Phytoremediation Technologies Used To Reduce Environmental Threat Posed By Metal-Contaminated Soils: Theory And Reality
In this paper an example of the approach to the management of contaminated land is described. The paper is based on realities of the Republic of Poland located in Central Europe; a country whose financial resources are limited and environmental needs high. Soil cleaning technologies are generally highly cost-intensive and unaffordable for developing countries, therefore alternative solutions, which at least help to temporarily isolate or diminish the problem, are always welcome. Phyto-remediation, which is a biological method using plants to clean up or stabilize contaminants in polluted soils, is a suitable method due to its low cost effectiveness. Two variants of the practical implementation of phytoremediation methods, e.g., phytostabilization and phytoextraction, are described here. The feasibility of both methods was investigated in the laboratory and in the field, within the framework of two separate efforts financed by the US Department of Energy (phytoextraction) and the European Union (FP5-phytostabilization).
KeywordsMetal-polluted soils phytoremediation costs
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Cunnigham, S.D., Berti, W.R., Huang, J.W., 1995. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils. TIBTECH 13: 393–397.Google Scholar
- Knox A.S., Seaman J., Adriano D.C. and Pierzynski, G., 2000. Chemophytostabilization of metals in contaminated soils. In: Wise, D.L., Trantolo, D.J., Cichon, E.J., Inyang, H.I., Stottmeister, U. (Eds.),Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils. pp. 811–836. Marcel Dekker, New York/Basel.Google Scholar
- Knox A.S., Seaman J.C., Mench M.J., Vangronsveld J., 2001. Remediation of metal- and radionuclides- contaminated soils by in situ stabilization techniques. In: Iskandar I.K. (Ed.), Environmental Restoration of Metal-Contaminated Soils. pp. 21–60. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton/London/New York/Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Kucharski R., Sas-Nowosielska A., Malkowski E., Krynski K., Pogrzeba M., 1998. Integrated Approach to the Remediation of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Land. Final Report on the US DOE/IETU Poland Joint Project. Unpublished.Google Scholar
- Kucharski R, Sas-Nowosielska A., Malkowski E., Pogrzeba M., Krzyżak J., 2004. A decision support system to quantify the cost/benefit relationship of the use of vegetation in the management of heavy metal polluted soils and dredged sediments. Phytodec, Internal Final Report on EU FP-5 Project. Unpublished.Google Scholar
- McGrath, S.P., Dunham, S.J., 1997. Potential phytoextraction of zinc and cadmium from soils using hyperacumulator plants. In: Iskandar, I.K., Hardy, S.E., Chang, A.C., Pierzynski, G.M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements. University of California, Berkeley. pp. 625–626.Google Scholar
- McGrath, S.P., Sidoli, C.D.M., Baker, A.J.M., Reeves, R.D., 1993. The potential for the use of metal- accumulating plants for the in situ decontamination of metal-polluted soils. In: Eijackers, H.J.P., Hamers, T. (Eds.), Integrated Soil and Sediment Research: A Basis for Proper Protection, Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 673–676.Google Scholar
- Sas-Nowosielska, A., Kucharski, R, 2002. Implementation of Phytoremediation Technology in Poland, Ecology and Ecotechnologies — Conference on the scientific cooperation between Austria and Poland, Vienna, Section 2, 451–458.Google Scholar
- Stuczyński T.I., Pistelok F., Siebielec G., Kukla H., Daniels W., Chaney R, Pantuck K, 2000. Biological aspects of metal waste reclamation with biosolids in Poland. In: Proceedings of Symposium on Mining, Forest and Land Restoration: The Successful Use of Residuals/Biosolids/Organic Matter for Reclamation Activities (Denver, CO, July 17–20 2000). Rocky Mountain Water Environment Association, Denver, CO.Google Scholar