In the preceding chapters of this book a number of fundamental aspects of lighting, more in particular of mathematical, physical, and physiological nature have been discussed. In this chapter it is studied in how far these fundamental aspects can be used in road lighting applications. In the next chapter several design aspects of road and tunnel lighting are discussed.

Road lighting luminaires have different functions some of which are described in this chapter. First the light control, which means to ensure that the light gets where we want it, and not where we do not want it. Light control is essentially applied optics. The principles of geometric optics are discussed, including the way they are applied in the optical design of road lighting luminaires. The most common systems of road lighting luminaire classification are described. Also, ingress protection is discussed. The consequences for low-maintenance luminaire design are described in the next chapter.

The next subject in this chapter is light pollution. Light pollution is closely related to the second aspect of light control: to ensure that the light does not gets to places or in directions where we do not want it. The reason to bother about the reduction of light pollution is not only a matter of energy conservation, but also to try to ensure that darkness allows human beings to enjoy the starry night, and to maintain the contact with the cosmos. These points are described in the first chapter of this book. Remedial measures are discussed. This section is based on the Light Pollution Handbook, published in 2004 by Kohei Narisada and Duco Schreuder.

The final subject of this chapter is the way that incident light is reflected by road surfaces. The importance is in the fact that for the detection of objects on the road, and for road safety more in general, the road surface luminance is the most important design criterion for road lighting installations. This is called the luminance technique in road lighting. The lighting design is helped by the documentation and the classification of road surface reflection characteristics. Finally, the measuring of the road reflection is discussed.


Road Surface Geometric Optic Light Distribution Road Lighting Light Pollution 
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