Advertisement

Phosphorus and aquatic plants

  • Gabrielle Thiébaut
Part of the Plant Ecophysiology book series (KLEC, volume 7)

Aquatic systems receive the bulk of their nutrient supply from stream inflow. In stream communities, and also in lakes with a stream outflow, the export of nutrients in outgoing stream water is a major factor in nutrient budgets of aquatic communities. By contrast, in lakes without an outflow, nutrient accumulation in permanent sediments is often the major export pathway. Only a small fraction of available nutrients is incorporated into the biological interactions of stream communities (Winterbourn and Townsend 1991). In streams and rivers, the majority of nutrients flow on, as particles or dissolved in the water, to be discharged into a lake or the sea. Nevertheless, some nutrients do cycle from inorganic forms in freshwater, to inorganic forms in animals or plants, to inorganic forms in water, and so on. Because of the transport downstream, the displacement of nutrients may be best represented as a spiral (Elwood et al. 1983), where rapid phases of inorganic nutrient displacement alternate with periods when the nutrients are locked in biomass (e.g. in aquatic plants). Aquatic plants may obtain nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the sediment and then release these elements into the water. These plants function as a source for nutrients, by trapping fine organic and inorganic particles, enhancing mineralization of organic matter through oxidation of the sediments, and altering the localized environment, thus enabling P release through reducing conditions and increased pH and temperature. Oxygen translocation to the roots of plants has the effect of oxidizing the immediate sediment environment, and this may limit P availability (Moore et al. 1994; Wigand et al. 1997). Aquatic plants can also have a significant impact on a system’s light environment and nutrient budget (Reckhow and Chapra 1999).

Keywords

Aquatic Plant Soluble Reactive Phosphorus Aquatic Macrophyte Water Hyacinth Freshwater Biol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abernethy VJ (1994) Functional ecology of euhydrophyte communities of European riverine wetland ecosystems. Dissertation, University of Glasgow, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  2. Agami M, Waisel Y (1986) The ecophysiology of roots of submerged vascular plants. Physiol Veg 24: 607–624Google Scholar
  3. Baldy V, Trémolières M, Andrieu M, Belliard J (2007) Changes in phosphorus content of two aquatic plants according to water velocity, trophic status and time period in hardwater streams. Hydrobiologia 575: 343–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barko JW, Smart RM (1980) Mobilization of sediment phosphorus by submerged freshwater macrophytes. Freshwater Biol 10: 229–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barko JW, Smart RM (1981) Sediment-based nutrition of submersed macrophytes. Aquat Bot 10: 339–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barko JW, James WF (1998) Effects of submerged aquatic macrophytes on nutrient dynamics, sedimentation, and resuspension. In: Sondergaard S, Sondergaard, C (eds), The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, pp 197–214Google Scholar
  7. Barko JW, Smart RM, McFarland DG, Chen RL (1988) Interrelationships between the growth of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and sediment nutrient availability. Aquat Bot 32: 205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barko JW, Gunnison D, Carpenter SR (1991) Sediment interactions with submersed macrophyte growth and community dynamics. Aquat Bot 41: 41–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Best MD, Mantai KE (1979) Growth of Myriophyllum: sediment or lake water as the source of nitrogen and phosphorus. Ecology 59: 1075–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Best EPH, Woltman H, Jacobs FHH (1996) Sediment-related growth limitation of Elodea nuttallii as indicated by a fertilization experiment. Freshwater Biol 36: 33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boeger R (1992) The influence of substratum and water velocity on growth of Ranunculus aquatilis L. (Ranunculaceae). Aquat Bot 42: 351–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bole JB, Allan JR (1978) Uptake of phosphorus from sediment by aquatic plants, Myriophyllum spicatum and Hydrilla verticillata. Water Res 12: 353–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Canfield DEJ, Hoyer MV (1988) Influence of nutrient enrichment and light availability on the abundance of aquatic macrophytes in Florida streams. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 45: 1467–1472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carbiener, R, Trémolières M, Mercier JL, Ortscheit A (1990) Aquatic macrophyte communities as bioindicators of eutrophication in calcareous oligosaprobe stream waters (Upper Rhine plain, Alsace). Vegetatio 86: 71–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carignan R, Kalff J (1980) Phosphorus source for aquatic weeds: water or sediment. Science 207: 987–988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carpenter SR, Adams SA (1977) The macrophyte tissue nutrient pool of hardwater eutrophic lake: implications for macrophyte harvesting. Aquat Bot 3: 239–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carr GM, Chambers PA, (1998) Macrophyte growth and sediment phosphorus and nitrogen in a Canadian prairie river. Freshwater Biol 39: 525–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chambers PA, Prepas EE (1994) Nutrient dynamics in riverbeds: the impact of sewage effluent and aquatic macrophytes. Water Res 28: 453–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chambers PA, Prepas EE, Bothwell ML, Hamilton HR (1989) Roots versus shoots in nutrient uptake by aquatic macrophytes in flowing waters. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46: 435–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chambers PA, Prepas EE, Gibson K (1992) Temporal and spatial dynamics in riverbed chemistry: the influence of flow and sediment composition. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49: 2128–2140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chapin FS, Van Cleve K (1989) Approaches to studying nutrient uptake, use and loss in plants. In: Pearcy RW, Mooney HA, Ehleringer JR, Rundel PW (eds), Physiological Ecology. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp 185–207Google Scholar
  22. Clarke SJ, Wharton G (2001a) Using macrophytes for the environmental assessment of rivers: the role of sediment nutrients. R&D Technical Report E1–S01/TR, 90 pGoogle Scholar
  23. Clarke SJ, Wharton G (2001b) Sediment nutrient characteristics and aquatic macrophytes in lowland English rivers. Sci Total Environ 266: 103–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Davis MA, Grime JP, Thompson K (2000) Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J Ecol 88: 528–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dawson FH (1976) The annual production of aquatic macrophyte Ranunculus penicillatus var. calcareous (R.W. Butcher) CDK Cook. Aquat Bot 2: 51–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dawson FH (1988) Water flow and the vegetation of running waters. In: Symoens JJ (ed), Vegetation of Inland Waters. Kluwer, The Netherlands, 283–308Google Scholar
  27. Dawson FH, Newman JR, Gravelle MJ, Rouen KJ, Henville P (1999) Assessment of the trophic status of rivers using macrophytes. Evaluation of the Mean Trophic Rank. R&D Technical Report E39, Environment Agency, Bristol, UK, 178 pGoogle Scholar
  28. Demars BOL, Harper DM (1998) The aquatic macrophytes of an English lowland river system: assessing response to nutrient enrichment. Hydrobiologia 384: 75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. De Marte JA, Hartman RT (1974) Studies on absorption of 32P, 59Fe and 45Ca by water-milfoil (Myriophyllum excalbescens Fernald). Ecology 55: 188–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Denny P (1972) Sites of nutrient absorption in aquatic macrophytes. J Ecol 60: 819–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Duarte C (1992) Nutrient concentration of aquatic plants: patterns across species. Limnol Oceanogr 37: 882–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elwood JW, Newbold JD, O’Neill RV, van Winckle W (1983) Resource spiralling: an operational paradigm for analyzing lotic ecosystems. In: Fontaine TD, Bartell SM (eds), Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 3–28Google Scholar
  33. Eugelink AH (1998) Phosphorus uptake and active growth of Elodea canadensis Michx. and Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John. Water Sci Technol 37: 59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Feijoo CS, Momo FR, Bonetto CA, Tur NM (1996) Factors influencing biomass and nutrient content of the submersed macrophyte Egeria densa Planch. in a pampasic stream. Hydrobiologia 341: 21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gabrielson JO, Perkins MA, Welch EB (1984) The uptake, translocation and release of phosphorus by Elodea densa. Hydrobiologia 3: 43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Garbey C, Murphy KJ, Thiébaut G, Muller S (2004a) Variation in P-content in aquatic plant tissues offers an efficient tool for determining plant growth strategies along a resource gradient. Freshwater Biol 49: 346–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garbey C, Thiébaut G, Muller S (2004b) Morphological plasticity of a spreading aquatic macrophyte, Ranunculus peltatus, in response to environmental variables. Plant Ecol 173: 125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gerloff GC, Krombholz PH (1966) Tissue analysis as a measure of nutrient availability for the growth of angiosperm aquatic plants. Limnol Oceanogr 11: 529–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Grime JP (1988) The CRS model of primary plant strategies: origins, implications, and tests. In: Gottlieb LD, Jain SK (eds), Plant Evolutionary Biology. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 371–393Google Scholar
  40. Hammer DA (1992) Designing constructed wetlands systems to treat agricultural non point source pollution. Ecol Eng 1: 49–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Harding JPC (1981) Macrophytes as monitors of river quality in the southern NWWA area, Report No. TS-BS-81–2. North West Water, Rivers Division, Scientists Dept. Technical Support GroupGoogle Scholar
  42. Haury J, Peltre M-C, Trémolières M, Barbe J, Thiébaut G, Bernez I, Daniel H, Chatenet P, Haan-Archipof G, Muller S, Dutartre A, Laplace-Treyture C, Cazaubon A, Lambert-Servien E (2006) A new method to assess water trophy and organic pollution: the Macrophyte Biological Index for Rivers (IBMR): its application to different types of river and pollution. Hydrobiologia 570: 153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Holmes NTH (1995) Macrophytes for Water and Other River Quality Assessments. National Rivers Authority, Anglian Region, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  44. Holmes NTH, Newbold C (1984) River plant communities - reflectors of water and substrate chemistry. Focus Nat. Conserv. 9: 535–539Google Scholar
  45. Holmes NTH, Newman JR, Chadd S, Rouen KJ, Saint L, Dawson FH (1999) Mean Trophic Rank: A User’s Manual. R&D Technical Report E38. Environmental Agency, Bristol, UKGoogle Scholar
  46. Howard-Williams C, Allanson BR (1981) Phosphorus cycling in a dense Potamogeton pectinatus L. bed. Oecologia 49: 56–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jarvie HP, Neal C, Williams RJ, Neal, M, Wickham HD, Hill LK, Wade AJ, Warwick A, White J (2002) Phosphorus sources, speciation and dynamics in the lowland eutrophic River Kennet, UK. Sci Total Environ 282–283: 175–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kelly MG, Whitton BA (1998) Biological monitoring of eutrophication in rivers. Hydrobiologia 384: 55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kern-Hansen U, Dawson FH (1978) The standing crop of aquatic plants of lowland streams in Denmark and the inter-relationships of nutrients in plant, sediment and water. In: Proceedings, EWRS 5th International Symposium On Aquatic Weeds, pp 143–150Google Scholar
  50. Kunii H (1984) Seasonal growth and profile structure development of Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St John in pond Ojaga-Ike, Japan. Aquat Bot 18: 239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lofgren S, Bostrom B (1989) Interstitial water concentrations of phosphorus, iron and manganese in a shallow, eutrophic Swedish lake - implications for phosphorus cycling. Water Res 23: 1115–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Madsen JD, Adams MS (1988) The nutrient dynamics of a submersed macrophyte community in a stream ecosystem dominated by Potamogeton pectinatus. J Freshwater Ecol 4: 541–550Google Scholar
  53. Madsen TV, Cedergreen N (2002) Sources of nutrients to rooted submerged macrophytes growing in a nutrient-rich stream. Freshwater Biol 46: 283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moore BC, Lafer JE, Funk WH (1994) Influence of aquatic macrophytes on phosphorus and sediment porewater chemistry in a freshwater wetland. Aquat Bot 49: 137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pelton DK, Levine SN, Braner M (1998) Measurements of phosphorus uptake by macrophytes and epiphytes from the La Platte River (VT) using 32P in streams microcosms. Freshwater Biol 39: 285–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Prairie YT, Kalff J (1988) Dissolved phosphorus dynamics in headwater streams. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 45: 200–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rattray MR (1995) The relationship between P, Fe and Mn, uptakes by submersed rooted angiosperms. Hydrobiologia 308: 107–120Google Scholar
  58. Rattray MR, Howard-Williams C, Brown JM (1991) Sediment and water as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus for submerged rooted aquatic macrophytes. Aquat Bot 40: 225–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Raven JA (1981) Nutritional strategies of submerged benthic plants: the acquisition of C, N and P by rhizophytes and haptophytes. New Phytol 88: 1–30Google Scholar
  60. Reckhow KH, Chapra SC (1999) Modelling excessive nutrient loading in the environment. Environ Pollut 100: 197–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Reddy KR, Sutton DL, Bowes, G (1983) Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida. Soil Crop Sci Soc Fla Proc 42: 28–40Google Scholar
  62. Reddy KR, Smith WH (eds) (1987) Aquatic Plants for Water Treatment and Resource Recovery. Magnolia Publishing, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  63. Reddy KR, Kadlec RH, Flaig E, Gale PM (1999) Phosphorus retention in streams and wetlands: a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 29: 83–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Robach F, Hajnsek I, Eglin I, Trémolières M (1995) Phosphorus sources for aquatic macrophytes in running waters: water or sediment? Acta Bot Gall 142: 719–731Google Scholar
  65. Rorslett B, Berge D, Johansen SW (1985) Mass invasion of Elodea canadensis in a mesotrophic, South Norwegian lake - impact on water quality. Verh Internat Verein Limnol 22: 2920–2926Google Scholar
  66. Royle RN, King RJ (1991) Aquatic macrophytes in Lake Liddle, New south Wales: biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus status, and changing distribution from 1981 to 1987. Aquat Bot 41: 281–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schachtman DP, Reid RJ, Ayling SM (1998) Phosphorus uptake by plants: from soil to cell. Plant Physiol 116: 447–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schneider S, Melzer A (2003) The Trophic Index of Macrophytes (TIM) - a new tool for indicating the trophic state of running waters. Int Rev Hydrobiol 88: 49–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sculthorpe CD (1967) The Biology of Aquatic Vascular Plants. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  70. Smart RM, Barko JW (1985) Laboratory culture of submersed freshwater macrophytes on natural sediments. Aquat Bot 21: 251–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Smith FW, Mudge SR, Rae AL, Glassop D (2003) Phosphate transport in plants. Plant Soil 248: 71–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Smith VH, Tilman GD, Nekola JC (1999) Eutrophication: impact of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. Environ Pollut 100: 179–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sooknah RD, Wilkie AC (2004) Nutrient removal by floating aquatic macrophytes cultured in anaerobically digested flushed dairy manure wastewater. Ecol Eng 22: 27–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Thiébaut G (2005) Does competition for phosphate supply explain the invasion pattern of Elodea species? Water Res 39: 3385–3393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Thiébaut G (2006) Aquatic macrophyte approach to assess the impact of disturbances on the diversity of the ecosystem and on river quality. Int Rev Hydrobiol 91: 483–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Thiébaut G, Muller S (1999) A macrophyte communities sequence as an indicator of eutrophication and acidification levels in weakly mineralised streams in north-eastern France. Hydrobiologia 410: 17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Thiébaut G, Muller S (2003) Linking phosphorus pools of water, sediment and macrophytes in running waters. Ann Limnol 39: 307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Thiébaut G, Guerold F, Muller S (2002) Are trophic and diversity indices based on macrophyte communities pertinent tools to monitor water quality? Water Res 36: 3602–3610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Thiébaut G, Garbey C, Muller S (2004) Suivi biologique par les macrophytes aquatiques de la qualité des cours d’eau de la Réserve Biosphère des Vosges du Nord (N-Est de la France). Terre et Vie 59: 123–133Google Scholar
  80. Wigand C, Stevenson JC, Cornell JC (1997) Effects of different submersed macrophytes on sediment biogeochemistry. Aquat Bot 56: 233–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Winterbourn M.J, Townsend CR (1991) Streams and rivers: one-way flow systems. In: Barnes RSK, Mann KH (eds), Fundamentals of Aquatic Ecology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 230–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabrielle Thiébaut
    • 1
  1. 1.Université Paul Verlaine - MetzFrance

Personalised recommendations