Bias, Confounding, and Effect Modification

  • Stephen P. Glasser


Bias, jaconfounding, and random variation/chance are the reasons for a non-causal association between an exposure and outcome. This chapter will define and discuss these concepts so that they may be appropriately considered whenever one is interpreting the data from a study.


Gross Domestic Product Confounding Variable Effect Modification Moderate Alcohol Consumption Coffee Drinking 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen P. Glasser
    • 1
  1. 1.Univesity of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AlabamaBirmingham

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