Association, Cause, and Correlation

  • Stephen P. Glasser
  • Gary Cutter


Anything one measures can become data, but only those data that have meaning can become information. Information is almost always useful, data may or may not be. This chapter will address the various ways one can measure the degree of association between an exposure and an outcome and will include a discussion of relative and absolute risk, odds ratios, number needed to treat, and related measures.


Myocardial Infarction Deep Venous Thrombosis Relative Risk Reduction Attributable Risk Absolute Risk Reduction 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen P. Glasser
    • 1
  • Gary Cutter
    • 2
  1. 1.Univesity of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AlabamaBirmingham
  2. 2.School of Public HealthUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirmingham

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