pigs with special reference to composition of coliforms in weaned pigs. Journal of Applied Microbiology 87, 564–573.Google Scholar
  92. Kertz, A.F. (1996) Animal care and use: an issue now and in the future. Journal of Animal Science 74, 257–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Kolida, S., Tuohy, K. and Gibson, G.R. (2002) Prebiotic effects of inulin and oligo-fructose. British Journal of Nutrition 87 S2, S193–S197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Konsman, J.P., Parnet, P. and Dantzer, R. (2002) Cytokine-induced sickness behaviour: mechanisms and implications. Trends in Neuroscience 25, 154–159.Google Scholar
  95. Kramer, D.R. and Cebra, J.J. (1994) Modulation of the neonatal IgA response to enteric antigens by maternal antibody. Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology 355, 271–275.Google Scholar
  96. Krauslich, H., Buschmann, H., Meyer, J. and Kleinschmidt, A. (1983) Selection on antibody response in pigs. Zeitschrift für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie 100, 101–108.Google Scholar
  97. Kreukniet, M.B., Nieuwland, M.G.B. and Van der Zijpp, A.J. (1994) Phagocytic activity of two lines of chickens divergently selected for antibody production. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 44, 377–387.Google Scholar
  98. Kreuzer, M., Hanneken, H., Wittmann, M., Gerdemann, M.M. and Machmuller, A. (2002) Effects of different fibre sources and fat addition on cholesterol and cholesterol-related lipids in blood serum, bile and body tissues of growing pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition 86, 57–73.Google Scholar
  99. Kroese, F.G.M. and Bos, N.A. (1999) Peritoneal B-1 cells switch in vivo to IgA and these IgA antibodies can bind to bacteria of the normal intestinal microflora. Current Topics in Microbiology & Immunology 246, 343–349.Google Scholar
  100. Lackner, A., Goller, K., Ritzman, M. and Heinritzi, K. (2002) Acute phase proteins in castration of piglets. Proceedings of the 17th Congress of the International Pig Veterinary Society, Ames Iowa U.S.A., p. 428.Google Scholar
  101. Leininger, M.T., Portocarrero, C.P., Schinckel, A.P., Spurlock, M.E., Bidwell, C.A., Nielsen, J.N. and Houseknecht, K.L. (2000) Physiological response to acute endotoxemia in swine: effect of genotype on energy metabolites and leptin. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 18, 71–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Leonard, B.E. (2001) The immune system, depression and the action of anti-depressants. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 25, 767–780.Google Scholar
  103. Li, D.F., Nelssen, J.L., Reddy, P.G., Blecha, F., Hancock, J.D., Allee, G.L., Goodband, R.D. and Klemm, R.D. (1990) Transient hypersensitivity to soybean meal in the early-weaned pig. Journal of Animal Science 68, 1790–1799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Li, D.F., Nelssen, J.L., Reddy, P.G., Blecha, F., Klemm, R. and Goodband, R.D. (1991) Inter-relationship between hypersensitivity to soybean proteins and growth performance in early-weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science 69, 4062–4069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Lin, J., Barb, C.R., Matteri, R.L., Kraeling, R.R., Chen, X., Meinersmann, R.J. and Rampacek, G.B. (2000) Long form leptin receptor mRNA expression in the brain, pituitary, and other tissues in the pig. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 19, 53–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Lin, J., Barb, C.R., Kraeling, R.R. and Rampacek, G.B. (2001) Developmental changes in the long form leptin receptor and related neuropeptide gene expression in the pig brain. Biology of Reproduction 64, 1614–1618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lopez-Boada, Y.S., Wilson, C.L., Hooper, L., Gordon, J.I., Hultgren, S.J. and Parks, W.C. (2000) Bacterial exposure induces and inactivates matrilysin in mucosal epithelial cells. Journal of Cell Biology 148, 1305–1315.Google Scholar
  108. Luheshi, G.N., Bluthe, R.M., Rushforth, D., Mulcahy, N., Konsman, J.P., Goldbach, M. and Dantzer, R. (2000) Vagotomy attenuates the behavioural but not the pyrogenic effects of interleukin-1 in rats. Autonomic Neuroscience 85, 127–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lyte, M. and Bailey, M.T. (1997) Neuroendocrine-bacterial interactions in a neurotoxin-induced model of trauma. Journal of Surgery Research 70, 195–201.Google Scholar
  110. Lyte, M., Erickson, A.K., Arulanandam, B.P., Frank, C.D., Crawford, M.A. and Francis, D.H. (1997) Norepinephrine-induced expression of the K99 pilus adhesin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 232, 682–686.Google Scholar
  111. Maassen, C.B.M., Laman, J.D., Heijne den Bak-Glashouwer, M.J., Tielen, F.J., van Holten-Neelen, J.C.P.A., Hoogteijling, L., Antonissen, C., Leer, R.J., Pouwels, P.H., Boersma, W.J.A. and Shaw, D.M. (1999) Instruments for oral disease-intervention strategies: recombinant lactobacillus casei expressing tetanus toxin fragment C for vaccination or myelin proteins for oral tolerance induction in multiple sclerosis. Vaccine 17, 2117–2128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Maassen, C.B.M., Laman, J.D., Boersma, W.J.A. and Claassen E. (2000a) Modulation of cytokine expression by lactobacilli and its possible therapeutic use. In: Fuller, R. and Perdigon, G. (Eds.). Probiotics 3, Immunomodulation by the Gut Microflora and Probiotics. Kluwer, London, pp. 176–193.Google Scholar
  113. Maassen, C.B., van Holten-Neelen, C., Balk, F., den Bak-Glashouwer, M.J., Leer, R.J., Laman, J.D., Boersma, W.J. and Claassen, E. (2000b) Strain-dependent induction of cytokine profiles in the gut by orally administered Lactobacillus strains. Vaccine 18, 2613–2623.Google Scholar
  114. MacKenzie, D. (1999) Piggy in the middle – Turning livestock outdoors to live a “natural” life may do nothing for animal welfare. New Scientist 161(2170), 18–19.Google Scholar
  115. MacKenzie, K. and Bishop, S. (1999) A discrete time epidemiological model to quantify selection for disease resistance. Animal Science 69, 543–551.Google Scholar
  116. Mackie, R., Sghir, A. and Gaskins, H.R. (1999) Developmental microbial ecology of the neonatal gastrointestinal tract. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69, 1035S–1045S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Mallard, B.A., Wilkie, B.N. and Kennedy, B.W. (1989) The influence of the swine major histocompatibility genes (SLA) on variation in serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 21, 139–151.Google Scholar
  118. Mallard, B.A., Wilkie, B.N., Kennedy, B.W., Gibson, J. and Quinton, M. (1998) Immune responsiveness in swine eight generations of selection for high and low immune response in Yorkshire pigs. Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. Armidale, Australia, pp. 57–64.Google Scholar
  119. Mantere-Alhonen, S. (1995) Propionibacteria used as probiotics—A review. Lait 75, 447–452.Google Scholar
  120. Marlett, J.A., McBurney, M.I. and Slavin, J.L. (2002) Position of the American Dietic Association: health implications of dietary fiber. Journal of the American Dietic Association 102, 993–1000.Google Scholar
  121. Matzinger, P. (2002) An innate sense of danger. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 961, 341–342.Google Scholar
  122. McCracken, B.A., Gaskins, R.H., Ruwe-Kaiser, P.J., Klasing, K.C. and Jewell, D.E. (1995) Diet dependent and diet independent metabolic responses underlie growth stasis of pigs at weaning. Journal of Nutrition 125, 2838–2845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. McCracken, B.A., Spurlock, M.E., Roos, M.A., Zuckermann, F.A. and Gaskins, R.H. (1999) Weaning anorexia may contribute to local inflammation in the piglet small intestine. Journal of Nutrition 129, 616–619.Google Scholar
  124. McGlone, J.J., Nicholson, R.I., Hellman, J.M. and Herzog, D.N. (1993a) The development of pain in young pigs associated with castration and attempts to prevent castration induced behavioral changes. Journal of Animal Science 71, 1441–1446.Google Scholar
  125. McGlone, J.J., Salak, J.L., Lumpkin, E.A., Nicholson, R.I., Gibson, M. and Norman, R.L.K. (1993b) Shipping stress and social status effects on pig performance, plasma cortisol, natural killer cell activity and leukocyte numbers. Journal of Animal Science 71, 888–896.Google Scholar
  126. McNeel, R.L. and Mersmann, H.J. (2000) Nutritional deprivation reduces the transcripts for transcription factors and adipocyte-characteristic proteins in porcine adipocytes. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 11, 139–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Metzger, J.J., Ballet-Lapierre, C. and Houdayer, M. (1978) Partial inhibition of the humoral immune response of pigs after early postnatal immunization. American Journal of Veterinary Research 39, 627–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Moreau, M.C., Raibaud, P. and Muller, C. (1982) Relation entre developpement du systeme immunitaire intestinal a IgA et l’etablissement de la flora microbienne dans le tube digestif du souriceau holoxenique. Annales d’ Immunology (Pasteur) 133D, 29–39.Google Scholar
  129. Moreau, M.C. and Gaboriau-Routhiau, V. (2000) Influence of resident intestinal microflora on the development and functions of the intestinal–associated lymphoid tissue. In: Fuller, R. and Perdigon, G. (Eds.). Probiotics 3, Immunomodulation by the Gut Microflora and Probiotics. Kluwer, London, pp. 69–114.Google Scholar
  130. Morein, B., Abusugra, I. and Blomqvist, G. (2002) Immunity in neonates. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 87, 207–213.Google Scholar
  131. Mosenthin, R. and Bauer, E. (2000) The potential use of prebiotics in pig nutrition. Asian Australian Journal of Animal Science 13, 315–325.Google Scholar
  132. Mosmann, T.R and Sad, S. (1996) The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more. Immunology Today 17, 138–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Mulder, R.W.A.W., Havenaar, R. and Huis in’t Veld, J. (1997) Intervention strategies: the use of probiotics and competitive exclusion microflora’s against contamination with pathogens in pigs and poultry. In: Fuller, R. (Ed.). Probiotics 2. Applications and Practical Aspects. Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 186–207.Google Scholar
  134. Nabuurs, M.J.A. (1998) Weaning piglets as a model for studying pathophysiology of diarrhea. Veterinary Quarterly 20, S42–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Niewold, T.A., Van Essen, G.J., Nabuurs, M.J.A., Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. and van der Meulen, J. (2000) A review of porcine pathophysiology: a different approach to disease. Veterinary Quarterly 22, 209–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Niewold, T.A., Kerstens, H.H.D., van der Meulen, J., Smits, M.A., Hulst, M.M. (2005) Development of a porcine small intestinal cDNA microarray: characterization, and functional analysis of the response to enterotoxic E. coli. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 105, 317–329.Google Scholar
  137. Nava, F. and Carta, G. (2001) Melatonin reduces anxiety induced by lipopolysaccharide in the rat. Neuroscience Letters 307, 57–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Olsson, I.A.S., De Jonge, F.H., Schuurman, T. and Helmond, F.H. (1999) Poor rearing conditions and social stress in pigs: repeated social challenge and the effect on behavioural and physiological response to stressors. Behavioral Processes 46, 201–215.Google Scholar
  139. Osterhaus, A., van Amerongen, G. and van Binnendijk, R. (1998) Vaccine strategies to overcome maternal antibody mediated inhibition of measles vaccine. Vaccine 16, 1479–1481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Ouwehand, A.C., Salminen, S. and Isolauri, E. (2002) Probiotics: an overview of beneficial effects. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General & Molecular Microbiology 82, 279–289.Google Scholar
  141. Owen, B.M., Eccleston, D., Ferrier, I.N. and Young, A.H. (2001) Raised levels of plasma interleukin-1 beta in major and postviral depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 103, 226–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Parmentier, H., Kreukniet, M.B., Goeree, B., Davison, T.F., Jeurissen, S.H.M., Harmsen, E.G.M. and Nieuwland, M.G.B. (1995) Differences in distribution of lymphocyte differentiation antigens in chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 48, 155–168.Google Scholar
  143. Paterson, S., Wilson, K. and Pemberton, J.M. (1998) Major histocompatibility complex variation associated with juvenile survival and parasite resistance in a large unmanaged ungulate population. (Ovis aries L) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. 95, 3714–3719.Google Scholar
  144. Pinard, M.H., van Arendonk, J.A.M., Nieuwland, M.G.B. and van der Zijpp, A.J. (1992) Divergent selection for immune responsiveness: estimation of realised heritability with and animal model. Journal of Animal Science 70, 2986–2993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Pluske, J.R., Gaskins, R.H., Morel, P.C.H., Revell, D.K., King, M.R. and James, E.A.J. (1999) The number of villus and crypt CD4+ cells in the jejunum of piglets increases after weaning. In: Cranwell, P.D. (Ed.). Manipulating Pig Production VII. Australian Pig Science Association, Werribee, Australia, pp. 244.Google Scholar
  146. Pollman, D.S., Danielson, E.R. and Peo, E.R. (1980) Effects of microbial feed additives on performance of starter and grow–finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 51, 577.Google Scholar
  147. Prunier, A., Guadarrama Cesar, A.M., Mourot, J. and Quesnel, H. (2001) Influence of feed intake during pregnancy and lactation on fat body reserve mobilisation, plasma leptin and reproductive function of primiparous lactating sows. Reproduction Nutrition Development 41, 333–347.Google Scholar
  148. Raghupathy, R. (1997) Th1-type immunity is incompatible with successful pregnancy. Immunology Today 18, 478–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Rath, D., Long, C.R., Dobrinsky, J.R., Welch, G.R., Schreier, L.L. and Johnson, L.A. (1999) In vitro production of sexed embryos for gender preselection: high-speed sorting of X-chromosome-bearing sperm to produce pigs after embryo transfer.Journal of Animal Science 77, 3346–3352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Raymond, C., Wilkie, B., Mallard, B. and Quinton, M. (1998) Natural killer cell frequency and function in Yorkshire pigs selectively bred for high or low antibody and cell-mediated immune response. Nature Immunology 16, 127–136.Google Scholar
  151. Rink, L. and Gabriel, P. (2001) Extracellular and immunological actions of zinc. Biometals 14, 367–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Roberfroid, M.B. (1997) Health benefits of non-digestible oligosaccharides. Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology 427, 211–219.Google Scholar
  153. Roberfroid, M.B. (2002) Functional foods: concepts and application to inulin and oligofructose. British Journal of Nutrition 87 S2, S139–S143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Roepstorff, A. and Nansen, P. (1994) Epidemiology and control of helminth infections in pigs under intensive and non-intensive production systems. Veterinary Parasitology 54, 69–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Rohleder, N., Kudielka, B.M., Hellhammer, D.H., Wolf, J.M. and Kirschbaum, C. (2002) Age and sex steroid-related changes in glucocorticoid sensitivity of pro-inflammatory cytokine production after psychosocial stress. Journal of Neuroimmunology 126, 69–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Rook, G.A. (1999) Glucocorticoids and immune function. Baillieres Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 13, 567–581.Google Scholar
  157. Rook, G.A.W. and Stanford, J.L. (1998) Give us this day our daily germs. Immunology Today 3, 113–116.Google Scholar
  158. Rothkoetter, H.J. and Pabst, R. (1989) Lymphocyte subsets in jejunal and ileal Peyer’s patches of normal and gnotobiotic minipigs. Immunology 67, 103–108.Google Scholar
  159. Ruis, M.A., de Groot, J., te Brake, J.H., Ekkel E.D., van de Burgwal, J.A., Erkens, J.H., Engel, B., Buist, W.G., Blokhuis, H.J. and Koolhaas, J.M. (2001a) Behavioural and physiological consequences of acute social defeat in growing gilts: effects of the social environment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 70, 201–225.Google Scholar
  160. Ruis, M.A., Te Brake, J.H., Engel, B., Buist, W.G., Blokhuis, H.J. and Koolhaas, J.M. (2001b) Adaptation to social isolation. Acute and long-term stress responses of growing gilts with different coping characteristics. Physiology & Behavior 73, 541–551.Google Scholar
  161. Sachser, N., Durschlag, M. and Hirzel, D. (1998) Social relationships and the management of stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology 23, 891–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Schrama, J.W., van der Hel, W., Gorssen, J., Henken, A.M., Verstegen, M.W. and Noordhuizen, J.P. (1996) Required thermal thresholds during transport of animals. Veterinary Quarterly 18, 90–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Schrama, J.W., Schouten, J.M., Swinkels, J.W., Gentry, J.L., de Vries Reilingh, G. and Parmentier, H.K. (1997) Effect of hemoglobin status on humoral immune response of weanling pigs differing in coping styles. Journal of Animal Science 75, 2588–2596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Sorensen, V., Barfod, K. and Feld, N.C. (1992) Evaluation of a monoclonal blocking ELISA and IHA for antibodies to Mycoplasma hyopneumonia in SPF pig herds. Veterinary Record 130, 488–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Schwartzenberger, F., Toole, G.S., Christie, H.L. and Raeside, J.I. (1993). Plasma levels of several androgens and estrogens from birth to puberty in male domestic pigs. European Journal of Endocrinology 128, 173–177.Google Scholar
  166. Spurlock, M.E., Ranalletta, M.A., Cornelius, S.G., Frank, G.R., Willis, G.M., Ji, S., Grant, A.L. and Bidwell, C.A. (1998) Leptin expression in porcine adipose tissue is not increased by endotoxin but is reduced by growth hormone. Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 18, 1051–1058.Google Scholar
  167. Stewart, C., Hillman, K., Maxwell, F., Kelly, D. and King, T.P. (1993) Recent advances in probiosis in pigs: observations on the microbiology of the pig gut. In: Garnsworthy, P.C. and Cole, D.J.A. (Eds.). Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, pp. 197–219.Google Scholar
  168. Stokes, C.R., Miller, B.G., Bailey, M., Wilson, A.D. and Bourne, F.J. (1987) The immune response to dietary antigens and its influence on disease susceptibility in farm animals. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 17, 413–423.Google Scholar
  169. Swanson, J.C. (1995) Farm animal well-being and intensive production systems. Journal of Animal Science 73, 2744–2751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Taylor, A.A., Weary, D.M., Lessard, M. and Braithwaite, L. (2001) Behavioural responses of piglets to castration: the effect of piglet age. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 73, 35–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Te Pas, M.F.W., Visscher, A.H., van Steenbergen, E.J., de Greef, K.H., Niewold, T.A. and Janss, L.L.G. (2001) Associations between porcine leptin and leptin receptor marker genotypes and immune parameters. Journal Animal Science 79(Suppl 1), 189.Google Scholar
  172. Turner, S.P., Ewen, M., Rooke, J.A. and Edwards, S.A. (2000) The effect of space allowance on performance, aggression and immune competence of growing pigs housed on straw deep-litter at different group sizes. Livestock Production Science 66, 47–55.Google Scholar
  173. VanBelle, M. (2001) Current status and future perspectives in E.U. for antibiotics, probiotics, enzymes and organic acids in nutrition. In: Piva, A., Bach Knudsen, K.E. and Lindberg, J.E. (Eds.). Gut Environment of Pigs. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, United Kingdom, pp. 231–256.Google Scholar
  174. Van de Ligt, J.L., Lindemann, M.D., Harmon, R.J., Monegue, H.J. and Cromwell, G.L. (2002) Effect of chromium tripicolinate supplementation on porcine immune response during the periparturient and neonatal period. Journal of Animal Science 80, 456–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Vanderhoof, J.A. (1998) Immunonutrition: the role of carbohydrates. Nutrition 14, 595–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Van Iwaarden, J.F., Claassen, E., Jeurissen, S.H.M., Haagsman, H.P. and Kraal, G. (2001) Alveolar macrophages, surfactant lipids, and surfactant protein B regulate the induction of immune responses via the airways. American Journal of Respiratory Cell & Molecular Biology 24, 452–458.Google Scholar
  177. Van Oirschot, J.T. and De Leeuw, P.W. (1985) Intranasal vaccination of pigs against Aujeszky’s disease. 4. Comparison with one or two doses of an inactivated vaccine in pigs with moderate maternal antibody titres.Veterinary Microbiology 10, 401–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Van Oirschot, J.T. (1987) Intranasal vaccination of pigs against Aujeszky’s disease: comparison with one or two doses of attenuated vaccines in pigs with high maternal antibody titres. Research in Veterinary Science 42, 12–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Van Oirschot, J.T. (1999) Diva vaccines that reduce virus transmission. Journal of Biotechnology 73, 195–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Vega-Lopez, M.A., Bailey, M., Telemo, E. and Stokes, C.R. (1995) Effect of early weaning on the development of immune cells in the pig small intestine. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 44, 319–327.Google Scholar
  181. Visscher, A.H., Janss, L.L.G., Niewold, T.A. and De Greef, K.H. (2002) Disease incidence and immunological traits for the selection of healthy pigs. A review. Veterinary Quarterly 24, 29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Wegmann, T.G., Lin, H., Guilbert, L. and Mosmann, T.R. (1993) Bidirectional cytokine interactions in the maternal-fetal relationship: is successful pregnancy a TH2 phenomenon? Immunology Today 14, 353–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. White, R.G., DeShazer, J.A., Tressler, C.J., Borcher, G.M., Davey, S., Waninge, A., Parkhurst, A.M., Milanuk, M.J. and Clemens, E.T. (1995) Vocalization and physiological response of pigs during castration with or without a local anesthetic. Journal of Animal Science 73, 381–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Wiepkema, P.R. and Koolhaas, J.M. (1993) Stress and animal welfare. Animal Welfare 2, 195–218.Google Scholar
  185. Wilcoxon, S.C., Kirkman, E., Dowdell, K.C. and Stohlman, S.A. (2000) Gender dependent IL-12 secretion by APC is regulated by IL-10. Journal of Immunology 164, 6237–6243.Google Scholar
  186. Wilkie, B. and Mallard, B. (1999) Selection for high immune response: an alternative approach to animal health maintenance? Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 72, 231–235.Google Scholar
  187. Wolter, B.F., Ellis, M., Curtis, S.E., Augspurger, N.R., Hamilton, D.N., Parr, E.N., Webel, D.M. (2001) Effect of group size on pig performance in a wean-to-finish production system. Journal of Animal Science 79, 1067–1073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Yokoyama, M.T., Tabori, C., Miller, E.R. and Hogberg, M.G. (1982) The effects of antibiotics in the weanling pig diet on growth and excretion of volatile phenolic and aromatic bacterial metabolites. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 35, 1417–1424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Yurdusev, N., Ladire, M., Ducluzeau, R. and Raibaud, P. (1985) “In vivo” and “in vitro” antagonism exerted by two anaerobic strains against strains of clostridium perfringens. Progress in Clinical & Biological Research 181, 171–174.Google Scholar
  190. Zeng, X.Y., Turkstra, J.A., Meloen, R.H., Liu, X.Y., Chen, F.Q., Schaaper, W.M., Oonk, H.B., Guo da, Z. and van de Wiel, D.F. (2002) Active immunization against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in Chinese male pigs: effects of dose on antibody titer, hormone levels and sexual development. Animal Reproduction Science 70, 223–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Zimmermann, B., Bauer, E. and Mosenthin, R. (2001) Pro- and prebiotics in pig nutrition – potential modulators of gut health? Journal of Animal Feed Science 10, 47–56.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wim J. A. Boersma
    • 1
  • Jan van der Meulen
  • Theo A. Niewold
  1. 1.Animal Sciences Group of Wageningen URThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations