Types of Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment
Constructed wetland treatment systems are engineered systems that have been designed and constructed to utilize the natural processes involving wetland vegetation, soils, and their associated microbial assemblages to assist in treating wastewater. They are designed to take advantage of many of the processes that occur in natural wetlands, but do so within a more controlled environment. Synonymous terms to constructed include manmade, engineered or artificial wetlands.
Constructed wetlands can be built with a much greater degree of control than natural systems, thus allowing the establishment of experimental treatment facilities with well-defined composition of substrate, type of vegetation, and flow pattern. In addition, constructed wetlands offer several additional advantages compared to natural wetlands including site selection, flexibility in sizing, and most importantly, control over the hydraulic pathways and retention time (Brix, 1993a).
KeywordsWastewater Treatment Fecal Coliform Nitrogen Removal Water Hyacinth Vertical Flow
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