Scale Modeling of Steel Making Processes

  • Junichi Nakagawa


Steel making is a process in which hot metal tapped from blast furnaces is refined into steel of the quality specified by customers. Molten steel thus produced is then processed into slabs, blooms and billets as semi-finished products. The flow and chemical reaction in molten steel play an important role in these processes. However, it is impossible to measure these space distributions directly, because the temperature of molten steel is high and the scale of the equipment is large. Moreover, it is very difficult to obtain the space distributions by CFD, because the phenomena in molten steel are highly complicated. Fortunately, the kinematic viscosity of molten steel is almost the same as water. Therefore, in conducting a 1/1 scale model experiment with water, both the Reynolds number and the Froude number can be matched to a real plant. However, it is not easy to conduct this experiment because of the large size of the equipment. In addition, it is necessary to consider the influence of the gas injected into molten steel and the effect of the chemical reactions. This paper describes the procedures of scale modeling to clarify the complex phenomena in molten steel. Three scaling laws, that concern stirring, mixing, and chemical reaction respectively, are proposed. And we show that these scaling laws explain the experimental results of the scale models and the real plants. These results provide the guidance for operation improvement and process design.


Steel-making blast furnance scaling laws 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junichi Nakagawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Advanced Technology Research LaboratoriesNippon Steel CorporationFuttsu-CiityJapan

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