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The development of efficient chromosome doubling protocols is essential for the useful application of doubled haploid (DH) plants in breeding programs, since frequency of spontaneous doubling is most of the time too low. Chromosome doubling has been traditionally applied to plantlets, being the colchicine the most widely anti-microtubule agent used in vivo and in vitro. However during the last 15 years, protocols have been developed for the incorporation of different anti-microtubule agents during the early stages of androgenesis or gynogenesis. Factors affecting frequencies of spontaneous and induced chromosome doubling are summarized. For a successful chemical induction, a compromise between toxicity (which can result from high concentration and/or long time of application) and genome doubling efficiency should be adopted in order to obtain the highest number of green DH plants.

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Castillo, A.M., Cistué, L., Vallés, M.P., Soriano, M. (2009). Chromosome Doubling in Monocots. In: Touraev, A., Forster, B.P., Jain, S.M. (eds) Advances in Haploid Production in Higher Plants. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8854-4_27

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