Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass and Wood; Biodiesel Production Using Soybean

  • David Pimentel
  • Tad Patzek

Abstract

In this analysis, the most recent scientific data for corn, switchgrass, and wood, for fermentation/distillation were used. All current fossil energy inputs used in corn production and for the fermentation/distillation were included to determine the entire energy cost of ethanol production. Additional costs to consumers include federal and state subsidies, plus costs associated with environmental pollution and/or degradation that occur during the entire production process. In addition, an investigation was made concerning the conversion of soybeans into biodiesel fuel.

Keywords

Energy biomass fuel natural resources ethanol biodiesel 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ali, M. B. & McBride, W. D.(1990). Soybeans: State level production costs, characteristics, and input use, 1990. Economic Research Service. Stock no. ERS SB873. 48pp.Google Scholar
  2. Arkenol. (2004). Our technology: Concentrated acid hydrolysis. Retrieved August 2, 2004, from ww.arkenol.com/Arkenol{%}20Inc/tech01.htmlGoogle Scholar
  3. Batty, J. C. & Keller, J. (1980). Energy requirements for irrigation. (In: D. Pimentel (Ed.), Handbook of energy utilization in agriculture (pp. 35–44). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press).Google Scholar
  4. Blais, J. F., Mamouny, K., Nlombi, K., Sasseville, J. L., & Letourneau, M. (1995). Les mesures deficacite energetique dans le secteur de leau. J.L. Sassville and J.F. Balis (eds). Les Mesures deficacite Energetique pour Lepuration des eaux Usees Municipales. Scientific Report 405. Vol. 3. INRS-Eau, Quebec.Google Scholar
  5. Brees, M. (2004). Corn silage budgets for Northern, Central and Southwest Missouri. Retrieved September 1, 2004, from http://www.agebb.missouri.edu/mgt/budget/fbm-0201.pdfGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, L. R. (1997). The agricultural link: How environmental deterioration could disrupt economic progress. (Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute)Google Scholar
  7. Brummer, E. C., Burras, C. L., Duffy, M. D., & Moore, K. J. (2000). Switchgrass production in Iowa: Economic analysis, soil suitability, and varietal performance. (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University).Google Scholar
  8. College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. (1997). Machinery cost estimates: Summary of operations. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved November 8, 2001, from www.aces.uiuc.edu/$∼ $vo-ag/custom.htmGoogle Scholar
  9. Crisp, A. (1999). Wood residue as an energy source for the forest products industry. Australian National University. Retrieved July 10, 2006, from http://sres.anu.edu.au/associated/fpt/nwfp/woodres/woodres.htmlGoogle Scholar
  10. DOE. (2002). Review of transport issues and comparison of infrastructure costs for a renewable fuels standard. Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved October 8, 2002 from http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/service/question3.pdfGoogle Scholar
  11. Economic Research Statistics. (1997). Soybeans: Fertilizer use by state. 1996. Retrieved November 11, 2001, from http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/data-sets/inputs/9X171/97171/agch0997.txtGoogle Scholar
  12. EPA. (2002). More pollution than they said: Ethanol plants said releasing toxins. New York Times. May 3, 2002.Google Scholar
  13. FAO. (2006). Food balance sheets. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  14. Farrell, A. E., Plevin, R. J., Turner, B. T., Jones, A. D., O’Hare, M. O., & Kammen, D. M. (2006). Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals. Science 311,{506–508}.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hekkert, M. P., Hendriks, F. H. J. F., Faail, A. P. C., & Neelis, M. L. (2005). Natural gas as an alternative to crude oil in automotive fuel chains well-to-wheel analysis and transition strategy development.Energy Policy, 33(5),{579–594}.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Henning, J. C. (1993). Big Bluestem, Indiangrass and Switchgrass. Department of Agronomy, Campus Extension, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  17. Hill, J., Nelson, E., Tilman, D., Polasky, S., & Tiffany, D. (2006). Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Retrieved August 31, 2006, from http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/103/30/11206Google Scholar
  18. Hinman, H., Pelter, G., Kulp, E., Sorensen, E., & Ford, W. (1992). Enterprise budgets for Fall Potatoes, Winter Wheat, Dry Beans and Seed Peas under rill irrigation. Farm Business Management Reports, Columbia, Washington State University.Google Scholar
  19. Hoffman, T. R., Warnock, W. D., & Hinman, H. R. (1994). Crop Enterprise Budgets, Timothy-Legume and Alfalfa Hay, Sudan Grass, Sweet Corn and Spring Wheat under rill irrigation, Kittitas County, Washington. Farm Business Reports EB 1173, Pullman, Washington State University.Google Scholar
  20. Illinois Corn. (2004). Ethanol’s energy balance. Retrieved August 10, 2004, from http://www.ilcorn.org/Ethanol/Ethan_Studies/Ethan_Energy_Bal/ethan_energy_bal.htmlGoogle Scholar
  21. Kansas Ethanol. (2006). Kansas Ethanol: Clean fuel from Kansas farms. Retrieved July 10, 2006 from http://www.ksgrains.com/ethanol/useth.htmlGoogle Scholar
  22. Kidd, C. & Pimentel, D. (1992). Integrated resource management: Agroforestry for development. (San Diego: Academic Press.)Google Scholar
  23. Kim, Y. (2002). World exotic diseases. (In: D. Pimentel (Ed.), Biological invasions: Economic and environmental costs of alien plant, animal, and microbe species (pp. 331–354). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press)Google Scholar
  24. Koplow, D. (2006). Biofuels – at what cost? Government support for ethanol and biodiesel in the United States. The Global Studies Initiative (GSI) of the International Institute for Sustainable development (IISD). Retrieved February 16, 2007 from http://www.globalsubsidies.org/IMG/pdf/biofuels_subsidies_us.pdfGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuby, W. R., Markoja, R., & Nackford, S. (1984). Testing and evaluation of on-farm alcohol production facilities. Acures Corporation. Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory. Office of Research and Development. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Cincinnati, OH. 100pp.Google Scholar
  26. Larsen, K., Thompson, D., & Harn, A. (2002). Limited and Full Irrigation Comparison for Corn and Grain Sorghum. Retrieved September 2, 2002 from http://www.colostate.edu/ Depts/SoilCrop/extension/Newsletters/2003/Drought/sorghum.htmlGoogle Scholar
  27. Larson, W. E. & Cardwell, V. B. (1999). History of U.S. corn production. Retrieved September 2, 2004, from http://citv.unl.edu/cornpro/html/history/history.htmlGoogle Scholar
  28. Maiorella, B. (1985). Ethanol. In H. W. Blanch, S. Drew & D. I. C. Wang (Eds.), Comprehensive Biotechnology, Vol. 3. (Chapter 43). New York: Pergamon Press.)Google Scholar
  29. McCain, J. (2003). Statement of Senator McCain on the Energy Bill. Press Release. Wednesday, November 2003.Google Scholar
  30. Mead, D. & Pimentel, D. (2006). Use of energy analysis in silvicultural decision making. Biomass and Bioenergy, 30,{357–362}.Google Scholar
  31. Mississippi State University Extension Service. (1999). Agronomy notes. Retrieved July 10, 2006, from http://msucares.com/newsletters/agronomy/1999/199910.htmlGoogle Scholar
  32. Molenhuis, J. (2004). Business analysis and cost of production program. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Retrieved July 10, 2006, from http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/ english/busdev/bear2000/Budgets/Crops/Oilseeds/wcanolahybrid_static.htmGoogle Scholar
  33. NAS. (2003). Frontiers in agricultural research: Food, health, environment, and communities. (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences) Retrieved November 5, 2004, from http://dels.nas.edu/rpt_briefs/frontiers_in_ag_final{%}20for{%}20print.pdfGoogle Scholar
  34. NASS. (2003). National Agricultural Statistics Service. Retrieved November 5, 2004, from http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu \enlargethispage*{-12pt}Google Scholar
  35. National Center for Policy Analysis. (2002). Ethanol subsidies. Idea House. National Center for Policy Analysis. Retrieved September 9, 2002, from http://www.ncpa.org/pd/ag/ag6.htmlGoogle Scholar
  36. Newton, P. W. (2001). Human settlements theme report. Australian State of theGoogle Scholar
  37. Environment Report 2001. Retrieved October 6, 2005, from http://www.deh.gov.au/ soe/2001/settlements/acknowledgement.htmlGoogle Scholar
  38. Patzek, T. W. (2004). Thermodynamics of the corn-ethanol biofuel cycle. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 23(6),{519–567}.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Patzek, T. W. and Pimentel, D. (2005). Thermodynamics of energy production from biomass. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 24(5–6), 327–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Patzek, T. W. (2006). Letter to the Editor. Science, 312, (23 June 2006), 1747Google Scholar
  41. Pimentel, D. (2001). The limitations of biomass energy. (In R. Meyers (Ed.), Encyclopedia of physical science and technology. 3rd ed., Vol. 2. (pp. 159–171). San Diego: Academic Press.)Google Scholar
  42. Pimentel, D. (2003). Ethanol fuels: energy balance, economics, and environmental impacts are negative. Natural Resources Research, 12(2),{127–134}.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pimentel, D. & Patzek, T. (2005). Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood: biodiesel production using soybean and sunflower.Natural Resources Research, 14(1),{65–76}.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pimentel, D. & Pimentel, M. (1996). Food, Energy and Society. (Boulder, CO: Colorado University Press)Google Scholar
  45. Pimentel, D., Harvey, C., Resosudarmo, P., Sinclair, K., Kurz, D., McNair, M., Crist, S., Sphritz, L., Fitton, L., Saffouri, R., & Blair, R. (1995). Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits, Science, 276,{1117–1123}.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pimentel, D., Doughty, R., Carothers, C., Lamberson, S., Bora, N., & Lee, K. (2002). Energy inputs in crop production: comparison of developed and developing countries. (In R. Lal, D. Hansen, N. Uphoff & S. Slack (Eds.), Food Security & Environmental Quality in the Developing World. (pp. 129–151). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press).Google Scholar
  47. Pimentel, D., Berger, B., Filberto, D., Newton, M., Wolfe, B., Karabinakis, E., Clark, S., Poon, E., Abbett, E., & Nandagopal, S. (2004). Water resources: current and future issues. BioScience, 54 (10),{909–918}.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pimentel, D., Cooperstein, S., Randell, H., Filiberto, D., Sorrentino, S., Kaye, B., Nicklin, C., Yagi, J., Brian, J., O’Hern, J., Habas, A., & Weinstein, C. (2006). Ecology of increasing diseases: population growth and environmental degradation. Human Ecology 35(6), 653–668 DOI 10.1007/s10745-007-9128-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. PRB. 2006. World population data sheet. (Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau).Google Scholar
  50. Samson, R. (1991). Switchgrass: A living solar battery for the praires. Ecological Agriculture Projects, Mcgill University (Macdonald Campus), Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9 Canada. Copyright @ 1991 REAP Canada.Google Scholar
  51. Samson, R., Duxbury, P., Drisdale, M., & Lapointe, C. (2000). Assessment of pelletized biofuels. PERD Program, Natural Resources Canada, Contract 23348-8-3145/001/SQ.Google Scholar
  52. Samson, R., Duxbury, P., & Mulkins, L. (2004). Research and development of fibre crops in cool eason regions of Canada. Resource Efficient Agricultural Production-Canada. Box 125, Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada, H9X 3V9.Google Scholar
  53. Retrieved June 26, 2004, from http://www.reap-canada.com/Reports/italy.htmlGoogle Scholar
  54. Shapouri, H., Duffield, J., McAloon, A., & Wang, M. (2004). The 2001 net energy balance of corn-ethanol (Revised). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  55. Singh, R. P. (1986). Energy accounting of food processing. (In R. P. Singh (Ed.), Energy in food processing (pp. 19–68). Amsterdam: Elsevier.)Google Scholar
  56. Smathers, R. L. (2005). Winter rapeseed after Summer fallow. 2005 Northern Idaho Crop Costs and Returns Estimate. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. University of Idaho. EBB1-WR-05.Google Scholar
  57. Stanton, T. L. (1999). Feed composition for cattle and sheep. Colorado State University. Cooperative Extension. Report No. 1.615. 7pp.Google Scholar
  58. Taiz, L. & Zeiger, E. (1998). Plant physiology. (Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates Publishers)Google Scholar
  59. USCB. (2004–2005). Statistical abstract of the United States 2004–2005. U.S. Census Bureau. (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).Google Scholar
  60. USDA. (1991). Corn-State. Costs of production. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Economics and Statistics System, Washington, D.C. Stock {#}94018.Google Scholar
  61. USDA. (1997a). Farm and ranch irrigation survey (1998). 1997 Census of Agriculture. Volume 3, Special Studies, Part 1. 280pp.Google Scholar
  62. USDA. (1997b). 1997 Census of agriculture. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved August 28, 2002, from http://www.ncfap.orgGoogle Scholar
  63. USDA.(2002). Agricultural statistics. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).Google Scholar
  64. USDA. (2003) Agricultural statistics. U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA. I – 1 – XV-34p. (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).Google Scholar
  65. USDA. (2004). Agricultural statistics, 2004. (CD-ROM) U.S. Department of Agriculture/National Agriculture Statistics Service, Washington, DC. A1.47/2:2004.Google Scholar
  66. USDA. (2006). Agricultural statistics, 2006. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)Google Scholar
  67. Wereko-Brobby, C. & Hagan, E. B. (1996). Biomass conversion and technology. (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons)Google Scholar
  68. WHO. (2000). Nutrition for health and development: a global agenda for combating malnutrition. Retrieved November 3, 2004, from http://www.who.int/nut/documents/nhd_mip_2000.pdfGoogle Scholar
  69. Wilcke, B. & Chaplin, J. (2000). Fuel saving ideas for farmers. Minnesota/Wisconsin Engineering Notes. Retrieved September 2, 2004, from http://www.bae.umn.edu/extens/ennotes/ enspr00/fuelsaving.htmGoogle Scholar
  70. Wood Tub Grinders. (2004). Wood Tub Grinders. Tretrieved August 3, 2004, from http://p2library.nfesc.navy.mil/P2_Opportunity_Handbook/7_III_13.htmlGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Pimentel
    • 1
  • Tad Patzek
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Agriculture and Life SciencesCornell UniversityIthaca
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeley

Personalised recommendations