A cropping system refers to the type and sequence of crops grown and practices used for growing them. It encompasses all cropping sequences practiced over space and time based on the available technologies of crop production (Table 7.1). Cropping systems have been traditionally structured to maximize crop yields. Now, there is a strong need to design cropping systems which take into consideration the emerging social, economical, and ecological or environmental concerns. Conserving soil and water and maintaining long-term soil productivity depend largely on the management of cropping systems, which influence the magnitude of soil erosion and soil organic matter dynamics. While highly degraded lands may require the land conversion to non-agricultural systems (e.g., forest, perennial grass) for their restoration, prudently chosen and properly managed cropping systems can maintain or even improve soil productivity and restore moderately degraded lands by improving soil resilience. Crop diversification is an important option in sustainable agricultural systems (Table 7.1).
KeywordsSoil Erosion Crop Rotation Cover Crop Perennial Grass Conventional Farming
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Allmaras RR, Wilkins DE, Burnside OC et al. (1998) Agricultural Technology and Adoption of Conservation Practices. In: Pierce FJ, Frye WW (eds) Advances in soil and water conservation. Ann Arbor, Chelsea Michigan, pp 99–158Google Scholar
- Bauder J (1999) The benefits of crop rotations. http://www.montana.edu/wwwpb/ag/baudr181.html. Cited 8 Jan 2008.
- Blanco-Canqui H, Gantzer CJ, Anderson SH et al. (2004) Tillage and crop influences on physical properties for an Epiaqualf. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:567–576Google Scholar
- Campbell CA, Janzen HH, Paustian K et al. (2005) Carbon storage in soils of the North American Great Plains: Effect of cropping frequency. Agron J 97:349–363Google Scholar
- Francis C, Jones A, Crookston K et al. (1986) Strip cropping corn and grain legumes: a review. Am J Altern Agric 1:159–164Google Scholar
- Fullen MA, Mitchell DJ, Barton AP et al. (1999) Soil erosion and conservation in Yunnan Province, China. Ambio 28:125–129Google Scholar
- Gantzer CJ, Anderson SH, Thompson AL et al. (1991) Evaluation of soil loss after 100 years of soil and crop management. Agron J 83:74–77Google Scholar
- Hayden E (2006) Effects of organic and conventional farming systems on soil quality and crop production. MS thesis, The Ohio State UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Jankauskas B, Jankauskiene G, Fullen MA (2004) Erosion-preventive crop rotations and water erosion rates on undulating slopes in Lithuania. Can J Soil Sci 84:177–186Google Scholar
- Lambert DM, Lowenberg-DeBoer J (2003) Economic analysis of row spacing for corn and soybean. Agron J 95:564–573Google Scholar
- Poudel DD, Midmore DJ, West LT (1999) Erosion and productivity of vegetable systems on sloping volcanic ash-derived Philippine soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:1366–1376Google Scholar
- Pullins EE, Myers RL, Minor HC (1997) Alternative crops in double-crop systems for Missouri. G4090. Department of Agronomy, University of Missouri, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
- Rachman A, Anderson SH, Gantzer CJ et al. (2003) Influence of long-term cropping systems on soil physical properties related to soil erodibility. Soil Sci Soc Am J 67: 637–644Google Scholar
- SSSA (Soil Science Society of America) (2006) Glossary of Soil Science Terms. http://www.soils.org/sssagloss/. Cited 10 Jan 2008
- Van Doren DM Jr, Moldenhauer WC, Triplett GB Jr (1984) Influence of long-term tillage and crop rotation on water erosion. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:636–640Google Scholar
- Willer H, Yussefi M (2004) The world of organic agriculture: Statistics and emerging trends, International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM). http://www.soel.de/inhalte/publikationen/s/s-74.pdf. Cited 10 Jan 2008