Advertisement

Mechanosensitive Channels in Neuronal and Astroglial Cells in the Nervous System

  • Sergei Kirischuk
Part of the Mechanosensitivity in Cells and Tissues book series (MECT, volume 2)

Abstract

The central nervous system consists of two cell classes, neurons and glia. Mechanosensitive channels are expressed on the plasma membrane of both non-sensory neurons and glial cells. Different chemical stimuli, such as neurotransmitters, or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and stimuli associated with membrane deformation, such as perfusion with hypo-osmotic solutions or local mechanical stress, influence the activity of these channels. Several mechanosensitive K+, such as TREK/TRAAK family, and non-selective cation channels, such as transient receptor potential family, have been recently cloned, and their expression in both neurons and astroglia has been demonstrated. The main aim of this article is to summarize the available data on mechanosensitivity of these two cell types. Possible roles of recently characterized MS channels in the brain development and functioning are discussed.

Keywords

Mechanosensitive channels Astrocytes Neurons Glia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alloui A, Zimmermann K, Mamet J, Duprat F, Noel J, Chemin J, Guy N, Blondeau N, Voilley N, Rubat-Coudert C, Borsotto M, Romey G, Heurteaux C, Reeh P, Eschalier A, Lazdunski M (2006) TREK-1, a K+ channel involved in polymodal pain perception. EMBO J 25:2368–2376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barres BA, Chun LL, Corey DP (1990) Ion channels in vertebrate glia. Annu Rev Neurosci 13:441–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker D, Blase C, Bereiter-Hahn J, Jendrach M (2005) TRPV4 exhibits a functional role in cell-volume regulation. J Cell Sci 118:2435–2440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Behar TN, Scott CA, Greene CL, Wen X, Smith SV, Maric D, Liu QY, Colton CA, Barker JL (1999) Glutamate acting at NMDA receptors stimulates embryonic cortical neuronal migration. J Neurosci 19:4449–4461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Belardetti F, Schacher S, Kandel ER, Siegelbaum SA (1986) The growth cones of Aplysia sensory neurons: Modulation by serotonin of action potential duration and single potassium channel currents. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:7094–7098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Benfenati V, Amiry-Moghaddam M, Caprini M, Mylonakou MN, Rapisarda C, Ottersen OP, Ferroni S (2007) Expression and functional characterization of transient receptor potential vanilloid-related channel 4 (TRPV4) in rat cortical astrocytes. Neuroscience 148:876–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bezzi P, Gundersen V, Galbete JL, Seifert G, Steinhauser C, Pilati E, Volterra A (2004) Astrocytes contain a vesicular compartment that is competent for regulated exocytosis of glutamate. Nat Neurosci 7:613–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bloom FE (2000) Integration of wiring transmission and volume transmission. Prog Brain Res 125: 21–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bockenhauer D, Zilberberg N, Goldstein SA (2001) KCNK2: reversible conversion of a hippocampal potassium leak into a voltage-dependent channel. Nat Neurosci 4:486–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowman CL, Ding JP, Sachs F, Sokabe M (1992) Mechanotransducing ion channels in astrocytes. Brain Res 584:272–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowman CL, Gottlieb PA, Suchyna TM, Murphy YK, Sachs F (2007) Mechanosensitive ion channels and the peptide inhibitor GsMTx-4: history, properties, mechanisms and pharmacology. Toxicon 49:249–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bradke F, Dotti CG (1999) The role of local actin instability in axon formation. Science 283:1931–1934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bregestovski P, Medina I, Goyda E (1992) Regulation of potassium conductance in the cellular membrane at early embryogenesis. J Physiol (Paris) 86:109–115.Google Scholar
  14. Brickley SG, Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M (1996) Development of a tonic form of synaptic inhibition in rat cerebellar granule cells resulting from persistent activation of GABAA receptors. J Physiol 497:753–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brickley SG, Revilla V, Cull-Candy SG, Wisden W, Farrant M (2001) Adaptive regulation of neuronal excitability by a voltage-independent potassium conductance. Nature 409:88–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brundage RA, Fogarty KE, Tuft RA, Fay FS (1991) Calcium gradients underlying polarization and chemotaxis of eosinophils. Science 254:703–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Calabrese B, Tabarean IV, Juranka P, Morris CE (2002) Mechanosensitivity of N-type calcium channel currents. Biophys J 83:2560–2574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cavelier P, Hamann M, Rossi D, Mobbs P, Attwell D (2005) Tonic excitation and inhibition of neurons: ambient transmitter sources and computational consequences. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 87:3–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Charles AC, Merrill JE, Dirksen ER, Sanderson MJ (1991) Intercellular signaling in glial cells: calcium waves and oscillations in response to mechanical stimulation and glutamate. Neuron 6:983–992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chavas J, Forero ME, Collin T, Llano I, Marty A (2004) Osmotic tension as a possible link between GABA(A) receptor activation and intracellular calcium elevation. Neuron 44:701–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen BM, Grinnell AD (1995) Integrins and modulation of transmitter release from motor nerve terminals by stretch. Science 269:1578–1580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen BM, Grinnell AD (1997) Kinetics, Ca2+ dependence, and biophysical properties of integrin-mediated mechanical modulation of transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals. J Neurosci 17:904–916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Christensen AP, Corey DP (2007) TRP channels in mechanosensation: direct or indirect activation? Nat Rev Neurosci 8:510–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohan CS, Connor JA, Kater SB (1987) Electrically and chemically mediated increases in intracellular calcium in neuronal growth cones. J Neurosci 7:3588–3599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Corey D (2003) Sensory transduction in the ear. J Cell Sci 116:1–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cotrina ML, Lin JH, Nedergaard M (1998) Cytoskeletal assembly and ATP release regulate astrocytic calcium signaling. J Neurosci 18:8794–8804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Crepel V, Panenka W, Kelly ME, MacVicar BA (1998) Mitogen-activated protein and tyrosine kinases in the activation of astrocyte volume-activated chloride current. J Neurosci 18:1196–1206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cui YL, Holt AG, Lomax CA, Altschuler RA (2007) Deafness associated changes in two-pore domain potassium channels in the rat inferior colliculus. Neuroscience 149:421–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dotti CG, Sullivan CA, Banker GA (1988) The establishment of polarity by hippocampal neurons in culture. J Neurosci 8:1454–1468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Duffy S, MacVicar BA (1994) Potassium-dependent calcium influx in acutely isolated hippocampal astrocytes. Neuroscience 61:51–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fatt P, Katz B (1952) Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings. J Physiol 117:109–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ferroni S, Valente P, Caprini M, Nobile M, Schubert P, Rapisarda C (2003) Arachidonic acid activates an open rectifier potassium channel in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. J Neurosci Res 72:363–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fiacco TA, McCarthy KD (2006) Astrocyte calcium elevations: properties, propagation, and effects on brain signaling. Glia 54:676–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fischer R, Schliess F, Haussinger D (1997) Characterization of the hypo-osmolarity-induced Ca2+ response in cultured rat astrocytes. Glia 20:51–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Forscher P, Smith SJ (1988) Actions of cytochalasins on the organization of actin filaments and microtubules in a neuronal growth cone. J Cell Biol 107:1505–1516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Franco R, Quesada O, Pasantes-Morales H (2000) Efflux of osmolyte amino acids during isovolumic regulation in hippocampal slices. J Neurosci Res 61:701–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gnatenco C, Han J, Snyder AK, Kim D (2002) Functional expression of TREK-2 K+ channel in cultured rat brain astrocytes. Brain Res 931:56–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Greka A, Navarro B, Oancea E, Duggan A, Clapham DE (2003) TRPC5 is a regulator of hippocampal neurite length and growth cone morphology. Nat Neurosci 6:837–845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Grinnell AD, Chen BM, Kashani A, Lin J, Suzuki K, Kidokoro Y (2003) The role of integrins in the modulation of neurotransmitter release from motor nerve terminals by stretch and hypertonicity. J Neurocytol 32:489–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Guharay F, Sachs F (1984) Stretch-activated single ion channel currents in tissue-cultured embryonic chick skeletal muscle. J Physiol 352:685–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gulley RL, Wenthold RJ, Neises GR (1978) Changes in the synapses of spiral ganglion cells in the rostral anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the waltzing guinea pig following hair cell loss. Brain Res 158:279–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Halpain S, Greengard P (1990) Activation of NMDA receptors induces rapid dephosphorylation of the cytoskeletal protein MAP2. Neuron 5:237–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hamill OP (2006) Twenty odd years of stretch-sensitive channels. Pflugers Arch 453:333–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hamill OP, Martinac B (2001) Molecular basis of mechanotransduction in living cells. Physiol Rev 81:685–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hamill OP, McBride DW, Jr. (1996) A supramolecular complex underlying touch sensitivity. Trends Neurosci 19:258–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hausser M, Clark BA (1997) Tonic synaptic inhibition modulates neuronal output pattern and spatiotemporal synaptic integration. Neuron 19:665–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Henley J, Poo MM (2004) Guiding neuronal growth cones using Ca2+ signals. Trends Cell Biol 14:320–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hervieu GJ, Cluderay JE, Gray CW, Green PJ, Ranson JL, Randall AD, Meadows HJ (2001) Distribution and expression of TREK-1, a two-pore-domain potassium channel, in the adult rat CNS. Neuroscience 103:899–919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Heurteaux C, Guy N, Laigle C, Blondeau N, Duprat F, Mazzuca M, Lang-Lazdunski L, Widmann C, Zanzouri M, Romey G, Lazdunski M (2004) TREK-1, a K+ channel involved in neuroprotection and general anesthesia. EMBO J 23:2684–2695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Heurteaux C, Lucas G, Guy N, El Yacoubi M, Thummler S, Peng XD, Noble F, Blondeau N, Widmann C, Borsotto M, Gobbi G, Vaugeois JM, Debonnel G, Lazdunski M (2006) Deletion of the background potassium channel TREK-1 results in a depression-resistant phenotype. Nat Neurosci 9:1134–1141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hilgetag CC, Barbas H (2005) Developmental mechanics of the primate cerebral cortex. Anat Embryol (Berl) 210:411–417.Google Scholar
  52. His W (1874) Unsere Körperform und das physiologische Problem ihrer Entstehung F.C.W. Vogel, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  53. Honore E (2007) The neuronal background K2P channels: focus on TREK1. Nat Rev Neurosci 8:251–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hutter OF, Trautwein W (1956) Neuromuscular facilitation by stretch of motor nerve-endings. J Physiol 133:610–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Islas L, Pasantes-Morales H, Sanchez JA (1993) Characterization of stretch-activated ion channels in cultured astrocytes. Glia 8:87–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jacques-Fricke BT, Seow Y, Gottlieb PA, Sachs F, Gomez TM (2006) Ca2+ influx through mechanosensitive channels inhibits neurite outgrowth in opposition to other influx pathways and release from intracellular stores. J Neurosci 26:5656–5664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jalonen T (1993) Single-channel characteristics of the large-conductance anion channel in rat cortical astrocytes in primary culture. Glia 9:227–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kim D, Sladek CD, Aguado-Velasco C, Mathiasen JR (1995) Arachidonic acid activation of a new family of K+ channels in cultured rat neuronal cells. J Physiol 484:643–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kimelberg HK, Anderson E, Kettenmann H (1990a) Swelling-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of cultured astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. II. Whole-cell currents. Brain Res 529:262–268.Google Scholar
  60. Kimelberg HK, Cai Z, Rastogi P, Charniga CJ, Goderie S, Dave V, Jalonen TO (1997) Transmitter-induced calcium responses differ in astrocytes acutely isolated from rat brain and in culture. J Neurochem 68:1088–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kimelberg HK, Goderie SK, Higman S, Pang S, Waniewski RA (1990b) Swelling-induced release of glutamate, aspartate, and taurine from astrocyte cultures. J Neurosci 10:1583–1591.Google Scholar
  62. Kimelberg HK, O'Connor E (1988) Swelling of astrocytes causes membrane potential depolarization. Glia 1:219–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kirischuk S, Kirchhoff F, Matyash V, Kettenmann H, Verkhratsky A (1999) Glutamate-triggered calcium signalling in mouse bergmann glial cells in situ: role of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated intracellular calcium release. Neuroscience 92:1051–1059.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Komuro H, Rakic P (1992) Selective role of N-type calcium channels in neuronal migration. Science 257:806–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Komuro H, Rakic P (1993) Modulation of neuronal migration by NMDA receptors. Science 260:95–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Komuro H, Rakic P (1998) Orchestration of neuronal migration by activity of ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors, and intracellular Ca2+ fluctuations. J Neurobiol 37:110–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kuffler SW, Nicholls JG, Orkand RK (1966) Physiological properties of glial cells in the central nervous system of amphibia. J Neurophysiol 29:768–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lamoureux P, Buxbaum RE, Heidemann SR (1989) Direct evidence that growth cones pull. Nature 340:159–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lamoureux P, Ruthel G, Buxbaum RE, Heidemann SR (2002) Mechanical tension can specify axonal fate in hippocampal neurons. J Cell Biol 159:499–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lang F, Busch GL, Ritter M, Volkl H, Waldegger S, Gulbins E, Haussinger D (1998) Functional significance of cell volume regulatory mechanisms. Physiol Rev 78:247–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lascola CD, Kraig RP (1996) Whole-cell chloride currents in rat astrocytes accompany changes in cell morphology. J Neurosci 16:2532–2545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lascola CD, Nelson DJ, Kraig RP (1998) Cytoskeletal actin gates a Cl channel in neocortical astrocytes. J Neurosci 18:1679–1692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lauritzen I, Blondeau N, Heurteaux C, Widmann C, Romey G, Lazdunski M (2000) Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potent neuroprotectors. EMBO J 19:1784–1793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lauritzen I, Chemin J, Honore E, Jodar M, Guy N, Lazdunski M, Jane PA (2005) Cross-talk between the mechano-gated K2P channel TREK-1 and the actin cytoskeleton. EMBO Rep 6:642–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Leao AA (1944) Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex. J Neurophys 7, 359–390.Google Scholar
  76. Lee J, Ishihara A, Oxford G, Johnson B, Jacobson K (1999) Regulation of cell movement is mediated by stretch-activated calcium channels. Nature 400:382–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Li Y, Jia YC, Cui K, Li N, Zheng ZY, Wang YZ, Yuan XB (2005) Essential role of TRPC channels in the guidance of nerve growth cones by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Nature 434:894–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Liedtke W (2006) Transient receptor potential vanilloid channels functioning in transduction of osmotic stimuli. J Endocrinol 191:515–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Liedtke W, Friedman JM (2003) Abnormal osmotic regulation in trpv4-/- mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:13698–13703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Liedtke W, Kim C (2005) Functionality of the TRPV subfamily of TRP ion channels: add mechano-TRP and osmo-TRP to the lexicon! Cell Mol Life Sci 62:2985–3001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lin CH, Thompson CA, Forscher P (1994) Cytoskeletal reorganization underlying growth cone motility. Curr Opin Neurobiol 4:640–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Liu X, Bandyopadhyay B, Nakamoto T, Singh B, Liedtke W, Melvin JE, Ambudkar I (2006) A role for AQP5 in activation of TRPV4 by hypotonicity: concerted involvement of AQP5 and TRPV4 in regulation of cell volume recovery. J Biol Chem 281:15485–15495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lu YB, Franze K, Seifert G, Steinhauser C, Kirchhoff F, Wolburg H, Guck J, Janmey P, Wei EQ, Kas J, Reichenbach A (2006) Viscoelastic properties of individual glial cells and neurons in the CNS. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:17759–17764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Lustig LR, Leake PA, Snyder RL, Rebscher SJ (1994) Changes in the cat cochlear nucleus following neonatal deafening and chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation. Hear Res 74:29–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Lux HD, Neher E (1973) The equilibration time course of (K + ) 0 in cat cortex. Exp Brain Res 17:190–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Maingret F, Fosset M, Lesage F, Lazdunski M, Honore E (1999) TRAAK is a mammalian neuronal mechano-gated K+ channel. J Biol Chem 274:1381–1387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Maroto R, Raso A, Wood TG, Kurosky A, Martinac B, Hamill OP (2005) TRPC1 forms the stretch-activated cation channel in vertebrate cells. Nat Cell Biol 7:179–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Martinac B, Kloda A (2003) Evolutionary origins of mechanosensitive ion channels. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 82:11–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Martins-Ferreira H, Nedergaard M, Nicholson C (2000) Perspectives on spreading depression. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 32:215–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. McBride DW, Jr., Hamill OP (1993) Pressure-clamp technique for measurement of the relaxation kinetics of mechanosensitive channels. Trends Neurosci 16:341–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Mogilner A, Oster G (2003) Polymer motors: pushing out the front and pulling up the back. Curr Biol 13:R721–R733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Moran MM, Xu H, Clapham DE (2004) TRP ion channels in the nervous system. Curr Opin Neurobiol 14:362–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Morris CE, Horn R (1991) Failure to elicit neuronal macroscopic mechanosensitive currents anticipated by single-channel studies. Science 251:1246–1249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Munevar S, Wang YL, Dembo M (2004) Regulation of mechanical interactions between fibroblasts and the substratum by stretch-activated Ca2+ entry. J Cell Sci 117:85–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Nichols RA, Dengler AF, Nakagawa EM, Bashkin M, Paul BT, Wu J, Khan GM (2007) A constitutive, transient receptor potential-like Ca2+ influx pathway in presynaptic nerve endings independent of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Na+/Ca2+ exchange. J Biol Chem 282:36102–36111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Niparko JK, Finger PA (1997) Cochlear nucleus cell size changes in the dalmatian: model of congenital deafness. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117:229–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. O'Connor ER, Kimelberg HK (1993) Role of calcium in astrocyte volume regulation and in the release of ions and amino acids. J Neurosci 13:2638–2650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. O'Neil RG, Heller S (2005) The mechanosensitive nature of TRPV channels. Pflugers Arch 451:193–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Orkand RK, Nicholls JG, Kuffler SW (1966) Effect of nerve impulses on the membrane potential of glial cells in the central nervous system of amphibia. J Neurophysiol 29:788–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Ostrow LW, Sachs F (2005) Mechanosensation and endothelin in astrocytes – hypothetical roles in CNS pathophysiology. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 48:488–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Panatier A, Theodosis DT, Mothet JP, Touquet B, Pollegioni L, Poulain DA, Oliet SH (2006) Glia-derived D-serine controls NMDA receptor activity and synaptic memory. Cell 125:775–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Paoletti P, Ascher P (1994) Mechanosensitivity of NMDA receptors in cultured mouse central neurons. Neuron 13:645–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Pasantes-Morales H, Murray RA, Lilja L, Moran J (1994) Regulatory volume decrease in cultured astrocytes. I. Potassium- and chloride-activated permeability. Am J Physiol 266:C165–C171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Pasler D, Gabriel S, Heinemann U (2007) Two-pore-domain potassium channels contribute to neuronal potassium release and glial potassium buffering in the rat hippocampus. Brain Res 1173:14–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Pasti L, Volterra A, Pozzan T, Carmignoto G (1997) Intracellular calcium oscillations in astrocytes: a highly plastic, bidirectional form of communication between neurons and astrocytes in situ. J Neurosci 17:7817–7830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Patel AJ, Lazdunski M, Honore E (2001) Lipid and mechano-gated 2P domain K(+) channels. Curr Opin Cell Biol 13:422–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Pfister BJ, Iwata A, Meaney DF, Smith DH (2004) Extreme stretch growth of integrated axons. J Neurosci 24:7978–7983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Rahamimoff R, Butkevich A, Duridanova D, Ahdut R, Harari E, Kachalsky SG (1999) Multitude of ion channels in the regulation of transmitter release. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:281–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ransom BR, Goldring S (1973) Ionic determinants of membrane potential of cells presumed to be glia in cerebral cortex of cat. J Neurophys 36:855–868.Google Scholar
  110. Raucher D, Sheetz MP (2000) Cell spreading and lamellipodial extension rate is regulated by membrane tension. J Cell Biol 148:127–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Reyes R, Lauritzen I, Lesage F, Ettaiche M, Fosset M, Lazdunski M (2000) Immunolocalization of the arachidonic acid and mechanosensitive baseline traak potassium channel in the nervous system. Neuroscience 95:893–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Rosenmund C, Westbrook GL (1993) Calcium-induced actin depolymerization reduces NMDA channel activity. Neuron 10:805–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Ryugo DK, Pongstaporn T, Huchton DM, Niparko JK (1997) Ultrastructural analysis of primary endings in deaf white cats: morphologic alterations in endbulbs of Held. J Comp Neurol 385:230–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Schwab A, Nechyporuk-Zloy V, Fabian A, Stock C (2007) Cells move when ions and water flow. Pflugers Arch 453:421–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Semyanov A, Walker MC, Kullmann DM, Silver RA (2004) Tonically active GABA A receptors: modulating gain and maintaining the tone. Trends Neurosci 27:262–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sie KC, Rubel EW (1992) Rapid changes in protein synthesis and cell size in the cochlear nucleus following eighth nerve activity blockade or cochlea ablation. J Comp Neurol 320:501–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Sigurdson WJ, Morris CE (1989) Stretch-activated ion channels in growth cones of snail neurons. J Neurosci 9:2801–2808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Smith JM, Bradley DP, James MF, Huang CL (2006) Physiological studies of cortical spreading depression. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 81:457–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Suchyna TM, Johnson JH, Hamer K, Leykam JF, Gage DA, Clemo HF, Baumgarten CM, Sachs F (2000) Identification of a peptide toxin from Grammostola spatulata spider venom that blocks cation-selective stretch-activated channels. J Gen Physiol 115:583–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sukharev S, Anishkin A (2004) Mechanosensitive channels: what can we learn from 'simple' model systems? Trends Neurosci 27:345–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sykova E, Chvatal A (2000) Glial cells and volume transmission in the CNS. Neurochem Int 36:397–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Tait MJ, Saadoun S, Bell BA, Papadopoulos MC (2008) Water movements in the brain: role of aquaporins. Trends Neurosci 31:37–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Talley EM, Solorzano G, Lei Q, Kim D, Bayliss DA (2001) Cns distribution of members of the two-pore-domain (KCNK) potassium channel family. J Neurosci 21:7491–7505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Trepat X, Deng L, An SS, Navajas D, Tschumperlin DJ, Gerthoffer WT, Butler JP, Fredberg JJ (2007) Universal physical responses to stretch in the living cell. Nature 447:592–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Van Essen DC (1997) A tension-based theory of morphogenesis and compact wiring in the central nervous system. Nature 385:313–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Venkatachalam K, Montell C (2007) TRP channels. Annu Rev Biochem 76:387–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Verkhratsky A, Orkand RK, Kettenmann H (1998) Glial calcium: homeostasis and signaling function. Physiol Rev 78:99–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Verkhratsky A, Steinhauser C (2000) Ion channels in glial cells. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 32:380–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Vollrath MA, Kwan KY, Corey DP (2007) The micromachinery of mechanotransduction in hair cells. Annu Rev Neurosci 30:339–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Volterra A, Meldolesi J (2005) Astrocytes, from brain glue to communication elements: the revolution continues. Nat Rev Neurosci 6:626–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Vriens J, Janssens A, Prenen J, Nilius B, Wondergem R (2004) TRPV channels and modulation by hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor in human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) cells. Cell Calcium 36:19–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Wang GX, Poo MM (2005) Requirement of TRPC channels in netrin-1-induced chemotropic turning of nerve growth cones. Nature 434:898–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Yacubova E, Komuro H (2003) Cellular and molecular mechanisms of cerebellar granule cell migration. Cell Biochem Biophys 37:213–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Zheng J, Lamoureux P, Santiago V, Dennerll T, Buxbaum RE, Heidemann SR (1991) Tensile regulation of axonal elongation and initiation. J Neurosci 11:1117–1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Zheng JQ, Poo MM (2007) Calcium signaling in neuronal motility. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 23:375–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Zonta M, Angulo MC, Gobbo S, Rosengarten B, Hossmann KA, Pozzan T, Carmignoto G (2003) Neuron-to-astrocyte signaling is central to the dynamic control of brain microcirculation. Nat Neurosci 6:43–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergei Kirischuk
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Neurophysiology, Johannes-Mueller-Center of Physiology, Charité-University-Medicine BerlinTucholskyst 2Germany

Personalised recommendations