Advertisement

Human Prey Choice in the Late Pleistocene and Its Relation to Megafaunal Extinctions

  • Todd A. Surovell
  • Nicole M. Waguespack
Part of the Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology book series (VERT)

Like many dimensions of human behavior during the early phases of New World occupation, interpretations of Early Paleoindian subsistence practices are highly contentious. Different researchers examining the same faunal record have arrived at opposing conclusions regarding what Early Paleoindians were hunting, collecting, and eating. Some argue that Early Paleoindians were quintessentially “large game specialists;” others see a pattern of “generalized foraging.” This debate has important implications for evaluating possible causes of Pleistocene extinctions. While at the core of the issue is a fundamentally simple question–“What did Early Paleoindians hunt?”–the interpretation of direct human involvement in the demise of multiple species of animals is clouded by larger issues concerning hunter-gatherer economics and climate change. Our concern is with the former, and we examine Early Paleoindian hunting from an ethnographic, zooarcheological, and behavioral ecological standpoint.

Keywords

Early Paleoindian diet large-game predation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adovasio JM, Page J (2002) The fi rst Americans: In pursuit of archaeology's greatest mystery. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Alroy J (1999) Putting North America's end-Pleistocene mega-faunal extinctions in context: Large-scale analyses of spatial patterns, extinction rates, and size distributions. In: MacPhee R (ed) Extinctions in near time. Kluwer/Plenum, New York, pp 105–143Google Scholar
  3. Alroy J (2001) A multispecies overkill simulation of the end-Pleistocene megafaunal mass extinction. Science 292:1893–1896Google Scholar
  4. Alvard MS, Nolin DA (2002) Rousseau's whale hunt? Current Anthropology 43:533–559Google Scholar
  5. Anderson DG (1995) Paleoindian interaction networks in the Eastern Woodlands. In: Nassaney MS, Sassamn KE (eds) Native American interaction: Multiscalar analyses and interpretations in the Eastern Woodlands. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  6. Anderson DG, Faught MK (2000) Paleoindian artefact distributions: Evidence and implications. Antiquity 74:507–513Google Scholar
  7. Anderson DG, Gillam JC (2000) Paleoindian colonization of the Americas: Implications from an examination of physiography, demography, and artifact distribution. Am Ant 65:43–66Google Scholar
  8. Andrewartha HG, Birch LC (1961) The distribution and abundance of animals. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  9. Bailey RC (1991) The behavioral ecology of Efe Pygmy men in the Ituri forest, Zaire. Museum of Anthropology University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnosky AD, Koch PL, Feranec RS, Wing SL, Shabel AB (2004) Assessing the causes of late Pleistocene extinctions on continents. Science 306:70–75Google Scholar
  11. Barton CM, Schmich S, James SR (2004) The ecology of human colonization in pristine landscapes. In: Barton CM, Clark GA, Yesner DR, Pearson GA (eds) The settlement of the American continents: A multidisciplinary approach to human biogeography. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, pp 138–161Google Scholar
  12. Beck C, Jones GT (1997) The terminal Pleistocene/early Holocene archaeology of the Great Basin. J World Prehist 11:161–236Google Scholar
  13. Begon M, Harper JL, Townsend CR (1996) Ecology. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Bement LC, Carter BJ (2003) The Jake Bluff site: Clovis bison hunting adaptations at the brink of mammoth extinction on the southern high plains of North America. Paper presented at the 68th Annual Meeting of the Society for America Archaeology, Apr. 9–13, Milwaukee, WIGoogle Scholar
  15. Binford LR (1978) Nunamiut ethnoarchaeology. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Binford LR (1991) A corporate caribou hunt. Expedition 33(1):33–43Google Scholar
  17. Bird DW, Bird RB (2000) The ethnoarchaeology of juvenile foragers: Shellfi shing strategies among the Meriam children. J Anthropol Archaeol 19, 461–476.Google Scholar
  18. Bird RB, Bird DW, Smith EA, Kushnick GC (2002) Risk and reciprocity in Meriam food sharing. Evol Hum Behav 23:297–321Google Scholar
  19. Boeri D (1983) People of the ice whale: Eskimos, white men, and the whale. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  20. Brook BW, Bowman DMJS (2005) One equation fi ts overkill: Why allometry underpins both prehistoric and modern body size-biased extinctions. Popul Ecol 47:137–141Google Scholar
  21. Brugal J, David F, Enloe JG, Jaubert J (1999) Introduction. In: Bru-gal J, David F, Enloe JG, Jaubert J (eds) Le bison: Gibier et moyen de subsistence des hommes du Paléolithique aux Paléoindians des Grandes Plaines. Éditions APDCA, Antibes, pp 7–11Google Scholar
  22. Brunswig RH Jr, Fisher DC (1993) Research on the Dent mammoth site. Curr Res Pleistocene 10:63–65Google Scholar
  23. Brush N, Smith F (1994) The Martins Creek mastodon: A Paleoin-dian butchery site in Holmes County, Ohio. Curr Res Pleistocene 11:14–15Google Scholar
  24. Brush N, Newman M, Smith F (1994) Immunological analysis of fl int fl akes from the Martins Creek Mastodon site. Curr Res Pleistocene 11:16–18Google Scholar
  25. Byers DA, Ugan A (2005) Should we expect large game specialization in the late Pleistocene? An optimal foraging perspective on Early Paleoindian prey choice. J Archaeol Sci 32:1624–1640Google Scholar
  26. Byers DS (1955) Additional information on the Bull Brook site, Massachusetts. Am Ant 20:274–276Google Scholar
  27. Cannon MD, Meltzer DJ (2004) Early Paleoindian foraging: Examining the faunal evidence for megafaunal specialization and regional variability in prey choice. Quat Sci Rev 23:1955–1987Google Scholar
  28. Cashdan E (1985) Coping with risk: Reciprocity among the Basarwa of northern Botswana. Man 20:454–474Google Scholar
  29. Charnov EL (1976) Optimal foraging: Attack strategy of a mantid. Am Nat 110:141–151Google Scholar
  30. Clausen CJ, Cohen AD, Emiliani C, Holman JA, Stipp JJ (1979) Little Salt Spring, Florida: A unique underwater site. Science 203:609–614Google Scholar
  31. Cleland CE (1965) Barren ground caribou (Rangifer arcticus) from an Early Man site in southeastern Michigan. Am Ant 30:350–351Google Scholar
  32. Collins, MB (1999) Clovis blade technology. University of Texas Press, Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  33. Collins MB, Evans GL, Campbell TN, Winans MC, Mear CE (1989) Clovis occupation at Kincaid Shelter, Texas. Curr Res Pleistocene 6:3–4Google Scholar
  34. Condon RG, Collings P, Wenzel G (1995) The best part of life: Subsistence hunting, ethnicity, and economic adaptation among young Inuit males. Arctic 48(1):31–46Google Scholar
  35. Cox SJ, Sluckin TJ, Steele J (1999) Group size, memory, and interaction in the evolution of cooperation. Curr Anthropol 40(3):369–377Google Scholar
  36. Crook, WW Jr, Harris, RK (1957) Hearths and artifacts of Early Man near Lewisville, Texas and associated faunal material. Bull Texas Arch Soc 28:7–97Google Scholar
  37. Crook WW Jr, Harris RK (1958) A Pleistocene campsite near Lewis-ville, Texas. Am Ant 23:233–246Google Scholar
  38. Dent RJ, Kauffman BE (1985) Aboriginal subsistence and site ecology interpreted from microfl oral and faunal remains. In: McNett C (ed) Shawnee-Minisink: A stratifi ed Paleoindian-Archaic site in the Upper Delaware Valley of Pennsylvania. Academic, New York, pp 55–79Google Scholar
  39. Dillehay TD (ed) (2000) The settlement of the Americas: A new re-history. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Dixon EJ (1999) Bones, boats, and bison: Archeology and the fi rst colonization of Western North America. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NMGoogle Scholar
  41. Driver JC (1999) Raven skeletons from Paleoindian contexts, Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia. Am Ant 64:289–298Google Scholar
  42. Duffy K (1984) Children of the forest. Dodd, Mead, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Dunbar JS (1991) Resource orientation of Clovis and Suwanee age sites Paleoindian sites in Florida. In: Bonnichsen R, Turnmire KL (eds) Clovis: Origins and adaptations. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Corvallis, OR, pp 185–213Google Scholar
  44. Eisenberg L (1978) Paleo-Indian settlement pattern in the Hudson and Delaware River drainages. Department of Anthropology, Franklin Pierce College, Occasional Publications in Northeastern Anthropology, No. 4, Rindge, New HampshireGoogle Scholar
  45. Enloe JG (1999) Hunting specialization: Single-species focus and human adaptation. In: Brugal J, David F, Enloe J, Jaubert J (eds) Le bison: Gibier et moyen de subsistence des hommes du Paléo-lithique aux Paléoindians des Grandes Plaines. Éditions APDCA, Antibes, pp 501–510Google Scholar
  46. Ferring CR (1995) The late Quaternary geology and archaeology of the Aubrey Clovis site, Texas: A preliminary report. In: Johnson E (ed), Ancient peoples and landscapes. Museum of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, pp 273–281Google Scholar
  47. Ferring CR (2001) Archaeology of the Aubrey Clovis site. In: Ferring CR (ed) The archaeology and paleoecology of the Aubrey Clovis site (41DN479), Denton County, Texas. Center for Environmental Archaeology, University of North Texas, Denton, pp 121–202Google Scholar
  48. Figgins JD (1933) A further contribution to the antiquity of man in America. Proceedings of the Colorado Museum of Natural History XII(12)Google Scholar
  49. Fisher DC (1984) Taphonomic analysis of late Pleistocene mastodon occurrences: Evidences of butchery by North American Paleo-Indians. Paleobiology 10:338–357Google Scholar
  50. Fisher JW (1993) Foragers and farmers: Material expressions of interaction at elephant processing sites in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. In: Hudson J (ed) From bones to behavior: Ethnoarchaeological and experimental contributions to the interpretation of faunal remains. Center for Archaeological Investigations, University of Southern Illinois Press, Carbondale, pp 247–262Google Scholar
  51. Fitting JE, DeVisscher J, Wahla EJ (1966) The Paleo-Indian occupation of the Holcombe Beach. Anthropological Papers of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, No. 27, The University of Michigan, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  52. Fladmark K, Driver JC, Alexander D (1988) The Paleoindian component at Charlie Lake Cave (HbRF 39), British Columbia. Am Ant 53:371–384Google Scholar
  53. Frison GC (1982) The Sheaman site: A Clovis component. In: Fri-son GC, Stanford DJ (eds) The Agate Basin Site: A record of the Paleoindian occupation of the northwestern High Plains. Academic, New York, pp 143–157Google Scholar
  54. Frison GC (1989) Experimental use of Clovis weaponry and tools on African elephants. Am Ant 54(4):766–784Google Scholar
  55. Frison GC, Todd LC (1986) The Colby mammoth site. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NMGoogle Scholar
  56. Gould R (1980) Living archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  57. Graham RW, Kay M (1988) Taphonomic comparisons of cultural and noncultural faunal deposits at the Kimmswick and Barnhart sites, Jefferson County, Missouri. In: Laub RS, Miller NG, Stead-man DW (eds) Late Pleistocene and early Holocene paleoecol-ogy and archaeology of the eastern Great Lakes region. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, vol 33, Buffalo, N Y, pp 227–240Google Scholar
  58. Graham RW, Haynes CV, Johnson DL, Kay M (1981) Kimms-wick: A Clovis-mastodon association in eastern Missouri. Science 213:1115–1117Google Scholar
  59. Grayson DK (1984) Archaeological associations with extinct Pleistocene mammals in North America. J Arch Sci 11:213–221Google Scholar
  60. Grayson DK (1988) Perspectives on the archaeology of the fi rst Americans. In: Carlisle RC (ed) Americans before Columbus: Ice-age origins. Ethnography Monographs 12, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, pp 107–122Google Scholar
  61. Grayson DK (1993) The desert's past: A natural prehistory of the Great Basin. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  62. Grayson DK (2001) The archaeological record of human impacts on animal populations. J World Prehist 15:1–67Google Scholar
  63. Grayson DK, Delpech F (1998) Changing diet breadth in the early Upper Paleolithic of southwestern France. J Arch Sci 25:1119–1129Google Scholar
  64. Grayson DK, Delpech F (2001) The Upper Paleolithic at Grotte XVI (Dordogne, France): Richness, evenness and cave bears. In: Hays MA, Thacker PT (eds) Questioning the answers: Resolving fundamental problems of the early Upper Paleolithic. BAR International Series1005, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford, pp 187–195Google Scholar
  65. Grayson DK, Delpech, F (2002) Specialized early Upper Paleolithic hunters in southwestern France? J Arch Sci 29:1439–1449Google Scholar
  66. Grayson DK, Meltzer DJ (2002) Clovis hunting and large mammal extinction: A critical review of the evidence. J World Prehist 16:313–359Google Scholar
  67. Grayson DK, Meltzer DJ (2003) A requiem for North American overkill. J Arch Sci 30:585–593Google Scholar
  68. Grayson DK, Delpech F, Regaud J.-P, Simek J (2001) Explaining the development of dietary dominance by a single ungulate taxon at Grotte XVI, Dordogne, France. J Arch Sci 28:115–125Google Scholar
  69. Greaves RD (1997) Hunting and multifunctional use of bows and arrows. In: Knecht H (ed) Projectile technology. Plenum, New York, pp 287–320Google Scholar
  70. Griffi ths D (1980) Foraging costs and relative prey size. Am Nat 116(5):743–752Google Scholar
  71. Gubser NJ (1965) The Nunamiut Eskimos: Hunters of caribou. Yale University Press, New Haven, CTGoogle Scholar
  72. Gurven M, Hill K, Kaplan H, Hurtado A, Lyles R (2000) Food transfers among Hiwi foragers of Venezuela: Tests of reciprocity. Hum Ecol 28(2):171–218Google Scholar
  73. Gustafson CE, Gilbow D, Daugherty RD (1979) The Manis mastodon: Early Man on the Olympic Peninsula. Can J Archaeol 3:157–164Google Scholar
  74. Hames RB (1979) A comparison of the effi ciencies of the shotgun and the bow in neotropical forest hunting. Hum Ecol 7(3):219–252Google Scholar
  75. Hannus LA (1989) Flaked mammoth bone from the Lange/Ferguson site White River Badlands area, South Dakota. In: Bonnichsen R, Sorg MH (eds) Bone modifi cation. Center for the Study of the First Americans, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, pp 395–412Google Scholar
  76. Hannus LA (1990) The case for mammoth bone-butchering tools. In: Agenbroad LD, Mead J, Nelson L (eds) Megafauna and man: Discovery of America's heartland. Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, Hot Springs, SD, pp 86–99Google Scholar
  77. Haury EW (1953) Artifacts with mammoth remains, Naco, Arizona. Am Ant 19(1):1–14Google Scholar
  78. Haury EW, Sayles EB, Wasley WW (1959) The Lehner mammoth site, southeastern Arizona. Am Ant 25(1):2–42Google Scholar
  79. Hawkes K (1991) Showing off: Tests of an hypothesis about men's foraging goals. Ethol Sociobiol 12:29–54Google Scholar
  80. Hawkes K (1992) Sharing and collective action. In: Smith EA, Win-terhalder B (eds) Evolutionary ecology and human behavior. Al-dine de Gruyter, New York, pp 269–300Google Scholar
  81. Hawkes K, O'Connell JF, Jones NGB (1991) Hunting income patterns among the Hadza: Big game, common goods, foraging goals and the evolution of the human diet. Phil Trans Royal Soc Lond 334:243–251Google Scholar
  82. Hayden B (1994) Competition, labor, and complex hunter-gatherers. In: Burch E, Ellana L (eds) Key issues in hunter-gatherer research. Berg, Oxford, pp 223–239Google Scholar
  83. Haynes CV Jr (1993) Clovis-Folsom geochronology and climatic change. In: Soffer O, Praslov ND (eds) From Kostenki to Clovis: Upper Paleolithic–Paleo-Indian adaptations. Plenum, New York, pp 219–236Google Scholar
  84. Haynes CV Jr, Haury EW (1982) Archaeological investigations at the Lehner site, Arizona, 1974–1975. Natl Geogr Res Rep 14:325–334Google Scholar
  85. Haynes G (2002a) The early settlement of North America: The Clovis era. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  86. Haynes G (2002b) The catastrophic extinction of North American mammoths and mastodonts. World Arch 33:391–416Google Scholar
  87. Haynes G, Stanford D (1984) On the possible utilization of Camel-ops by Early Man in North America. Quaternary Research 22:216–230Google Scholar
  88. Heizer RF, Baumhoff MA (1970) Big game hunters in the Great Basin: A critical review of the evidence. Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility, vol 7, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  89. Hemmings ET, Haynes CV Jr (1969) The Escapule mammoth and associated projectile points, San Pedro valley, Arizona. J Arizona Acad Sci 5:184–188Google Scholar
  90. Hill K, Padwe J (2000) Sustainability of Ache hunting in the Mba-racayú Reserve, Paraguay. In: Robinson JG, Bennett EL (eds) Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 79–105Google Scholar
  91. Hill K, Kaplan H, Hawkes K, Hurtado AM (1985) Men's time allocation to subsistence work among the Ache of eastern Paraguay. Hum Ecol 13(1):29–47Google Scholar
  92. Hodgeson AGO (1926) Some notes on the hunting customs of the Wandamba of the Ulanga valley, Tanganyika Territory, and other East African tribes. J Roy Anthropol Inst Great Britain Ireland 56:59–70Google Scholar
  93. Hoffman CA (1983) A mammoth kill site in the Silver Springs Run. The Florida Anthropologist 36:83–87Google Scholar
  94. Holliday VT, Vance Haynes CJ, Hofman JL, Meltzer DJ (1994) Geoarchaeology and geochronology of the Miami (Clovis) site, Southern High Plains of Texas. Quat Res 41:234–244Google Scholar
  95. Jochim MA (1981) Strategies for survival: Cultural behavior in an ecological context. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  96. Johnson D, Kawano P, Ekker E (1980) Clovis strategies of hunting mammoth. Can J Anthropol 1:107–114Google Scholar
  97. Johnson E (1987) Vertebrate remains. In: Johnson E (ed) Lubbock Lake: Late Quaternary studies on the southern High Plains. Texas A&M Press, College Station, TX, pp 49–89Google Scholar
  98. Johnson E (1991) Late Pleistocene cultural occupation of the Southern Plains. In: Bonnichsen R, Tunmire KL (eds) Clovis: Origins and adaptations. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Cor-valis, OR, pp 215–236Google Scholar
  99. Kaplan H, Hill K, Lancaster J, Hurtado AM (2000) A theory of human life history evolution: Diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evol Anthropol 9:156–185Google Scholar
  100. Kelly RL, Todd LC (1988) Coming into the country: Early paleoin-dian hunting and mobility. Am Ant 53(2):231–244Google Scholar
  101. Koch PL, Barnosky AD (2006) Late quaternary extinctions: State of the debate. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37:215–250Google Scholar
  102. Kooyman B, Hills LV, McNeil P, Tolman S (2006) Late Pleistocene horse hunting at the Wally's beach site (DhPg-8), Canada. Am Ant 71:101–121Google Scholar
  103. Kooyman B, Newman ME, Cluney C, Lobb M, Tolman S, McNeil P, Hills LV (2001) Identifi cation of horse exploitation by Clovis hunters based on protein analysis. Am Ant 66:686–691Google Scholar
  104. Krebs JR, McCleery RH (1984) Optimization in behavioural ecology. In: Krebs JR, Davies NB (eds) Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 91–121Google Scholar
  105. Krieger AD (1962) The earliest cultures in the western United States. Am Ant 28:138–143Google Scholar
  106. Kurtén B, Anderson E (1980) Pleistocene mammals of North America. Columbia University Press, NYGoogle Scholar
  107. Lance JF (1959) Faunal remains from the Lehner Mammoth Site. Am Ant 25(1):35–42Google Scholar
  108. Laub RS, DeRemer MF, Duport CA (1988) The Hiscock site: A rich late Quaternary locality in western New York State. In: Laub RS, Miller NG, Steadman DW (eds) Late Pleistocene and early Holocene paleoecology and archaeology of the eastern Great Lakes region. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, vol 33, Buffalo, NY, pp 67–81Google Scholar
  109. Lee RB (1979) The !Kung San: Men, women, and work in a foraging society. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  110. Leonhardy FC (1966) Domebo: A Paleo-Indian mammoth kill in the prairie-plains. Contributions of the Museum of the Great Plains, Lawton, OKGoogle Scholar
  111. Leonhardy FC, Anderson AD (1966) The archaeology of the Dome-bo site. In: Leonhardy FC (ed) Domebo: A Paleo-Indian mammoth kill in the prairie-plains. Contributions of the Museum of the Great Plains, No. 1, Lawton, OK, pp 14–26Google Scholar
  112. Lundelius EL Jr (1972) Vertebrate remains from the Gray Sand. In: Hester JJ (ed) Blackwater Locality No. 1: A stratifi ed, Early Man site in eastern New Mexico. Fort Burgwin Research Center, Ran-chos de Taos, NM, pp 148–163Google Scholar
  113. Lyons SK, Smith FA, Brown JH (2004) Of mice, mastodons, and men: Human-mediated extinctions on four continents. Evol Ecol Res 6:339–358Google Scholar
  114. Madsen DB, Schmitt DN (1998) Mass collecting and the diet breadth model: A Great Basin example. J Arch Sci 25:445–455Google Scholar
  115. Marks SA (1976) Large mammals and a brave people: Subsistence hunters in Zambia. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WAGoogle Scholar
  116. Marlowe F (2001) Male contribution to diet and female reproductive success among foragers. Curr Anthropol 42:755–760Google Scholar
  117. Marlowe F (2003) A critical period for provisioning by Hadza men: Implications for pair bonding. Evol Hum Behav 24:217–229Google Scholar
  118. Martin JE (1984) Fossil vertebrates and the paleoenvironment of the Lange/Ferguson Clovis kill site in the Badlands of South Dakota. Curr Res Pleistocene 1:69–71Google Scholar
  119. Martin PS (1973) The discovery of America. Science 179:969–974Google Scholar
  120. Martin PS (1984) Prehistoric Overkill: The global model. In: Martin PS, Klein RG (eds) Quaternary extinctions. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, pp 354–403Google Scholar
  121. Martin PS, Steadman DW (1999) Prehistoric extinctions on islands and continents. In: MacPhee R (ed) Extinctions in near time. Klu-wer/Plenum, NY, pp 17–55Google Scholar
  122. Meltzer DJ (1988) Late Pleistocene human adaptations in eastern North America. J World Prehist 2:1–52Google Scholar
  123. Meltzer DJ (1989) Why don't we know when the fi rst people came to North America? Am Ant 54:471–490Google Scholar
  124. Meltzer DJ (1993) Is there a Clovis adaptation? In: Soffer O, Praslov ND (eds) From Kostenki to Clovis: Upper Paleolithic–Paleo-In-dian adaptations. Plenum, NY, pp 293–310Google Scholar
  125. Meltzer DJ (2004) Modeling the initial colonization of the Americas: Issues of scale, demography, and landscape learning. In: Barton CM, Clark GA, Yesner DR, Pearson GA (eds) The settlement of the American continents: A multidisciplinary approach to human biogeography. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, pp 123– 137Google Scholar
  126. Meltzer DJ, Smith BD (1986) Paleoindian and Early Archaic subsistence strategies in eastern North America. In: Neusius S (ed) Foraging, collecting, and harvesting: Archaic period subsistence and settlement in the eastern Woodlands. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp 3–31Google Scholar
  127. Mithen S (1993) Simulating mammoth hunting and extinction: Implications for the late Pleistocene of the Central Russian Plain. In: Larsen G, Bricker HM, Mellars P (eds) Hunting and animal exploitation in the later Paleolithic and Mesolithic of Eurasia. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, No. 4, pp 163–178Google Scholar
  128. Ohtsuki R, Suzuki T (1990) Population ecology of human survival: Bioecological studies of the Gidra in Papua New Guinea. University of Tokyo Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  129. Overstreet DF (1996) Still more on cultural contexts of mammoth and mastodon in the southwestern Lake Michigan basin. Curr Res Pleistocene 13:36–38Google Scholar
  130. Overstreet DF, Stafford TW Jr (1997) Additions to a revised chronology for cultural and non-cultural mammoth and mastodon fossils in the southwestern Lake Michigan Basin. Curr Res Pleistocene 14:70–71Google Scholar
  131. Overstreet DF, Joyce DJ, Wasion D (1995) More on cultural contexts of mammoth and mastodon in the southwestern Lake Michigan basin. Curr Res Pleistocene 12:40–42Google Scholar
  132. Palmer HA, Stoltman JB (1975) The Boaz mastodon: A possible association of man and mastodon in Wisconsin. Midcontinental J Archaeol 1(2):163–177Google Scholar
  133. Peters RH (1986) The ecological implications of body size. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  134. Ray CN (1930) Report on some recent researches in the Abilene section. Bull Texas Arch Paleontol Soc 2:45–58Google Scholar
  135. Ray CN (1942) Ancient artifacts and mammoth's teeth of the McLean site. Bull Texas Arch Paleontol Soc 14:137–146Google Scholar
  136. Ray CN, Bryan K (1938) Folsomoid point found in alluvium beside a mammoth's bones. Science 88:257–258Google Scholar
  137. Rayl SL (1974) A Paleo-Indian mammoth kill site near Silver Springs, Florida. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Northern Arizona UniversityGoogle Scholar
  138. Saunders JJ (1980) A model for man-mammoth relationships in late Pleistocene North America. Can J Anthropol 1(1):87–98Google Scholar
  139. Saunders JJ (n.d.) Vertebrates of the San Pedro valley 11,000 BP. ManuscriptGoogle Scholar
  140. Sellards EH (1952) Early Man in America: A study in prehistory. University of Texas Press, Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  141. Sellards EH (1960) Some early stone artifact developments in North America. Southwestern J Anthropol 16:160–173Google Scholar
  142. Slaughter BH (1966) The vertebrates of the Domebo local fauna, Pleistocene of Oklahoma. In: Leonhardy FC (ed) Domebo: A Paleo-Indian mammoth kill in the prairie-plains. Contributions of the Museum of the Great Plains, No. 1, Lawton, Oklahoma, pp 31–35Google Scholar
  143. Smith EA (1991) Inujjuamiut foraging strategies: Evolutionary ecology of an arctic hunting economy. Aldine de Gruyter, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  144. Smith FA, Lyons SK, Ernest SKM, Jones KE, Kaufman DM, Dayan T, Marquet PA, Brown JH, Haskell JP (2003) The body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403Google Scholar
  145. Spiess AE, Curran ML, Grimes JR (1985) Caribou (Rangifer taran-dus L.) bones from New England Paleoindian sites. North Am Ar-chaeol 6:145–159Google Scholar
  146. Stanford D (1987) The Ginsberg experiment. Nat Hist 9:10–14Google Scholar
  147. Steadman DW (1988) Vertebrates from the late Quaternary Hiscock site, Genesee County, New York. In: Laub RS, Miller NG, Steadman DW (eds) Late Pleistocene and early Holocene paleoecology and archaeology of the eastern Great Lakes region. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, vol 33, Buffalo, N Y, pp 95–113Google Scholar
  148. Steinhart EI (2000) Elephant hunting in 19th century Kenya: Ka-mba society and ecology in transformation. Int J Afr Hist Stud 33(2):335–345Google Scholar
  149. Stephens DW, Krebs JR (1986) Foraging theory. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  150. Stiner MC, Munro ND, Surovell TA, Tchernov E, Bar-Yosef O (1999) Paleolithic population pulses evidenced by small animal exploitation. Science 283:190–193Google Scholar
  151. Stiner MC, Munro ND, Surovell TA (2000) The tortoise and the hare: Small game use, the broad spectrum revolution, and Paleolithic demography. Curr Anthropol 41(1):39–73Google Scholar
  152. Storck PL, Spiess AE (1994) The signifi cance of new faunal identi-fi cations attributed to an Early Paleoindian (Gainey Complex) occupation at the Udora site, Ontario, Canada. Am Ant 59:121–142Google Scholar
  153. Stuart AJ (1999) Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions: A European perspective. In: MacPhee R (ed) Extinctions in near time. Kluwer/Plenum, NY, pp 257–269Google Scholar
  154. Surovell TA (1999) Modeling occupation intensity and small game use in the Levant. In: Driver JC (ed) Zooarchaeology of the Pleis-tocene/Holocene boundary: Proceedings of a symposium held at the 8th Congress of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ), Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, August 1998. British Archaeological Reports International Series 800, Oxford, pp 31–36Google Scholar
  155. Surovell TA (2000) Early Paleoindian women, children, mobility, and fertility. Am Ant 65(3):493–508Google Scholar
  156. Surovell TA, Waguespack NM (2008) How many elephant kills are 14? Clovis mammoth and mastodon kills in context. Quat. Int. 191(1):82–97Google Scholar
  157. Surovell TA, Waguespack NM (2007) Folsom hearth-centered use of space at Barger Gulch, Locality B. In: Brunswig RH, Pitblado BL (eds) Emerging frontiers in Colorado Paleoindian archaeology. University of Colorado Press, Boulder, CO, pp 219–259Google Scholar
  158. Surovell TA, Waguespack NM, Brantingham PJ (2005) Global archaeological evidence for proboscidean overkill. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:6231–6236Google Scholar
  159. Tanaka J (1980) The San: Hunter-gatherers of the Kalahari. University of Tokyo Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  160. Tankersley KB, Schlecht KD, Laub RS (1998) Fluoride dating of mastodon bone from an Early Paleoindian spring site. J Arch Sci 25:805– 812Google Scholar
  161. Testart A (1982) The signifi cance of food storage among hunter-gatherers: Residence patterns, population densities, and social inequalities. Curr Anthropol 23(5):523–537Google Scholar
  162. Testart A (1986) Game sharing systems and kinship among hunter-gatherers. Man 22:287–304Google Scholar
  163. Todd LC (1987) Analysis of kill-butchery bonebeds and interpretation of Paleoindian hunting. In: Nitecki MH, Nitecki DV (eds) The evolution of human hunting. Plenum, NY, pp 371–403Google Scholar
  164. Townsend WR (2000) The sustainability of subsistence hunting by the Siriono Indians of Bolivia. In: Robinson JG, Bennett EL (eds) Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. Columbia University Press, NY, pp 267–281Google Scholar
  165. Treves A, Naughton-Treves L (1999) Risk and opportunity for humans coexisting with large carnivores. J Hum Evol 36:275–282Google Scholar
  166. Ugan A (2005) Does size matter? Body size, mass collecting, and their implications for understanding prehistoric foraging behavior. Am Ant 70:75–89Google Scholar
  167. Waguespack NM (2002) Caribou sharing and storage: Refi tting the Palangana Site. J Anthropol Archaeol 21:396–417Google Scholar
  168. Waguespack NM (2003) Clovis hunting and the organization of subsistence labor. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZGoogle Scholar
  169. Waguespack NM (2005) The organization of male and female labor in foraging societies: Implications for early Paleoindian archaeology. Am Anthropol 107(4):666–676Google Scholar
  170. Waguespack NM, Surovell TA (2003) Clovis hunting strategies, or how to make out on plentiful resources. Am Ant 68:333–352Google Scholar
  171. Walker DN, Frison GC (1980) The late Pleistocene fauna from the Colby mammoth kill site, Wyoming. Contributions to Geology, University of Wyoming 19(1):69–79Google Scholar
  172. Walker R, Hill K, Kaplan H, McMillan G (2002) Age-dependency in hunting ability among the Ache of eastern Paraguay. J Hum Evol 42:639–657Google Scholar
  173. Webb SD, Milanich JT, Alexon R, Dunbar JS (1984) A Bison an-tiquus kill site, Wacissa River, Jefferson County, Florida. Am Ant 49:384–392Google Scholar
  174. Wiessner P (2002) Hunting, healing, and Hxaro exchange: A long-term perspective on!Kung (Ju/'hoansi) large-game hunting. Evol Hum Behav 23:407–436Google Scholar
  175. Winterhalder B (1981) Optimal foraging strategies and hunter-gatherer research in anthropology: Theory and models. In: Winterhalder B, Smith EA (eds) Hunter-gatherer foraging strategies: Ethnographic and archaeological analyses. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  176. Winterhalder B (1983) Opportunity-cost foraging models for stationary and mobile predators. Am Nat 122(1):73–84Google Scholar
  177. Winterhalder B, Baillargeon W, Cappelletto F, Randolph DI, Pres-cott C (1988) The population ecology of hunter-gatherers and their prey. J Anthropol Archaeol 7:289–328Google Scholar
  178. Winterhalder B, Lu F, Tucker B (1999) Risk-sensitive adaptive tactics: Models and evidence from subsistence studies in biology and anthropology. J Arch Res 7(4):301–348Google Scholar
  179. Yates BC, Lundelius EL Jr (2001) Vertebrate faunal remains from the Aubrey Clovis site. In: Ferring CR (ed) The archaeology and pale-oecology of the Aubrey Clovis site (41DN479), Denton County, Texas. Center for Environmental Archaeology, University of North Texas, Denton, pp 103–119Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Todd A. Surovell
    • 1
  • Nicole M. Waguespack
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of WyomingLaramieUSA

Personalised recommendations