Design of Inorganic and Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials by Sol-Gel Processing – From Nanostructures to Hierarchical Networks
The preparation of porous hierarchical architectures that have structural features spanning from the nanometer to micrometer and even larger dimensions which in addition exhibit defined functionalities is one of today’s challenges in materials chemistry. Sol-gel chemistry is a versatile tool for the formation of inorganic as well as inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Controlled hydrolysis and condensation reactions of (organo)alkoxysilanes allow the combination with organic entities and even their deliberate positioning in an inorganic network on the nanometer level. Moreover, not only the chemical composition, but also the structure of the final material is easily controlled on different length scales from the nanometer level up to the macroscopic morphology. In the present paper, opportunities from the application of novel diolmodified silanes are discussed for the synthesis of hierarchically organized inorganic, but also inorganic-organic porous monoliths. In addition, strategies for macroscopic shaping of hybrid materials with hierarchical porosity as well as exotemplating approaches are presented. In addition, strategies for macroscopic shaping of hybrid materials with hierarchical porosity as well as exotemplating approaches are presented.
KeywordsMesostructured materials aerogels inorganic-organic hybrid materials sol-gel processing
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