Advertisement

Soil and fertilizer phosphorus in relation to crop nutrition

  • Ernest A. Kirkby
  • A. Edward (Johnny) Johnston
Part of the Plant Ecophysiology book series (KLEC, volume 7)

Phosphorus (P) plays a pivotal role in the nutrition of all plants as an essential element participating in a wide array of physiological and biochemical processes occurring in all living organisms (Vance et al. 2003). Historically, of all the nutrients required by plants, P was frequently the one that most limited growth; until P deficiency was corrected many crops did not respond to nitrogen (N), and this is still the case for many soils worldwide. Most crops grown for human food, animal feed, fiber and now for biofuels contain between 0.2% and 0.5% P in their dry matter when sufficient P is available in the soil (Sanchez 2007). In intensive agriculture much of this P can be applied in inorganic P fertilizers and organic manures. Inorganic P fertilizers were first available some 160 years ago after JB Lawes, of Rothamsted (UK), patented a commercially successful method of producing superphosphate, containing water-soluble monocalcium phosphate, from phosphate rock (PR). From the mid 19th century, superphosphate quickly proved to be effective in providing plant-available P on almost all soil types in the UK (Johnston 1994) and has since been used worldwide for this purpose. With the opportunity to use inorganic P fertilizers and organic manures to minimize the risk of soil P deficiency limiting crop growth, there exists the possibility of increasing crop yields to improve food security for an increasing world population.

This chapter is divided into seven sections. Following the Introduction we give an up-to-date account of the interactions between soil and fertilizer P in relation to the availability of P to plants. This summarizes the findings of part of a comprehensive review on the efficiency of soil and fertilizer P use commissioned by FAO and four other institutions (Syers et al. 2007). The acquisition of P by the roots of crop plants is then considered in relation to its availability in soil. In the following two sections we discuss first crop nutrition and the efficient use of P where soil P is adequate, and then the acquisition of P by plants where P supply is limited and to the adaptive mechanisms induced in plants by P deficiency and their possible exploitation. In both these sections, which discuss crop production in very different agro-environments, we present some possible ways to increase the efficiency of use of both soil and fertilizer P. In the final two sections we deal briefly with environmental and ecological aspects related to the use of P in crop production.

Keywords

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Soil Solution Root Hair Phosphate Rock White Lupin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ae N, Arihara J, Okada K, Yoshihara T, Johansen C (1990) Phosphorus uptake by pigeon pea and its role in cropping systems of the Indian subcontinent. Science 248: 477–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amtmann A, Hammond JP, Armengaud P, White PJ (2006) Nutrient sensing and signalling in plants: potassium and phosphorus. Adv Bot Res 43: 209–257Google Scholar
  3. Barber SA (1979) Soil phosphorus after 25 years of cropping with five rates of phosphorus application. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 10: 1459–1468Google Scholar
  4. Barber SA (1995) Soil Nutrient Bioavailability: A Mechanistic Approach. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrow NJ (1980) Evaluation and utilisation of residual phosphorus in soils. In: Khasawneh FE, Sample EC, Kamprath EJ (eds), The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture. ASA/CSSA/SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 333–359Google Scholar
  6. Barrow NJ (1983a) A mechanistic model for describing the sorption and desorption of phosphate by soil. J Soil Sci 34: 733–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrow NJ (1983b) On the reversibility of phosphate sorption by soils. J Soil Sci 34: 751–758Google Scholar
  8. Bates TR, Lynch JP (1996) Stimulation of root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana by low phosphorus availability. Plant Cell Environ 19: 529–538Google Scholar
  9. Bates TR, Lynch JP (2001) Root hairs confer a competitive advantage under low phosphorus availability. Plant Soil 236: 243–250Google Scholar
  10. Batjes NH (1997) A world data set of derived properties by FAO-UNESCO soil unit for global modelling. Soil Use Manag 13: 9–16Google Scholar
  11. Beck MA, Sanchez PA (1996) Soil P budget and movement after 13 years of fertilized cultivation in the Amazon basin. Plant Soil 184: 23–31Google Scholar
  12. Blake L, Johnston AE, Poulton PR, Goulding KWT (2003) Phosphorus fractions following positive and negative phosphorus balances for long periods. Plant Soil 254: 245–261Google Scholar
  13. Bundy LG, Tunney H, Halvorson AD (2005) Agronomic aspects of phosphorus management. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds), Phosphorus: Agriculture and the Environment. Agronomy Monograph 46, ASA/CSSA/SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 685–728Google Scholar
  14. Cassman KG, Peng S, Olk DC, Ladha JK, Reichardt W, Dobermann A, Singh U (1998) Opportunities for increasing nitrogen use efficiency from improved resource management in irrigated rice systems. Field Crop Res 56: 7–38Google Scholar
  15. Chang SC, Jackson ML (1958) Soil phosphorus fractionation in some representative soils. J Soil Sci 9: 109–119Google Scholar
  16. Chen Y, Barak P (1982) Iron nutrition of plants in calcareous soils. Adv Agron 35: 217–240Google Scholar
  17. Claassen N, Syring KM, Jungk A (1986) Verification of a mathematical model by simulating potassium uptake from soil. Plant Soil 95: 209–220Google Scholar
  18. Coleman R (1942) Utilization of adsorbed phosphate by cotton and oats. Soil Sci 54: 237–246Google Scholar
  19. Crawley MJ, Johnston AE, Silvertown J, Dodd M, De Mazancourt C, Heard MS, Henman DF, Edwards GR (2005) Determinants of species richness in the Park Grass experiment. Am Nat 165: 179–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Critchley CNR, Chambers BJ, Fowbert JA, Bhogal A, Rose SC, Sanderson RA (2002) Plant species richness, functional type and soil properties of grasslands and allied vegetation in English Environmentally Sensitive Areas. Grass Forage Sci 57: 82–92Google Scholar
  21. Crowther EM, Warren RG, Nagelschmidt G, Cooke EH (1951) The production and agricultural value of silicophosphate fertilizers. Part V. Laboratory and pot culture experiments. Permanent records of research and development. Monograph 11, Ministry of Supply, London, pp 108–283Google Scholar
  22. Curtin D, Syers JK (2001) Lime-induced changes in indices of soil phosphate availability. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65: 147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dean LA (1938) An attempted fractionation of soil phosphorus. J Agric Sci 28: 234–246Google Scholar
  24. Dechassa N, Schenk MK, Claassen N, Steingrobe B (2003) Phosphorus efficiency of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. capitata), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Plant Soil 250: 215–224Google Scholar
  25. De Kok LJ, Schnug E (2007) (eds) Protecting Water Bodies from Negative Impact of Agricultural Loads and Fate of Fertilizer Derived Uranium. Backhuys, BV Leiden, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  26. Delhaize E, Ryan PR, Randall PJ (1993) Aluminium tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) II Aluminium-stimulated excretion of malic acid from root apices. Plant Physiol 103: 695–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dinkelaker B, Römheld V, Marschner H (1989) Citric acid excretion and precipitation of calcium citrate in the rhizosphere of white lupin (Lupinus albus L) Plant Cell Environ 12: 285–292Google Scholar
  28. Drew MC (1975) Comparison of the effects of a localized supply of phosphate, nitrate, ammonium and potassium on the growth of the seminal root system, and the shoot, in barley. New Phytol 75: 479–490Google Scholar
  29. Dyer B (1894) On the analytical determination of probably availably “mineral” plant food in soils. J Chem Soc Trans 65: 115–167Google Scholar
  30. Dyer B (1902) Results of investigations on the Rothamsted soils. USDA Bull Off Exp Stns 106Google Scholar
  31. Evans TD, Syers JK (1971) Application of autoradiography to study the fate of 33P labelled orthophosphate added to soil crumbs. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 35: 906–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fairhurst TR, Lefroy R, Mutert E, Batjes N (1999) The importance, distribution and causes of phosphorus deficiency as a constraint in crop production in the tropics. Agrofor Forum 9: 2–8Google Scholar
  33. Falk WE, Wymer D (2006) Uranium in phosphate fertilizer production In: Merkel BJ, Hasche-Berger A (eds), Uranium in the Environment. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 857–866Google Scholar
  34. Fixen PE (2007) Potential biofuels influence on nutrient use and removal in the U.S. Better Crops 91: 12–14Google Scholar
  35. Föhse D, Jungk A (1983) Influence of phosphate and nitrate supply on root hair formation of rape, spinach and tomato plants. Plant Soil 74: 359–368Google Scholar
  36. Gahoonia TS, Nielsen NE (1997) Variation in root hairs of barley cultivars doubled soil phosphorus uptake. Euphytica 98: 177–182Google Scholar
  37. Gahoonia TS, Nielsen NE (2004) Barley genotypes with long root hairs sustain high grain yields in low-P field. Plant Soil 262: 55–62Google Scholar
  38. Gahoonia TS, Nielsen NE, Lyshede OB (1999) Phosphorus acquisition in the field at three levels of P fertilization. Plant Soil 211: 269–281Google Scholar
  39. Gardner WK, Parbery DG, Barber DA (1982) The acquisition of phosphorus by Lupinus albus L. II. The effect of varying phosphorus supply and soil type on some soil characteristics of the soil/root interface. Plant Soil 68:33–41Google Scholar
  40. George TS, Richardson AE (2008) Potential and limitations to improving crops for enhanced phosphorus utilization. In: White PJ, Hammond JP (eds), The Ecophysiology of Plant-Phosphorus Interactions. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 247–270Google Scholar
  41. Gerke J, Biessner L, Römer W (2000) The quantitative effect of chemical phosphate mobilization by carboxylate anions on P uptake by a single root. 1. The basic concept and determination of soil parameters. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 163: 207–212Google Scholar
  42. Gillingham AG, Syers JK, Gregg PEH (1980) Phosphorus uptake and return in grazed, steep hill pastures. I. Above-ground components of the phosphorus cycle. New Zeal J Agric Res 23: 323–330Google Scholar
  43. Greenwood DJ, Karpinets TV, Stone DA (2001) Dynamic model for the effects of soil P and fertilizer P on crop growth, P uptake and soil P in arable cropping: model description. Ann Bot 88: 279–291Google Scholar
  44. Greenwood DJ, Stellacci AM, Meacham MC, Broadley MR, White PJ (2005) Phosphorus response components of different Brassica oleracea genotypes are reproducible in different environments. Crop Sci 45: 1728–1735Google Scholar
  45. Greenwood DJ, Stellacci AM, Meacham MC, Mead A, Broadley MR, White PJ (2006a) Relative values of physiological parameters of P response of different genotypes can be measured in experiments with only two P treatments. Plant Soil 281: 159–172Google Scholar
  46. Greenwood DJ, Stellacci AM, Meacham MC, Mead A, Broadley MR, White PJ (2006b) Brassica cultivars: P response and fertilizer efficient cropping. Acta Hort 700: 97–102Google Scholar
  47. Halvorson AD, Black AL (1985) Long-term dryland crop responses to residual phosphate fertili-zers. Soil Sci Soc Am J 49: 928–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Haynes RJ (1982) Effects of lime on phosphate availability in acid soil: a critical review. Plant Soil 68: 289–308Google Scholar
  49. Haynes RJ (1984) Effect of lime, silicate and phosphate applications on the concentrations of extractable aluminium and phosphate in a spodosol. Soil Sci 138: 8–14Google Scholar
  50. Heckrath G, Brookes PC, Poulton PR, Goulding KWT (1995) Phosphorus leaching from soils containing different phosphorus concentrations in the Broadbalk experiment. J Environ Qual 24: 904–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Heffer P, Prud’homme MPR, Muirhead B, Isherwood KF (2006) Phosphorus Fertilization: Issues and Outlook. Proceedings 586, International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. Hemwall JB (1957) The fixation of phosphorus by soils. Adv Agron 9: 95–112Google Scholar
  53. Hermans C, Hammond JP, White PJ, Verbruggen N (2006) How do plants respond to nutrient shortage by biomass allocation? Trends Plant Sci 11: 610–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hetrick BAD (1991) Mycorrhizas and root architecture. Experientia 47: 355–362Google Scholar
  55. Hilton J (2006) Phosphogypsum Management and Opportunities for Use. Proceedings 587, International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Hinsinger P, Plassard C, Tang CX, Jaillard B (2003) Origins of root-mediated pH changes in the rhizosphere and their responses to environmental constraints: a review. Plant Soil 248: 43–59Google Scholar
  57. Hoffland E (1992) Quantitative evaluation of the role of organic acid exudation in the mobilization of rock phosphate by rape. Plant Soil 140: 279–289Google Scholar
  58. Holford ICR, Scheirtzer BE, Crocker GJ (1994) Long-term effects of lime on soil phosphorus solubility and sorption in eight soils. Aust J Soil Sci 32: 795–803Google Scholar
  59. Horst WJ, Waschkies C (1987) Phosphatversorgung von Sommerweisen (Triticum aestivum L) in Mischkultur mit Weisser Lupine (Lupinus albus L). Z Pflanz Bodenkunde 150: 1–8Google Scholar
  60. Horst WJ, Kamh M, Jibrin JM, Chude VO (2001) Agronomic measures for increasing P availability to crops. Plant Soil 237: 211–223Google Scholar
  61. Howeler RH, Sieverding E, Saif S (1987) Practical aspects of mycorrhizal technology in some tropical crops and pastures. Plant Soil 100: 249–283Google Scholar
  62. Huffman EO (1962) Reactions of Phosphate in Soils: Recent Research at TVA. Proceedings 71, International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. Huffman EO (1968) Behaviour of fertilizer phosphorus. In: 9th International Congress of Soil Science Transactions II, pp 745–754Google Scholar
  64. Jackson ML (1963) Aluminium bonding in soil: a unifying principle in soil science. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 27: 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jarvie HP, Neal C, Withers PJA (2006) Sewage effluent phosphorus: a greater risk to river eutrophication than agricultural phosphorus? Sci Total Environ 360: 246–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Johnston AE (1975) The Woburn Market Garden Experiment, 1942–1969. II. The effects of treatments on soil pH, soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. In: Rothamsted Experimental Station Report for 1974, pp 102–132Google Scholar
  67. Johnston AE (1994) The Rothamsted Classical Experiments. In: Leigh RA, Johnston AE (eds), Long-Term Experiments in Agricultural and Ecological Sciences. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 9–37Google Scholar
  68. Johnston AE (2005) Phosphorus nutrition of arable crops. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds), Phosphorus: Agriculture and the Environment. Agronomy Monograph 46, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp 495–520Google Scholar
  69. Johnston AE, Dawson CJ (2005) Phosphorus in Agriculture and in Relation to Water Quality. Agricultural Industries Confederation, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  70. Johnston AE, Jones KC (1995) The Origin and Fate of Cadmium in Soil. Proceedings 366, International Fertiliser Society, York, pp 2–40Google Scholar
  71. Johnston AE, Poulton PR (1977) Yields on the Exhaustion Land and changes in the N P K contents of the soil due to cropping and manuring, 1852–1975. In: Rothamsted Experimental Station Report for 1976, Part 2, pp 53–85Google Scholar
  72. Johnston AE, Poulton PR (1992) The role of phosphorus in crop production and soil fertility: 150 years of field experiments at Rothamsted, United Kingdom. In: Schultz JJ (ed), Phosphate Fertilizers and the Environment. IFDC, Muscle Shoals, AL, pp 45–64Google Scholar
  73. Johnston AE, Poulton PR (2005) Soil Organic Matter: Its Importance in Sustainable Agricultural Systems. Proceedings 565, International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. Johnston AE, Syers JK (1998) (eds) Nutrient Management for Sustainable Crop Production in Asia. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  75. Johnston AE, Syers JK (2006) Changes in Understanding the Behaviour of Soil and Fertiliser Phosphorus: Implications for Their Efficient Use in Agriculture. Proceedings 589, International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. Johnston AE, Poulton PR, Syers JK (2001) Phosphorus, Potassium and Sulphur Cycles in Agricultural Soils. Proceedings 465, International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. Jungk A (1994) Phosphorus supply of plants - how is it accomplished? Proc Natl Sci Council ROC B 18: 187–197Google Scholar
  78. Jungk A (2001) Root hairs and the acquisition of plant nutrients from soil. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 164: 121–129Google Scholar
  79. Jungk A, Claassen N (1989) Availability in soil and acquisition by plants as the basis for phosphorus and potassium supply to plants. Z Pflanz Bodenkunde 152: 151–157Google Scholar
  80. Kamprath EJ, Watson ME (1980) Conventional soil and tissue tests for assessing phosphorus status of soils. In: The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture. ASA/CSSA/SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 433–469Google Scholar
  81. Khasawneh FE, Sample EC, Kamprath EJ (1980) (eds) The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  82. Kirkby EA (1981) Plant growth in relation to nitrogen supply. In: Clarke FE, Rosswall T (eds), Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycles, Processes, Ecosystem Strategies and Management Impacts. Ecology Bulletins Stockholm 33, pp 249–267Google Scholar
  83. Kirkby EA, Römheld V (2006) Physiological Aspects of Plant Phosphorus in Relation to Its Acquisition from the Soil. Proceedings 588, International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Kratz S, Schnug E (2006) Rock phosphates and P fertilizers as source of U contamination in agricultural soils. In: Merkel BJ, Hasche-Berger A (eds), Uranium in the Environment. Springer, Berlin, pp 57–68Google Scholar
  85. Kristoffersen AO, Greenwood DJ, Sogn TA, Riley H (2006) Assessment of the dynamic phosphate model PHOSMOD using data from field trials with starter fertilizer to cereals. Nutr Cycling Agroecosyst 74: 75–89Google Scholar
  86. Kurtz LT (1953) Phosphorus in acid and neutral soils. In: Pierre WH, Norman AG (eds), Phosphorus in Crop Nutrition IV. American Society of Agronomy, Academic, New York, pp 59–88Google Scholar
  87. Lambers H, Chapin FS III, Pons TL (1998) Plant Physiological Ecology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  88. Lambers H, Shane MW, Cramer MD, Pearse SJ, Veneklaas EJ (2006) Root structure and functioning for efficient acquisition of phosphorus: matching morphological and physiological traits. Ann Bot 98: 693–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lamont RE, Whitney DA (1991) Evaluation of starter fertilizer for grain sorghum production. J Fert Issues 8: 20–24Google Scholar
  90. Larsen S (1967) Soil phosphorus. Adv Agron 19: 151–210Google Scholar
  91. Leamer RW (1963) residual effects of phosphate fertilizer in an irrigated rotation in the south west. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 27: 65–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Le Bayon RC, Weisskopf L, Martinoia E, Jansa J, Frossard E, Keller F, Föllmi KB, Gobat J-M (2006) Soil phosphorus uptake by continuously cropped Lupinus albus: a new microcosm design. Plant Soil 283: 309–321Google Scholar
  93. Leigh RA, Johnston AE (1986) An investigation of the usefulness of phosphorus concentrations in tissue water as indicators of the phosphorus status of field grown spring barley. J Agr Sci 107: 329–333Google Scholar
  94. Leikam DF, Achorn FP (2005) Phosphate fertilizers: Production, characteristics, and technologies. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds), Phosphorus: Agriculture and the Environment. Agronomy Monograph 46, ASA, Madison, WI, pp 23–50Google Scholar
  95. Lindsay WL (1979) Chemical Equilibrium in Soils. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  96. Lindsay WL, Moreno EC (1960) Phosphate phase equilibria in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 24: 177–182Google Scholar
  97. Liu C, Muchhal US, Mukatira U, Kononowicz AK, Raghothama KG (1998) Tomato phosphate transporter genes are differentially regulated in plant tissues by phosphorus. Plant Physiol 116: 91–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lynch J (1995) Root architecture and plant productivity. Plant Physiol 109: 7–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Lynch J (2007) Roots of the second green revolution. Aust J Bot 55: 493–512Google Scholar
  100. Lynch JP, Brown KM (2008) Root strategies for phosphorus acquisition. In: White PJ, Hammond JP (eds), The Ecophysiology of Plant-Phosphorus Interactions. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 83–116Google Scholar
  101. Mackay AD, Barber SA (1985) Soil moisture effects on root growth and phosphorus uptake by corn. Agron J 77: 519–523Google Scholar
  102. Mansell GP, Pringle RM, Edmeades DC, Shannon PW (1984) Effects of lime on pasture production on soils in the North Island of New Zealand. 3. Interaction of lime with phosphorus. New Zeal J Agric Res 27: 363–369Google Scholar
  103. Marrs RH (1993) Soil fertility and nature conservation in Europe: theoretical considerations and practical management solutions. Adv Ecol Res 24: 241–300Google Scholar
  104. Marschner H (1995) Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants (2nd edition). Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  105. Marschner P (2008) The effect of rhizosphere microorganisms on P uptake by plants. In: White PJ, Hammond JP (eds), The Ecophysiology of Plant-Phosphorus Interactions. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 165–176Google Scholar
  106. Mattingly GEG (1970) Residual value of basic slag, Gafsa rock phosphate and superphosphate in a sandy podzol. J Agric Sci 75: 413–418Google Scholar
  107. McCollum RE (1991) Build-up and decline in soil phosphorus: 30-year trends on a Typic Umprabuult. Agron J 83: 77–85Google Scholar
  108. McDowell R, Sharpley A, Brookes P, Poulton P (2001) Relation between soil test phosphorus and phosphorus release to solution. Soil Sci 166: 137–149Google Scholar
  109. McGonigle TP, Miller MH (1999) Winter survival and extraradical hyphae and spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the field. Appl Soil Ecol 12: 41–50Google Scholar
  110. McKenzie RH, Roberts TL (1990) Soil and fertilizer phosphorus update. In: Proceedings of the Alberta Soil Science Workshop, pp 84–104Google Scholar
  111. Mengel DB, Barber SA (1974) Rate of nutrient uptake per unit of corn root under field conditions. Agron J 66: 399–402Google Scholar
  112. Mengel K, Kirkby EA (2001) Principles of Plant Nutrition (5th edition). Kluwer, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  113. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) (2000) Fertiliser Recommendations for Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (RB209) (7th edition). HMSO, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  114. Neeteson JJ, Schröder JJ, Smit AL, Bos JFFP, Verloop J (2006) Need and Opportunities to Reduce Phosphorus Inputs, Soil Supply and Loss from Agriculture in the Netherlands. Proceedings 595, International Fertiliser Society, York, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  115. Neumann G, Römheld V (2006) The release of root exudates as affected by the plant physiological status. In: Pinto R, Varanini Z, Nannipieri P (eds), The Rhizosphere: Biochemistry and Organic Substances at the Soil Plant Interface (2nd edition). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 41–94Google Scholar
  116. Nicholson FA, Jones KC, Johnston AE (1994) Effects of phosphate fertilizer and atmospheric deposition on long-term changes in the cadmium content of soils and crops. Environ Sci Technol 28: 2170–2175Google Scholar
  117. Pierre WH, Norman AG (1953) (eds) Soil and Fertilizer Phosphorus in Crop Nutrition. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  118. Posner AM, Barrow NJ (1982) Simplification of a model for ion adsorption on oxide surfaces. J Soil Sci 33: 211–217Google Scholar
  119. Rae AL, Jarmey JM, Mudge SR, Smith FW (2004) Over-expression of a high-affinity phosphate transporter in transgenic barley plants does not enhance phosphate uptake rates. Funct Plant Biol 31: 141–148Google Scholar
  120. Raghothama KG, Karthikeyan AS (2005) Phosphate acquisition. Plant Soil 274: 37–49Google Scholar
  121. Raven JA (2008) Phosphorus and the future. In: White PJ, Hammond JP (eds), The Ecophysiology of Plant-Phosphorus Interactions. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 271–283Google Scholar
  122. Raven JA, Smith FA (1976) Nitrogen assimilation and transport in vascular land plants in relation to intracellular pH regulation. New Phytol 76: 415–431Google Scholar
  123. Reisenauer HM (1966) Mineral nutrients in soil solution. In: Altman PL, Ditmer DS (eds), Environmental Biology. Fed Am Soc Exp Biol, Bethesda, pp 507–508Google Scholar
  124. Rengel Z, Marschner P (2005) Nutrient availability and management in the rhizosphere: exploiting genotypic differences. New Phytol 168: 305–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Roelofs RFR, Rengel Z, Cawthray GR, Dixon KW, Lambers H (2001) Exudation of carboxylates in Australian Proteaceae: chemical composition. Plant Cell Environ 24: 891–904Google Scholar
  126. Rothbaum HP, McGaveston DA, Wall T, Johnston AE, Mattingly GEG (1979) Uranium accumulation in soils from long-continued applications of superphosphate. J Soil Sci 30: 147–153Google Scholar
  127. Runge-Metzger A (1995) Closing the cycle: obstacles to efficient P management for improved global security. In: Tiessen H (ed), Phosphorus in the Global Environment: Transfers, Cycles And Management. Wiley, Chichester, pp 27–42Google Scholar
  128. Russell EJ (1912) Soil Conditions and Plant Growth. Longmans Green, LondonGoogle Scholar
  129. Rutherford PJ, Dudas MJ, Samek RA (1994) Environmental impacts of phosphogypsum. Sci Total Environ 149: 1–38Google Scholar
  130. Ryan PR, Delhaize E, Jones DL (2001) Function and mechanism of organic anion exudation from plant roots. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 52: 527–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Sample EC, Soper RJ, Racz GJ (1980) Reactions of phosphate fertilizers in soils. In: Khasawneh FE, Sample EC, Kamprath EJ (eds), The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture. ASA/CSSA/SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 263–310Google Scholar
  132. Sanchez CA (2007) Phosphorus. In: Barker AV, Pilbeam DJ (eds), Handbook of Plant Nutrition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 51–90Google Scholar
  133. Sas L, Rengel Z, Tang C (2001) Excess cation uptake and extrusion of protons and organic anions by Lupinus albus under phosphorus deficiency. Plant Sci 160: 1191–1198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Schachtman DP, Reid RJ, Ayling SM (1998) Phosphorus uptake by plants: from soil to cell. Plant Physiol 116: 447–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Schofield RK (1955) Can a precise meaning be given to “available” soil phosphorus? Soil Fert 28: 373–375Google Scholar
  136. Scholten LC, Timmermans CWM (1996) Natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers. Fert Res 43: 103–107Google Scholar
  137. Schweiger PF, Robson AD, Barrow NJ (1995) Root hair length determines beneficial effect of Glomus species on shoot growth. New Phytol 231: 247–254Google Scholar
  138. Sewell PL, Ozanne PG (1970) The effect of modifying root profiles and fertilizer solubility on nutrient uptake. In: Miller TC (ed), Proceedings of the Australian Plant Nutrition Conference, Mt Gambier, CSIRO, Australia, pp 6–9Google Scholar
  139. Shane MW, McCully ME, Lambers H (2004) Tissue and cellular phosphorus storage during development of phosphorus toxicity in Hakea prostrata (Proteaceae). J Exp Bot 55: 1033–1044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Silberbush M, Barber SA (1983) Sensitivity of simulated phosphorus uptake to parameters used by a mechanistic-mathematical model. Plant Soil 74: 93–100Google Scholar
  141. Singh BR, Lal R (2005) Phosphorus management in low-input agricultural systems. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds), Phosphorus: Agriculture and the Environment, Agronomy Monograph 46, ASA/CSSA/SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 729–759Google Scholar
  142. Singh DK, Sale PWG, Routley RR (2005) Increasing phosphorus supply in subsurface soil in northern Australia: rationale for deep placement and the effects with various crops. Plant Soil 269: 35–44Google Scholar
  143. Smith SE, Read DJ (1997) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  144. Steén IE (2006) Phosphorus for Livestock: Requirements: Efficient Use and Excretion. Proceedings 594, International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  145. Stockdale EA, Watson CA, Edwards AC (2006) Phosphate Rock: Using Biological Processes to Increase Its Effectiveness as a Fertiliser. Proceedings 592, International Fertiliser Society YorkGoogle Scholar
  146. Stone DA (1998) The effect of starter fertilizer injection on the growth and yield of drilled vegetable crops in relation to soil nutrient status. J Hort Sci Biotech 73: 441–445Google Scholar
  147. Sumner ME, Farina MPW (1986) Phosphorus interactions with other nutrients and lime in field cropping systems. Adv Soil Sci 5: 201–236Google Scholar
  148. Syers JK, Johnston AE, Curtis D (2007) Efficiency of Soil and Fertilizer Phosphorus Use: Reconciling Changing Concepts of Soil Phosphorus Behaviour with Agronomic Information. FAO, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  149. Thomson CJ, Marschner H, Römheld V (1993) Effect of nitrogen fertilizer form on pH of the bulk soil and rhizosphere and on the growth phosphorus and micronutrient uptake of bean. J Plant Nutr 16: 493–506Google Scholar
  150. Vance CP (2001) Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphorus acquisition. Plant nutrition in a world of declining renewable resources. Plant Physiol 127: 390–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Vance CP, Uhde-Stone C, Allan DL (2003) Phosphorus acquisition and use: critical adaptations by plants for securing a nonrenewable resource. New Phytol 157: 423–447Google Scholar
  152. Van Kauwenbergh SJ (1997) Cadmium and Other Minor Elements in World Resources of Phosphate Rock. Proceedings 400, International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  153. von Uexküll HR, Mutert E (1995) Global extent, development and economic impact of acid soils. Plant Soil 171: 1–15Google Scholar
  154. Way JT (1850) On the power of soils to absorb manure. J Roy Agric Soc England 11: 313–379Google Scholar
  155. Werner W, Scherer HW (1995) Quantity/intensity relation and phosphorus availability in south Brasilian latersols as affected by form and placement of phosphate and farmyard manure. In: Data et al. (eds), Plant Soil Interactions at Low pH. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 129–133Google Scholar
  156. White PJ, Hammond JP (2006) Updating the estimate of the sources of phosphorus in UK waters. Final Report on Defra project WT0701CSF.Google Scholar
  157. White PJ, Hammond JP (2008) Phosphorus nutrition of terrestrial plants. In: White PJ, Hammond JP (eds), The Ecophysiology of Plant-Phosphorus Interactions. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 51–81Google Scholar
  158. White PJ, Broadley MR, Greenwood DJ, Hammond JP (2005) Genetic Modifications to Improve Phosphorus Acquisition by Roots. Proceedings 568, International Fertiliser Society, YorkGoogle Scholar
  159. Wissuwa M (2003) How do plants achieve tolerance to phosphorus deficiency? Small causes with big effects. Plant Physiol 133: 1947–1958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Wissuwa M, Ae N (2001) Genotypic variation for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency in rice and the potential for its exploitation in rice improvement. Plant Breeding 120: 43–48Google Scholar
  161. Withers PJA, Nash DM, Laboski CAM (2005) Environmental management of phosphorus fertilizers. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds), Phosphorus: Agriculture and the Environment. Agronomy Monograph 46, ASA/CSSA/SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 781–828Google Scholar
  162. Wu QT, Morel JL, Guckert A (1989) Effect of nitrogen source on cadmium uptake by plants. Compt Rend Acad Sci 309: 215–220Google Scholar
  163. Yan Y, Wu P, Ling H, Xu G, Xu F, Zhang Q (2006) Plant nutriomics in China: an overview. Ann Bot 98: 473–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Zhang K, Greenwood DJ, White PJ, Burns IG (2007) A dynamic model for the combined effects of N, P and K fertilizers on yield and mineral composition; description and experimental test. Plant Soil 298: 81–98Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernest A. Kirkby
    • 1
  • A. Edward (Johnny) Johnston
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Integrative and Comparative BiologyUniversity of LeedsUK
  2. 2.Rothamsted ResearchUK

Personalised recommendations