Advertisement

Environmental Change in the Aral Sea Region

New Approaches to Water Treatment
  • Rashid Khaydarov
  • Renat Khaydarov
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC)

This paper deals with novel approaches to solution of the important freshwater problems facing the Aral Sea Region. These approaches are based on using novel water treatment techniques developed taking into account local climatic and economic conditions. The local problem of removing water hardness and inorganic and organic contaminants can be solved by using proposed fibrous sorbents on the basis of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). A special oligodynamic method that is particularly effective against typical types of pathogens in the Aral Sea region is proposed to solve a drinking water disinfection problem. As for the proposed solar powered water desalination technique based on a direct osmosis process, the separation there is driven by natural osmosis, which does not require external pumping energy as in the reverse osmosis process. The specific power consumption of the direct osmosis desalination process is less than 1 kWh/m3 for sea water. On the basis of the findings the pilot device with productivity of 1 m3/h has been constructed. It consists of solar batteries with the capaCity of 500 W for pumping various fluids (feed, brine, product, and working solution) of the desalination device, solar energy heat exchangers for the recovery of working solution, water pretreatment unit on the basis of fibrous sorbents, and a water disinfection device with a very low energy consumption of 0.1 W-h. Due to the financial support of UNESCO in 2005, the device was installed in a village in the Aral Sea Region to remove salts with total concentration of about 17 g/l. Two hundred fifty water disinfection devices have been installed in manual artesian well water pumps through the support of JDA International (Colo., USA). More than twenty water purification systems consisting of filters on the basis of developed fibrous sorbents and water disinfection units were installed in different villages of the Aral Sea Region.

Keywords

solar desalination water hardness water disinfection 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    UNDP Energy and Environment Unit, Water—Critical Resource for Uzbekistan’s Future (United Nations, New York and Geneva, 2007).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Nicolaisen, Developments in membrane technology for water treatment, Desalination 153(1), 355–360 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Wangnick, 2004 IDA Worldwide Desalting Plants Inventory, Report No.18, 2004 (Wangnick Consulting, Gnarrenburg, Germany).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Tzen and R. Morris, Renewable energy sources for desalination, Sol. Energy 75(5), 375–370 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Garcia-Rodriguez, Renewable energy applications in desalination: State of the art, Sol. Energy 75(5), 381–393 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Garcia-Rodriguez, Seawater desalination driven by renewable energies: A review, Desalination 143(2), 103–113 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Huanmin, J. C. Walton, and A. H. P. Swift, Desalination coupled with salinity gradient solar ponds, Desalination 136(1–3), 13–23 (2001).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Zarza and M. Blanco, Advanced M.E.D. solar desalination plant: Seven years of experience at the Plataforma Solar de Almería, Proceedings of the Mediterranean Conference on Renewable Energy Sources for Water Production (Santorini, Greece, 1996), pp. 45–49.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    U. Rohr et al., Impact of silver and copper on the survival of amoeba and ciliated protozoa in vitro, Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Heal. 203(1), 87–89 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. A. Khaydarov and R. R. Khaydarov, Purification of Drinking Water from 134, 137Cs, 89, 90Sr, 60Co and 129I, in: Medical Treatment of Intoxication and Decontamination of Chemical Agents in the Area of Terrorist Attack, edited by C. Dishovsky (Springer, The Netherlands, 2006), pp. 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Kragten, Atlas of Metal-Ligand Equilibria in Aqueous Solution (Ellis Horwood, Chichester, 1978).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Drinking Water. Hygiene requirements and quality control, GOST 2874–82 of Russian Federation (1982).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th ed. (American Public Health Association, Washington, 1995).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. A. Khaydarov and R. R. Khaydarov, Water disinfection using electrolytically generated silver, copper and gold ions, J. Water Supply Res. T.—AQUA (53), 567–572 (2004).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. A. Khaydarov and S. B. Malyshev, Patent of Russian Federation: Water Disinfecting Device, N 2163571, 27. 02. 2001.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. A. Khaydarov, B. Yuldashev, S. Korovin, and Sh. Iskandarova, Patent of Republic of Uzbekistan: Water disinfectant device, N5031, 08.09.1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rashid Khaydarov
    • 1
  • Renat Khaydarov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Nuclear PhysicsUlugbekTashkent

Personalised recommendations