Helicobacter pylori Pathogenesis and Vaccines

  • Paolo Ruggiero

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori is a spiral-shaped, Gram-negative bacillus that chronically infects the gastric mucosa of more than 50% of the human population worldwide. H. pylori infection causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and MALT lymphoma, and constitutes a risk factor for developing gastric adenocarcinoma. The pathological outcome of H. pylori infection is determined by complex host-pathogen interactions, which have been elucidated only in part. Antibiotic-based therapies against H. pylori are generally effective, but can fail due to antibiotic resistance or poor patient compliance. Vaccination would represent a valid alternative approach to fight this pathogen; however, presently, there are not licensed anti-H. pylori vaccines. Observations made in both animals and humans have provided evidence that the natural response to H. pylori infection is of Th1 type; nevertheless, this response, although strong, is rarely able to clear the infection. On the other hand, the inflammatory response to the infection can contribute to the development of the gastric pathologies. Studies have been performed, mostly in animals, to elucidate the nature of protective immune response elicited by vaccination; in spite protection has been obtained in various animal models by both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination, mechanisms of protection still need to be clarified, and correlates of protection have to be identified.

Keywords

Urea Lymphoma Bacillus Diarrhea Smoke 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Ruggiero
    • 1
  1. 1.Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics S.r.l53100 SienaItaly

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