Environment and Biodiversity

  • Richard A. Fuller
  • Jamie Tratalos
  • Philip H. Warren
  • Richard G. Davies
  • Aleksandra Pępkowska
  • Kevin J. Gaston
Part of the Future City book series (FUCI, volume 2)


Research over many decades has documented numerous environmental effects of urbanization, ranging from the loss and reconfiguration of green space to dramatic changes in ecosystems and biodiversity. Rather less is known about how urban form, in particular the density of urban development, alters environmental patterns and processes within cities. Investigation of the relationships between urban form and environmental structure and performance is an important issue in the urban sustainability debate and here we use that work to illustrate some of the key ideas in this newly emerging field. After outlining the general effects of urbanization on environment and biodiversity, we then consider in turn the relationships between urban form and patterns of green space, the degree to which urban environments can provide useful ecosystem services to human populations, and finally the responses of biodiversity to urban development


Ecosystem Service Carbon Sequestration Green Space Tree Cover Impervious Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are grateful for generous assistance, discussion and/or comments from N. Burke, C. Dennis, N. Doar, I. Fishburn, C. Gascoigne, J. Glasscock, K. Irvine, P. Johnson, C. Jones, D. Knight, D. Lewis, and J. Vulliamy. Ordnance Survey kindly provided MasterMap data under license to the CityForm consortium. K.J.G. holds a Royal Society-Wolfson Research Merit Award.


  1. Akbari, H. (2002) Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants. Environmental Pollution, 116 (Suppl. 1), S119–S126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberti, M., Marzluff, J.M., Shulenberger, E., Bradley, G., Ryan, C. and Zumbrunnen, C. (2003) Integrating humans into ecology: Opportunities and challenges for studying urban ecosystems. BioScience, 53(12), pp. 1169–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen-Wardell, G., Bernhardt, P., Bitner, R., Burquez, A., Buchmann, S., Cane, J., Cox, P.A., Dalton, V., Feinsinger, P., Ingram, M., Inouye, D., Jones, C.E., Kennedy, K., Kevan, P., Koopowitz, H., Medellin, R., Medellin-Morales, S., Nabhan, G.P., Pavlik, B., Tepedino, V., Torchio, P. and Walker, S. (1998) The potential consequences of pollinator declines on the conservation of biodiversity and stability of food crop yields. Conservation Biology, 12(1), pp. 8–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ARCWIS (2002) Perth Domestic Water-Use Study: Household Appliance Ownership and Community Attitudinal Analysis 1999 – 2000, Australian Research Centre for Water in Society, CSRIO, Perth, Australia.Google Scholar
  5. Arnold, C.L. and Gibbons, J. (1996) Impervious surface coverage: The emergence of a key environmental indicator. Journal of the American Planning Association 62(2), pp. 243–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker, L.A., Brazel, A.J., Selover, N., Martin, C., McIntyre, N., Steiner, F.R., Nelson, A. and Musacchio, L. (2002) Urbanization and warming of Phoenix (Arizona, USA): Impacts, feedbacks and mitigation. Urban Ecosystems, 6(3), pp. 183–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barbosa, O., Tratalos, J.A., Armsworth, P.R., Davies, R.G., Fuller, R.A., Johnson, P. and Gaston, K.J. (2007) Who benefits from access to green space? A case study from Sheffield, UK. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83(2-3), pp. 187–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bastin, L. and Thomas, C.D. (1999) The distribution of plant species in urban vegetation fragments. Landscape Ecology, 14(5), pp. 493–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beer, A. (2005) The green structure of Sheffield, in Green structure and urban planning. Final report of COST Action C1, (eds. A.C. Werquin, B. Duhem, G. Lindholm, B. Oppermann, S. Pauleit and S. Tjallingii), COST Programme, Brussels.Google Scholar
  10. Bibby R. and Webster-Brown J.G. (2005) Characterisation of urban suspended particulate matter (Auckland Region, New Zealand); a comparison with non-urban SPM. Science of the Total Environment, 343(1-3), pp. 177–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bierwagen, B.G. (2007) Connectivity in urbanizing landscapes: The importance of habitat configuration, urban area size, and dispersal. Urban Ecosystems, 10(1), pp. 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Biesmeijer, J.C., Roberts, S.P.M., Reemer, M., Ohlemuller, R., Edwards, M., Peeters, T., Schaffers, A.P., Potts, S.G., Kleukers, R., Thomas, C.D., Settele, J. and Kunin, W.E. (2006) Parallel declines in pollinators and insect-pollinated plants in Britain and the Netherlands. Science, 313(5785), pp. 351–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bolund, P. and Hunhammar, S. (1999) Ecosystem services in urban areas. Ecological Economics, 29(2), pp. 293–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) (2004) The value of public space: How high quality parks and public spaces create economic, social and environmental value. CABE Space, London.Google Scholar
  15. Cabeza, M. and Moilanen, A. (2001) Design of reserve networks and the persistence of biodiversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16(5), pp. 242–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cameron, E. (1939) The holly leaf miner (Phytomyza ilicis, Curtis) and its parasites. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 30, pp. 173–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cannon, A., Chamerlain, D., Toms, M., Hatchwell, B. and Gaston, K. (2005) Trends in the use of private gardens by wild birds in Great Britain 1995–2002, Journal of Applied Ecology, 42(4), pp. 659–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carreiro, M.M., Howe, K., Parkhurst, D.F. and Pouyat, R.V. (1999) Variation in quality and decomposability of red oak leaf litter along an urban-rural gradient. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 30(3), pp. 258–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chace, J.F. and Walsh, J.J. (2006) Urban effects on native avifauna: a review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 74(1), pp. 46–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Characklis, G.W. and Wiesner, M.R. (1997) Particles, metals and water quality in runoff from a large urban watershed. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 123(8), pp. 753–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen, Y. and Wong, N.H. (2006) Thermal benefits of city parks. Energy and Buildings, 38(2), pp. 105–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cheptou, P.-O. and Avendaño V, L.G. (2006) Pollination processes and the Allee effect in highly fragmented populations: consequences for the mating system in urban environments. New Phytologist, 172(4), pp. 774–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clausen, C.P. (ed.) (1978) Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: A World Review., Agricultural Handbook No. 480, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  24. Clergeau, P., Savard, J.-P.L., Mennechez, G. and Falardeau, G. (1998) Bird abundance and diversity along an urban-rural gradient: A comparative study between two cities on different continents. Condor, 100(3), pp. 413–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davies, R., Barbosa, O., Fuller R., Tratalos, J., Burke, N., Lewis, D., Warren, P and Gaston, K. (2008), City-wide relationships between green spaces, urban land use and topography. Urban Ecosystems, 11(3), pp. 269–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. de Vries, S., Verheij, R.A., Groenewegen, P.P. and Spreeuwenberg, P. (2003) Natural environments–healthy environments? An exploratory analysis of the relationship between greenspace and health. Environment and Planning A, 35(10), pp. 1717–1731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) (2002) Working with the Grain of Nature, Defra Publications, London.Google Scholar
  28. Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) (2003) Measuring Progress: Baseline Assessment, Defra Publications, London.Google Scholar
  29. Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Touza, J., Perrings, C. and Williamson, M. (2007) The horticultural trade and ornamental plant invasions in Britain. Conservation Biology, 21(1), pp. 224–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dunnett, N. and Quasim, M. (2000) Perceived benefits to human well-being of urban gardens. HortTechnology, 10(1), pp. 40–45.Google Scholar
  31. Effland, W.R. and Pouyat, R.V. (1997) The genesis, classification, and mapping of soils in urban areas. Urban Ecosystems, 1(4), pp. 217–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eremeeva, N.I. and Sushchev, D.V. (2005) Structural changes in the fauna of pollinating insects in urban landscapes. Russian Journal of Ecology, 36(4) pp. 259–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Faeth, S.H., Warren, P.S., Stochat, E. and Marussich, W.A. (2005) Trophic dynamics in urban communities. BioScience, 55(5), pp. 399–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fuller, R.A., Irvine, K.N., Davies, Z.G., Armsworth, P.R. and Gaston, K.J. (in press) Interactions between people and birds in urban landscapes. Studies in Avian Biology.Google Scholar
  35. Fuller, R.A., Irvine, K.N., Devine-Wright, P., Warren, P.H. and Gaston, K.J. (2007a) Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity. Biology Letters, 3(4), pp. 390–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fuller, R.A., Warren, P.H. and Gaston, K.J. (2007b) Daytime noise predicts nocturnal singing in urban robins. Biology Letters, 3(4), pp. 368–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gaston, K.J., Smith, R.M., Thompson, K. and Warren, P.H. (2005) Urban domestic gardens (II): Experimental tests of methods for increasing biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14(2), pp. 395–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gaston, K.J. and Spicer, J.I. (2004) Biodiversity: An Introduction. 2nd edition, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.Google Scholar
  39. Gerlach-Spriggs, N., Kaufman R. E. and Warner, S.B.Jr. (1998), Restorative Gardens: The Healing Landscape, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  40. Germann-Chiari, C. and Seeland, K. (2004) Are urban green spaces optimally distributed to act as places for social integration? Results of a geographical information system (GIS) approach for urban forestry research. Forest Policy and Economics, 6(1), pp. 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ghazoul, J. (2005) Buzziness as usual? Questioning the global pollination crisis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20(7), pp. 367–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gill, S.E., Handley, J.F., Ennos, A.R. and Pauleit, S. (2007) Adapting cities for climate change: The role of the green infrastructure. Built Environment, 33(1), pp. 115–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Golubiewski, N.E. (2006) Urbanization increases grassland carbon pools: Effects of landscaping in Colorado’s front range. Ecological Applications, 16(2), pp. 555–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gregory, R.D. and Baillie, S.R. (1998) Large-scale habitat use of some declining British birds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35(5), pp. 785–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Handy, S.L. (1996) Urban form and pedestrian choices: Study of Austin neighbors. Transportation Research Record, 1552, pp. 135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Henry, J.A. and Dicks, S.E. (1987) Association of urban temperatures with land-use and surface materials. Landscape and Urban Planning, 14(1), pp. 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hey, D. (2005) A History of Sheffield, Carnegie Publishing Limited, Lancaster.Google Scholar
  48. Iverson, L.R. and Cook, E.A. (2000) Urban forest cover of the Chicago region and its relation to household density and income. Urban Ecosystems, 4(2), pp. 105–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jackson, L.E. (2003) The relationship of urban design to human health and condition. Landscape and Urban Planning, 64(4), pp. 191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jenerette, G.D., Harlan, S.L., Brazel, A., Jones, N., Larsen, L. and Stefanov, W.L. (2007) Regional relationships between surface temperature, vegetation, and human settlement in a rapidly urbanizing ecosystem. Landscape Ecology, 22(3), pp. 353–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jo, H.-K. and McPherson, E.G. (1995) Carbon storage and flux in urban residential greenspace. Journal of Environmental Management, 45(2), pp. 109–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnson, E.A. and Klemens, M.W. (2005) The impacts of sprawl on biodiversity, in Nature in Fragments: The Legacy of Sprawl, (eds. E.A. Johnson and M.W. Klemens), Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Jorgensen, A., Hitchmough, J. and Calvert, T. (2002) Woodland spaces and edges: Their impact on perception of safety and preference. Landscape and Urban Planning, 60(3), pp. 135–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaye, J.P., McCulley, R.L. and Burke, I.C. (2005) Carbon fluxes, nitrogen cycling, and soil microbial communities in adjacent urban, native and agricultural ecosystems. Global Change Biology, 11(4), pp. 575–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kearns, C.A., Inouye, D.W. and Waser, N.M. (1998) Endangered mutualisms: The conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 29, pp. 83–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Klein, A.-M., Vaissière, B.E., Cane, J.H., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Cunningham, S.A., Kremen, C. and Tscharntke, T. (2007) Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274(1608), pp. 303–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kowarik, I. (1990) Some responses of flora and vegetation to urbanization in Central Europe, in Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments, (eds. H. Sukopp, S. Hejný and I. Kowarik), SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague.Google Scholar
  58. Kuo, F.E. and Sullivan, W.C. (2001) Environment and crime in the inner city. Does vegetation reduce crime? Environment and Behavior, 33(3), pp. 343–367.Google Scholar
  59. Lepczyk, C.A., Mertig, A.G. and Liu, J. (2004) Assessing landowner activities related to birds across rural-to-urban landscapes. Environmental Management, 33(1), pp. 110–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. London Assembly Environment Committee (2007) Chainsaw massacre: A review of London’s street trees, Greater London Authority, London.Google Scholar
  61. Lorenz, K., Preston, C.M. and Kandeler, E. (2006) Soil organic matter in urban soils: Estimation of elemental carbon by thermal oxidation and characterization of organic matter by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Geoderma, 130(3-4), pp. 312–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Macintyre, S., Ellaway, A., Hiscock, R., Kearns, A., Der, G. and McKay, L. (2003) What features of the home and the area might help to explain observed relationships between housing tenure and health? Evidence from the West of Scotland. Health and Place, 9(3), pp. 207–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Martin, C.A., Warren, P.S. and Kinzig, A.P. (2004) Neighborhood socioeconomic status is a useful predictor of perennial landscape vegetation in residential neighborhoods and embedded small parks of Phoenix, AZ. Landscape and Urban Planning, 69(4), pp. 355–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Marzluff, J.M. (2001) Worldwide urbanization and its effects on birds, in Avian Ecology and Conservation in an Urbanizing World, (eds M. Marzluff, R. Bowman and R. Donnelly), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.Google Scholar
  65. Mason, C.F. (2000) Thrushes now largely restricted to the built environment in eastern England. Diversity and Distributions, 6(4), pp. 189–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mason, C.F. (2006) Avian species richness and numbers in the built environment: can new housing developments be good for birds? Biodiversity and Conservation, 15(8), pp. 2365–2378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McKinney, M.L. (2002) Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation. BioScience, 52(10), pp. 883–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McKinney M.L. (2008) Effects of urbanization on species richness: A review of plants and animals, Urban Ecosystems, 11(2), pp. 161–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McPherson, G., Simpson, J.R., Peper, P.J., Maco, S.E. and Xiao, Q. (2005) Municipal forest benefits and costs in five US cities. Journal of Forestry,103(8), pp. 411–416.Google Scholar
  70. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2000) Ecosystems and Human Well Being: A Framework for Assessment, Island Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  71. Nabhan, G.P. and Buchmann, S.L. (1997) Services provided by pollinators, in Nature’s Services, (ed. G. Daily), Island Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  72. Neil, K. and Wu, J. (2006) Effects of urbanization on plant flowering phenology: A review. Urban Ecosystems, 9(3), pp. 243–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Niemelä, J. (1999) Ecology and urban planning. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8(1), pp. 119–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Niemelä, J., Kotze, D.J., Venn, S., Penev, L., Stoyanov, I., Spence, J., Hartley, D. and De Oca, E.M. (2002) Carabid beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Carabidae) across urban-rural gradients: An international comparison. Landscape Ecology, 17(5), pp. 387–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nowak, D.J. and Crane, D.E. (2002) Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA. Environmental Pollution, 116(3), pp. 381–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ordnance Survey (2006) OS MasterMap User Guide. Version 6.1.1., Ordnance Survey, Southampton, UK.Google Scholar
  77. Partecke, J., Van’t Hof, T.J. and Gwinner, E. (2005) Underlying physiological control of reproduction in urban and forest-dwelling European blackbirds Turdus merula. Journal of Avian Biology, 36(4), pp. 295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pataki, D.E., Alig, R.J., Fung, A.S., Golubiewski, N.E., Kennedy, C.A., McPherson, E.G., Nowak, D.J., Pouyat, R. V. and Romero Lankao, P. (2006) Urban ecosystems and the North American carbon cycle. Global Change Biology, 12(11), pp. 2092–2102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pauleit, S. and Duhme, F. (2000) Assessing the environmental performance of land cover types for urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52(1), pp. 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pauleit, S., Ennos, R. and Golding, Y. (2005) Modeling the environmental impacts of urban land use and land cover change – a study in Merseyside, UK. Landscape and Urban Planning, 71(2-4), pp. 295–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pickett, S.T.A. and Cadenasso, M.L. (2006) Advancing urban ecological studies: Frameworks, concepts, and results from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study. Austral Ecology, 31(2), pp. 114–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pickett, S.T.A., Cadenasso, M.L., Grove, J.M., Nilon, C.H., Pouyat, R.V., Zipperer, W.C. and Costanza, R. (2001) Urban ecological systems: linking terrestrial ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas. Annual Reviews in Ecology and Systematics, 32, pp. 127–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pouyat, R.V., McDonnell, M.J. and Pickett, S.T.A. (1997) Litter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in oak stands along an urban-rural land use gradient. Urban Ecosystems, 1(2), pp. 117–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pouyat, R.V., Yesilonis, I. and Nowak, D.J. (2006) Carbon storage by urban soils in the USA. Journal of Environmental Quality, 35(4), pp. 1566–1575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pressey, R.L. Possingham, H.P. and Day, J.R. (1997) Effectiveness of alternative heuristic algorithms for identifying indicative minimum requirements for conservation reserves. Biological Conservation, 80(2), pp. 207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Quigley, M.F. (2004) Street trees and rural conspecifics: Will long-lived trees reach full size in urban conditions? Urban Ecosystems, 7(1), pp. 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rebele, F. (1994) Urban ecology and special features of urban ecosystems. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 4(6), pp. 173–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rowntree, R.A. and Nowak, D. (1991) Quantifying the role of urban forests in removing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Journal of Arboriculture, 17(1), pp. 269–275.Google Scholar
  89. Roy, D.B., Hill, M.O. and Rothery, P. (1999) Effects of urban land cover on the local species pool in Britain. Ecography, 22(5), pp. 507–515.Google Scholar
  90. Shochat, E. (2004) Credit or debit? Resource input changes population dynamics of city-slicker birds. Oikos, 106(3), pp. 622–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Smith, R.M., Gaston, K.J., Warren, P.H. and Thompson, K. (2005) Urban domestic gardens (V): relationships between landcover composition, housing and landscape. Landscape Ecology, 20(2), pp. 235–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smith, R.M., Warren, P.H., Thompson, K. and Gaston, K.J. (2006a) Urban domestic gardens (VI): environmental correlates of invertebrate species richness. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15(8), pp. 2415–2438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smith, R.M., Gaston, K.J., Warren, P.H. and Thompson, K. (2006b) Urban domestic gardens (VIII): environmental correlates of invertebrate abundance. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15(8), pp. 2515–2545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Smith, R.M., Thompson, K., Hodgson, J.G., Warren, P.H. and Gaston, K.J. (2006c) Urban domestic gardens (IX): Composition and richness of the vascular plant flora, and implications for native biodiversity. Biological Conservation, 129(3), pp. 312–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stanners, D. and Bourdeau, P. (1995) The Urban Environment, in Europe’s Environment: The Dobříš Assessment, (eds. D. Stanners and P. Bourdeau), European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  96. Stigsdotter, U. A. & Grahn P. (2004) A Garden at your doorstep may reduce stress: Private gardens as restorative environments in the city. Proceedings of the Open Space: People Space Conference, 27-29 October 2004, Edinburgh, Scotland. Paper 00015.Google Scholar
  97. Stone, B. Jr. and Rodgers, M.O. (2001) Urban form and thermal efficiency. Journal of the American Planning Association, 67(2), pp. 186–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sukopp, H. and Wurzel, A. (2002) The effects of climate change on the vegetation of central European cities. Urban Habitats, 1, pp. 66–86.Google Scholar
  99. Thorington, K.K. and Bowman, R. (2003) Predation rate on artificial nests increases with human housing density in suburban habitats. Ecography, 26(2), pp. 188–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tratalos, J., Fuller, R.A., Warren, P.H., Davies, R.G. and Gaston, K.J. (2007a) Urban form, biodiversity potential and ecosystem services. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83(4), pp. 308–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tratalos, J., Fuller, R.A., Evans, K.L., Davies, R.G., Newson, S.E., Greenwood, J.J.D. and Gaston, K.J. (2007b) Bird densities are associated with household densities. Global Change Biology, 13(8), pp. 1685–1695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ulrich, R.S., Simons, R.F., Losito, B.D., Fiorito, E., Miles, M.A. and Zelson, M. (1991) Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11(3), pp. 201–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Warren, P.S., Katti, M., Ermann, M. and Brazel, A. (2006) Urban bioacoustics: It’s not just noise. Animal Behaviour, 71(3), pp. 491–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Watson, J.E.M., Whittaker, R.J. and Freudenberger, D. (2005) Bird community responses to habitat fragmentation: how consistent are they across landscapes? Journal of Biogeography, 32(8), pp. 1353–1370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Whitford, V., Ennos, A.R. and Handley, J.F. (2001) “City form and natural process” – indicators for the ecological performance of urban areas and their application to Merseyside, UK. Landscape and Urban Planning, 57(2), pp. 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wittig, R. (2004) The origin and development of the urban flora of Central Europe. Urban Ecosystems, 7(4), pp. 323–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yli-Pelkonen, V. and Niemelä, J. (2005) Linking ecological and social systems in cities: Urban planning in Finland as a case. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14(8), pp. 1947–1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zhang, X.Y., Friedl, M.A., Schaaf, C.B. and Strahler, A.H. (2004a) Climate controls on vegetation phenological patterns in northern mid- and high latitudes inferred from MODIS data. Global Change Biology, 10(7), pp. 1133–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhang, X., Friedl, M.A., Strahler, A.H. and Schneider, A. (2004b) The footprint of urban climates on vegetation phenology. Geophysical Research Letters, 31(12), L12209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard A. Fuller
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jamie Tratalos
    • 3
  • Philip H. Warren
    • 4
  • Richard G. Davies
    • 5
    • 6
  • Aleksandra Pępkowska
    • 7
    • 8
  • Kevin J. Gaston
    • 9
  1. 1.The Ecology CentreUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Animal and Plant SciencesUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  3. 3.Department of Animal and Plant SciencesUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  4. 4.Department of Animal and Plant SciencesUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  5. 5.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK
  6. 6.Department of Animal and Plant SciencesUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  7. 7.Institute of Nature ConservationKrakowPoland
  8. 8.Department of Animal and Plant SciencesUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  9. 9.Biodiversity & Macroecology Group, Department of Animal and Plant SciencesUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations