Pollination Biology

Orchids Pollen Dispersal Units and Reproductive Consequences
  • Ettore Pacini

Male and female reproductive organs vary widely in angiosperms, due to the number of ovules per ovary and the number of pollen grains in pollen dispersal units (PDUs), a term used to indicate the different ways in which ripe pollen is presented for dispersal (Pacini, 1997). Pollen may travel as a single grain, or en masse, as a compound pollen (Knox and McConchie, 1986).

Pollen forms aggregates by various means: (i) viscous fluids derived from tapetum activity and/or degeneration; (ii) filaments derived from tapetum activity, composed of sporopollenin and continuous with pollen exine; (iii) threads derived from other anther parts; (iv) common walls, i.e., contiguous pollen grains derived from the same meiocyte or from close meiocytes which share a wall (Pacini and Franchi, 1999; Hesse, Vogel, and Halbritter 2000).


Pollen Tube Pollen Development Reproductive Consequence Tapetal Cell Pollen Load 
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