Doing Research in a Cross-Cultural Context: Methodological and Ethical Challenges
Conducting cross-cultural research is rife with methodological and ethical challenges. Researchers are challenged with many issues when carrying out their research with people in cross-cultural arenas. This chapter serves to set the scene of this book and points to several salient issues in doing research in cross-cultural settings. I aim firstly to provide discussion on the essence of cultural sensitivity in cross-cultural research. I will then discuss matters relating to language issues and the use of bicultural researchers in cross-cultural research. I shall suggest strategies to gain access to research participants in cross-cultural research. Lastly, I will examine moral and ethical issues in cross-cultural research, and discuss the thorny subject of informed consent in cross-cultural research.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Beoku-Betts, J. (1994). When black is not enough: Doing field research among Gullah women. NWSA Journal, 6(3), 413-433. Google Scholar
- Birman, D. (2005). Ethical issues in research with immigrants and refugees. In J. E. Trimble & C. B. Fisher (Eds.), Handbook of ethical research with ethnocultural populations and communities (pp. 155- 177). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Bishop, R. (2005). Freeing ourselves from neocolonial domination in research: A Kaupapa M ã ori approach to creating knowledge. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research, 3rd edition (pp. 109- 138). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Christians, C. G. (2005). Ethics and politics in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research,3rd edition(pp.139-164). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Crigger, N. J., Holcomb, L., & Weiss, J. (2001). Fundamentalism, multiculturalism, and prob-lems Conducting research with populations in developing nations. Nursing Ethics, 8(5), 459-469. Google Scholar
- dé Ishtar, Z. (2005c). Holding Yawulyu: White culture and black women’s law . North Melbourne: Spinifex Press.Google Scholar
- Denzin, N. K. (2003). Performance ethnography: Critical pedagogy and the politics of culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Dunbar, C., Rodriguez, D., & Parker, L. (2002). Race, subjectivity, and the interview process. In J. F. Gubrium & J. A. Holstein (Eds.), Handbook of interview research: Context & method (pp. 279- 298). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Eide, P., & Allen, C. B. (2005). Recruiting transcultural qualitative research participants: A conceptual model. I nternational Journal of Qualitative Methods 4(2). Article 4. Available at: http://www.ualberta.ca/∼ijqm/backissues/4_2/pdf/eide.pdf (Accessed 9/10/2005).
- Fisher, C. B., & Ragsdale, K. (2005). ‘ Goodness-of-fit ethics for multicultural research. In J. E. Trimble & C. B. Fisher (Eds.), Handbook of ethical research with ethnocultural populations and communities (pp. 3- 25). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Fluehr-Lobban, C. (1994). Informed consent in anthropological research: We are not exempt. Human Organization, 53(1), 1-10. Google Scholar
- Fluehr-Lobban, C. (1998). Ethics. In H. R. Bernard (Ed.), Handbook of methods in cultural anthropology (pp. 173- 202). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
- Fluehr-Lobban, C. (Ed.) (2003). Ethics and the profession of anthropology,2nd edition. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.Google Scholar
- Izugbara, C. O. (2000). Observations bearing on fieldworkers’ manners and conduct. I ndigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, 8(3), 19. Google Scholar
- Jackson, M. S., & Mead Niblo, D. (2003). The role of qualitative methodology in cross-cultural research. Qualitative Research Journal, 3(1), 18-27. Google Scholar
- Leflar, R. B. (1997). The cautious acceptance of informed consent in Japan. Medical Law 16, 705-720. Google Scholar
- Liamputtong, P. (2007). Researching the vulnerable: A guide to sensitive research methods. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Liamputtong, P., & Ezzy, D. (2005). Qualitative research methods,2nd edition. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Liamputtong Rice, P. (1996). Health research and ethnic communities: Reflections on practice. In D. Colquhoun & A. Kellehear (Eds.), Health research in practice, Vol. 2: Personal experiences, public issues (pp. 50- 61). London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
- Liamputtong Rice, P. (2000). Hmong women and reproduction . Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.Google Scholar
- Lincoln, Y. S., & Denzin, N. K. (2005). Epilogue: The eighth and ninth moments - qualitative research in/and the fractured future. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research,3rd edition (pp.1115 - 1126). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Macklin, R. (2000). Informed consent for research: International perspectives. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association, 55, 290-293. Google Scholar
- Marshall, A., & Batten, S. (2004). Researching across cultures: Issues of ethics and power. Forum: Qualitative Social Research [On-line Journal], 5(3), Art, 39. Available at: http://www.qualita-tive-research.net/fqs-texte/3-04/04-3-39-e.htm (Accessed 14/10/2005).
- Meadows, L. M., Lagendyk, L. E., Thurston, W. E. & Eisener, A. C. (2003). Balancing culture, ethics, and methods in qualitative health research with Aboriginal peoples. I nternational Journal of Qualitative Methods 2(4). Article 1. Available at: http://www.ualberta.ca/∼iiqm/ backissues/2_4/pdf/meadows.pdf (Accessed 9/10/2005).
- Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis, 2nd edition. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Molyneux, C. S., Wassenaar, D. R., Peshu, N., & Marsh, K. (2005). ‘ Even if they ask you to stand by a tree all day, you will have to do it (Laughter) …! ’: Community voices on the notion and practice of informed consent for biomedical research in developing countries. Social Science & Medicine, 61, 443-454. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Phellas, C. N. (2000). Cultural and sexual identities in in-depth interviewing. In C. Truman, D. M. Mertens & B. Humphries (Eds.), Research and Inequality (pp. 52 - 64). London: UCI.Google Scholar
- Piquemal, N. (2001). Free and informed consent in research involving aative American communi-ties. A merican Indian Culture and Research Journal, 25(1), 65-79. Google Scholar
- Redmond, M. (2003). Cultural and ethical challenges in cross-national research: Reflections on a European union study on child and youth migration. I nternational Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(4). Article 2. Available at: http://www.ualberta.ca/∼ijqm/backissues/2_4/pdf/red-mond.pdf (Accessed 9/10/2005).
- Ryen, A. (2002). Cross-cultural interviewing. In J. F. Gubrium & J. A. Holstein (Eds.), Handbook of interview research (pp. 335 - 354). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Google Scholar
- Smith, L. T. (1999). Decolonising methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples . London and Dunedin: Zed Books and University of Otago Press.Google Scholar
- Smith, L. T. (2000). Kaupapa M ã ori research. In M. Battiste (Ed.), Reclaiming indigenous voice and vision (pp. 225 - 247). Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
- Smith, L. T. (2005). On tricky ground: Researching the native in the age of uncertainty. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research, 3rd edition (pp. 85 - 108). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Temple, B. (2002). Crossed-wires: Interpreters, translators, and bilingual workers in cross-language research. Qualitative Health Research, 12(6), 844 - 854. Google Scholar
- Temple, B., & Edwards, R. (2002). Interpreters/translators and cross-language research: Reflexitivity and border crossings. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 1(2). Article 1. Available at: http://www.ualberta.ca/∼ijqm (Accessed 9/10/2005).
- Thomas, G. (1990). Afro-Caribbean elderly people: Coping with ageing . Coventry, West Midlands: Social Care Practice Centre, Department of Applied Social Studies, University of Warwick.Google Scholar
- Tsai, J. H-C., Choe, J. H., Lim, J. M. C., Acorda, E., Chan, N. L., Taylor, V. M., & Tu, S-P. (2004). Developing culturally competent health knowledge: Issues of data analysis of cross-cultural, cross-language qualitative research. I nternational Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3 (4). Article 2. Available at: http://www.ualberta.ca/∼iiqm/backissues/3_4/pdf/tsai.pdf (Accessed 9/10/2005).