Prostate Cancer: Detection of Free Tumor-Specific DNA in Blood and Bone Marrow
Prostate carcinoma is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer types in men. If diagnosed at an early stage, prostate cancer is usually treatable. For a patient with a clinically localized tumor, the primary treatment alternatives are surgery and radiotherapy. Conversely, if this cancer entity is identified at a late stage and metastases are identified, complete remissions are rare by the current medical therapies. To identify prostate cancer, Gleason grading score, serum markers, and clinical staging are important factors which are related to tumor volume, zonal origin of the tumor, and spread into the gland and surrounding tissues. Diagnostic standard tools, such as the measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and standard transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies, lack sufficient specificity and sensitivity for detection of all prostate cancer cases, and therefore, every fourth prostate tumor remains undiagnosed. In particular, a rise of PSA level in blood is not specific enough to distinguish between malignant and benign lesions including benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and prostatitis. A low PSA value does not guarantee a disease-free outcome, and an elevated value is frequently associated with negative biopsies (Algaba et al., 2007).
KeywordsHepatitis Leukemia Glutathione Tuberculosis Adenosine
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