Advertisement

Demography of Informal Caregiving

  • Emily M. Agree
  • Karen Glaser
Part of the International Handbooks of Population book series (IHOP, volume 1)

The impact of the widespread aging of populations around the world has become of central interest to both researchers and policymakers who wish to understand the broad social implications of these demographic changes. One of the areas of greatest interest has been the potential impact of aging populations on the provision of informal care to older persons by friends and family. These concerns have focused on changes in fertility and mortality that affect the availability of family members to provide emotional, financial and instrumental support, as well as sweeping changes in women’s roles and family relationships that have transformed the responsibilities and obligations among family members (Finch 1989; Safilios-Rothschild 1989).

Keywords

Adult Child Personal Care Informal Care Family Caregiver Informal Caregiving 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamchak DJ (1989) Population aging in Sub-Saharan Africa: The effects of development on the elderly. Popul Environ 10:162–176Google Scholar
  2. Adeokun LA (1986) Aging and the status of the elderly in Nigeria. Gerontol 19:82–86Google Scholar
  3. Agree EM, Biddlecom AE, Chang MC, Perez A (2002) Transfers from older parents to children in Taiwanese and Filipino families. J Cross-Cultural Gerontol 17:269–294Google Scholar
  4. Agree EM, Biddlecom AE, Valente TW (2005) Intergenerational transfers of resources between older persons and extended kin in Taiwan and the Philippines. Popul Stud 59:181–195Google Scholar
  5. Agree EM, Bissett B, Rendall MS (2003) Simultaneous care for parents and care for children among mid-life British women and men. Popul Trends 112:29–35Google Scholar
  6. Agree EM, Freedman VA (2000) Incorporating assistive devices into community-based long-term care: An analysis of the potential for substitution and supplementation. J Aging Health 12:426–450Google Scholar
  7. Agree EM, Freedman VA (2003) A comparison of assistive technology and personal care in alleviating disability and unmet need. Gerontologist 43:335–344Google Scholar
  8. Agree EM, Freedman VA, Cornman JC, Wolf DA, Marcotte JE (2005) Reconsidering substitution in long-term care: When does assistive technology take the place of personal care? J Gerontol: Soc Sci 60:S272–S280Google Scholar
  9. Agree EM, Freedman VA, Sengupta M (2004) Factors influencing the use of mobility technology in community-based long-term care. J Aging Health 16:267–307Google Scholar
  10. Albertini M, Kohli M, Vogel C (2007) Transfers of time and money among elderly Europeans and their children: Common patterns – different regimes? J Eur Soc Policy 17:319–334Google Scholar
  11. Allen I, Perkins E (1995) The future of family care for older people. London: HMSOGoogle Scholar
  12. Allen SM, Foster A, Berg K (2001) Receiving help at home: The interplay of human and technological assistance. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 56:S374–S382Google Scholar
  13. Almond S, Bebbington AC, Judge K, Mangalore R, O’Donnell O (1998) Poverty, disability and the use of long term care services. Canterbury: University of KentGoogle Scholar
  14. Andrews GR, Hennink MM (1992) The circumstances and contributions of older persons in three Asian countries: Preliminary results of a cross-national study. Asia-Pacific Popul J 7:127–146Google Scholar
  15. Aquilino WS (1994) Impact of childhood family disruption on young adults’ relationships with parents. J Marriage Fam 56:295–313Google Scholar
  16. Arber S, Ginn J (1991) Gender and later life: A sociological analysis of resources and constraints. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Arber S, Ginn J (1995) Gender differences in informal caring. Health Soc Care Commun 3:19–31Google Scholar
  18. Armitage B, Babb P (1996) Population review: (4) Trends in fertility. Popul Trends 84:7–13Google Scholar
  19. Arno PS, Levine C, Memmott MM (1999) The economic value of informal caregiving. Health Aff 18:182–188Google Scholar
  20. Askham J, Ferring D, Lamura G (2007) Personal relationships in later life. In: Bond J, Peace S, Dittmann-Kohli, Westerhof GJ (eds) Ageing in society. Sage Publications, London, pp 186–208Google Scholar
  21. Barber JS (2001) The intergenerational transmission of age at first birth among married and unmarried men and women. Soc Sci Res 30:219–247Google Scholar
  22. Bengtson VL, Rosenthal CJ, Burton LM (1990) Paradoxes of families and aging. In: Binstock RH, George LK (eds) Handbook of aging and the social sciences, 3rd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp 263–287Google Scholar
  23. Bhakta B (2003) Below replacement fertility in East and Southeast Asia: Consequences and policy responses. J Popul Res 20:1–18Google Scholar
  24. Biddlecom AE, Ofstedal MB, Chayovan N (2003) Intergenerational support and transfers. In AI Hermalin (ed) The well-being of the elderly in Asia: A four-country comparative study. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  25. Brody EM (1981) “Women in the middle” and family help to older people. Gerontologist 21:471–480Google Scholar
  26. Brody EM (1985) Parent care as normative stress. Gerontologist 25:19–29Google Scholar
  27. Broese van Groenou MI, Glaser K, Tomassini C, Jacobs T (2006) Socio-economic status differences in the use of informal and formal help: A comparison of four European countries. Ageing Soc 26:745–766Google Scholar
  28. Broese van Groenou MI, van Tilburg T (2003) Network size and support in old age: Differentials by socio-economic status in childhood and adulthood. Ageing Soc 23:625–645Google Scholar
  29. Brookmeyer R, Gray S, Kawas C (1998) Projections of alzheimer’s disease in the United States and the public health impact of delaying disease onset. Am J Public Health 88:1337–1342Google Scholar
  30. Bulcroft KA, Bulcroft RA (1991) The timing of divorce, effects on parent-child relationships in later life. Res Aging 13:226–243Google Scholar
  31. Burton LM, Bengtson VL (1985) Black grandmothers: Issues of timing and continuity of roles. In: Bengtson VL, Robertson JF (eds) Grandparenthood. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, pp 61–77Google Scholar
  32. Cafferata GL (1987) Marital status, living arrangements, and the use of health services by elderly persons. J Gerontol 42:613–618Google Scholar
  33. Cagney KA, Agree EM (1999) Racial differences in skilled nursing care and home health care use: The mediating effects of family structure and social class. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 54B:S223–S236Google Scholar
  34. Cagney KA, Agree EM (2005) Racial differences in formal long-term care: Does the timing of parenthood play a role? J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 60B:S137–S145Google Scholar
  35. Campbell LD, Martin-Matthews A (2000) Caring sons: Exploring men’s involvement in filial care. Can J Aging 19:57–79Google Scholar
  36. Campbell LD, Martin-Matthews A (2003) The gendered nature of men’s filial care. J Gerontol B-Psychol Sci Soc Sci 58: S350–S358Google Scholar
  37. Center on an Aging Society (2005) A decade of informal caregiving: Are today’s informal caregivers different than informal caregivers a decade ago? Data profile Number 1. Georgetown University, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  38. Chang CF, White-Means SI (1991) The men who care: An analysis of male primary caregivers who care for frail elderly at home. J Appl Gerontol 10:343–358Google Scholar
  39. Chappell NL (1991) Living arrangements and sources of care giving. J Gerontol 46:S1–S8Google Scholar
  40. Cherlin A (1981, 1992) Marriage, divorce and remarriage. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  41. Cherlin A (2004) The deinstitutionalization of American marriage. J Marriage Fam 66:848–861Google Scholar
  42. Cicirelli VG (1995) Sibling relationships across the life span. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Coleman D (2000) Population and family. In: Twentieth-century British social trends, Macmillan Press, London, pp 27–93Google Scholar
  44. Connidis IA (1994) Sibling support in older age. J Gerontol: Soc Sci 49:S309–S317Google Scholar
  45. Cooney TM, Uhlenberg P (1990) The role of divorce in men’s relations with their adult children after mid-life. J Marriage Fam 52:677–688Google Scholar
  46. Cornman JC, Freedman VA, Agree EM (2005) Measurement of assistive device use: Implications for estimates of device use and disability in late life. Gerontologist 45:347–358Google Scholar
  47. Crimmins EM, Ingegneri DG (1990) Interaction and living arrangements of older parents and their children. Res Aging 12:3–35Google Scholar
  48. Cutler DM, Landrum MB, Stewart K (2006) Intensive medical care and cardiovascular disease disability reductions. NBER Working Paper Series No. 12184. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  49. Cutler DM, McClellan M (2001) Is technological change in medicine worth it? Health Affairs, (September/October):11–29Google Scholar
  50. Cwikela J, Gramotnevc H, Lee C (2006) Never-married childless women in Australia: Health and social circumstances in older age. Soc Sci Med 62:1991–2001Google Scholar
  51. Daatland SO (1990) What are families for? On family solidarity and preference for help. Ageing Soc 10:1–15Google Scholar
  52. Dautzenberg MGH, Diederiks JPM, Philipsen H, Stevens FCJ (1998) Women of a middle generation and parent care. Int J Aging Human Dev 47:241–262Google Scholar
  53. DaVanzo J, Goldscheider FK (1990) Coming home again: Returns to the parental home of young adults. Popul Stud 44:241–255Google Scholar
  54. de Klerk M, Huijsman R (1996) Effects of technical aids on the utilization of professional care. A study among single 75-year olds. Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr 27:105–114Google Scholar
  55. De Vos S, Solís P, Montes de Oca V (2004) Receipt of assistance and extended family residence among elderly men in Mexico. Int J Aging Human Dev 58:1–27Google Scholar
  56. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division United Nations (2005) Living arrangements of older persons around the world. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Dooghe G (1992) Informal caregivers of elderly people: An European review. Ageing Soc 12:369–380Google Scholar
  58. Doty P (1986) Family care of the elderly: The role of public policy. Millbank Q 64:34–75Google Scholar
  59. Dunnell K (2007) The changing demographic picture of the UK National Statistician’s annual article on the population. Popul Trends 130:9–21Google Scholar
  60. Edelman P, Hughes S (1990) The impact of community care on provision of informal care to homebound elderly persons. J Gerontol 45:S74–S84Google Scholar
  61. Eggebeen DJ (1992) Family structure and intergenerational exchanges. Res Aging 14:427–447Google Scholar
  62. Eggebeen DJ, Uhlenberg P (1985) Changes in the organization of men’s lives: 1960–1980. Fam Relations 34:251–257Google Scholar
  63. Ermisch J, Francesconi M, Berthoud R, Gershuny J (2000) Patterns of household and family formation. In: Seven years in the lives of British families: Evidence on the dynamics of social change from the British Household Panel Survey, The Policy Press, Bristol, pp 21–44Google Scholar
  64. Evandrou M, Glaser K (2002) Changing economic and social roles: The experience of four cohorts of mid-life individuals in Britain, 1985–2000. Popul Trends 110:19–30Google Scholar
  65. Evandrou M, Glaser K, Henz U (2002) Multiple role occupancy in midlife: Balancing work and family life in Britain. Gerontologist 42:781–789Google Scholar
  66. Finch J (1989) Kinship and friendship. In: Jowell R, Witherspoon S, Brook L (eds) British social attitudes. Special international report, Gower Publishing Company, Aldershot, pp 87–103Google Scholar
  67. Finch J (1995) Responsibilities, obligations and commitments. In: Allen I, Perkins E (eds), The future of family care for older people, HMSO, London, pp 51–64Google Scholar
  68. Frederick JA, Fast JE (1999) Le profil des personnes qui prodiguent des doins sux sînés Profile of persons who deliver care to the elderly. In: Tendances sociales Canadiennes (Catalog No. 11-008), Statistique Canada, Ottawa, Canada, pp 29–33Google Scholar
  69. Freedman VA (1996) Family structure and the risk of nursing home admission. Gerontol: Soc Sci 51B:S61–S69Google Scholar
  70. Freedman VA, Agree EM, Cornman JC (2006) Evaluation of new measures of assistive technology and the home environment from the 2005 pilot study of technology and aging. Report to the department of health and human service’s office of the assistant secretary for planning and evaluationGoogle Scholar
  71. Freedman VA, Agree EM, Martin LG, Cornman JC (2006) Trends in the use of assistive technology and personal care for late-life disability, 1992–2001. Gerontologist 46:124–127Google Scholar
  72. Freedman VA, Aykan H, Martin LG (2001) Aggregate changes in severe cognitive impairment among older Americans: 1993 and 1998. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 56: S100–S111Google Scholar
  73. Freedman VA, Aykan H, Martin LG (2002) Another look at aggregate changes in severe cognitive impairment: Further investigation into the cumulative effects of three survey design issues. J Gerontol B. Psychol Sci Soc Sci 57: S126–S131Google Scholar
  74. Freedman VA, Aykan H, Wolf DA, Marcotte JE (2004) Disability and home care dynamics among older unmarried Americans. J Gerontol: Soc Sci 59:S25–S33Google Scholar
  75. Freedman VA, Martin LG, Schoeni RF (2002) Recent trends in disability and functioning among older adults in the United States: A systematic review. J Am Med Assoc 288:3137–3146Google Scholar
  76. Freedman VA, Schoeni RF, Martin LG, Cornman JC (2007) Chronic conditions and the decline in late-life disability. Demography 44:459–477Google Scholar
  77. Furstenberg FF, Hoffman SD, Shrestha L (1995) The effect of divorce on intergenerational transfers: New evidence. Demography 32:319–333Google Scholar
  78. Garstang SV, Stitik TP (2006) Osteoarthritis: Epidemiology, risk factors, and pathophysiology. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 85: S2–S11Google Scholar
  79. Gitlin LN (1995) Why older people accept or reject assistive technology. Generations 19:41–47Google Scholar
  80. Gitlin LN, Schemm RL, Landsberg L, Burgh D (1996) Factors predicting assistive device use in the home by older people following rehabilitation. J Aging Heatlh 8:554–575Google Scholar
  81. Glaser K, Evandrou M, Tomassini C (2005) The health consequences of multiple roles at older ages in the UK. Health Soc Care Commun 13:470–477Google Scholar
  82. Glaser K, Evandrou M, Tomassini C (2006) Multiple role occupancy and social participation among midlife wives and husbands in the United Kingdom. Int J Aging Hum Dev 63:27–47Google Scholar
  83. Glaser K, Hancock R, Stuchbury R (1998) Attitudes in an ageing society (Research sponsored by Age Concern England for the Millennium Debate of the Age). Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, LondonGoogle Scholar
  84. Glaser K, Stuchbury R, Tomassini C, Askham J (2008) The long-term consequences of partnership disruption for support in later life in the UK. Ageing Soc 28:329–351Google Scholar
  85. Glaser K, Tomassini C (2000) Proximity of older women to their children: A comparison of Britain and Italy. The Gerontologist 40:729–737Google Scholar
  86. Gold D (1996) Continuities and discontinuities in sibling relationships across the life span. In: Bengtson VL, Neugarten B (eds) Adulthood and aging: Research on continuities and discontinuities, Springer Publishing Company, New York, pp 228–245Google Scholar
  87. Grundy E (1999) Intergenerational perspectives on family and household change in mid- and later life in England and Wales. In: McRae S (ed) Changing Britain. Families and households in the 1990s, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 201–228Google Scholar
  88. Grundy E, Jitlal M (2007) Socio-demographic variations in moves to institutional care 1991–2001: A record linkage study from England and Wales. Age Ageing 36:1–7Google Scholar
  89. Grundy E, Shelton N (2001) Contact between adult children and their parents in Great Britain 1986–1999. Environ Plan A 33:685–697Google Scholar
  90. Hank K (2007) Proximity and contacts between older parents and their children: A European comparison. J Marriage Fam 69:157–173Google Scholar
  91. Hartke RJ, Prohaska TR, Furner SE (1998) Older adults and assistive devices: Use, multiple-device use, and need. J Aging Health 10:99–116Google Scholar
  92. Hatch LR (1991) Informal support patterns of older African-American and White women: Examining effects of family, paid work and religious participation. Res Aging 13:144–170Google Scholar
  93. Henz U (2004) The effects of informal care on paid work participation in Great Britain: A lifecourse perspective. Ageing Soc 24:851–880Google Scholar
  94. Henz U (2006) Informal caregiving at working age: effects of job characteristics and family configuration. J Marriage Fam 68:411–429Google Scholar
  95. Hermalin AI, Ofstedal MB, Chang MC (1992) Types of support for the aged and their providers in Taiwan. In: Hareven TK (ed) Aging and generational relations: Life-course and cross-cultural perspectives, Aldine DeGruyter, New York, pp 179–215Google Scholar
  96. Himes CL (1994) Parental caregiving by adult women: A demographic perspective. Res Aging 16:191–211Google Scholar
  97. Hirst M (2001) Trends in informal care in Great Britain during the 1990s. Health Soc Care Community 9:348–357Google Scholar
  98. Hoenig H, Taylor DH, Sloan FA (2003) Does assistive technology substitute for personal assistance among the disabled elderly? Am J Public Health 93:330–337Google Scholar
  99. Houde SC (1998) Predictors of elders’ and family caregivers’ use of formal home services. Res Nurs Health 21:533–543Google Scholar
  100. Hussein S, Manthorpe J (2005) An international review of the long-term care workforce: Policies and shortages. J Aging Soc Policy 17:75–94Google Scholar
  101. Jacobozone S, Cambois E, Chaplain E, Robine JM (1998) The health of older persons in OECD countries: Is it improving fast enough to compensate for population ageing? OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  102. Jarvis C, Stuchbury R, Hancock R (1998) Millennium debate of the age: The ONS Omnibus SurveyGoogle Scholar
  103. Jette AM, Tennstedt SL, Branch LG (1992) Stability of informal long-term care. J Aging Health 4:193–211Google Scholar
  104. Kalmijn M (2007) Gender differences in the effects of divorce, widowhood, and remarriage on intergenerational support: Does marriage protect fathers? Soc Forces 85:1079–1104Google Scholar
  105. Kasper JD, Shore A, Penninx a. BW (2000) Caregiving arrangements of older disabled women, caregiving preferences, and views on adequacy of care. Aging (Milano), 12:141–153Google Scholar
  106. Kelly S, Baker K (2000) Healthy life expectancy in Great Britian, 1980–1996, and its use as an indicator in United Kingdom Government Statistics. Health Stat Q 7:32–37Google Scholar
  107. Kelman HR, Thomas C, Tanaka JS (1994) Longitudinal patterns of formal and informal social support in an urban elderly population. Soc Sci Med 38:905–914Google Scholar
  108. Kemper P (1992) The use of formal and informal home care by the disabled elderly. Health Serv Res 27:421–451Google Scholar
  109. Kinsella K, Velkoff VA (2001) An aging world: 2001. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  110. Klinger L, Spaulding SJ (2001) Occupational therapy treatment of chronic pain and use of assistive devices in older adults. Top Geriatr Rehabil 16:34–44Google Scholar
  111. Knapp M, Prince M, Albanese E, Banerjee S, Dhanasiri S, Fernandez JL, et al. (2007) Dementia, Alzheimer’s Society, UK. LondonGoogle Scholar
  112. Knodel J (2006) Parents of persons with AIDS: Unrecognized contributions and unmet needs. Global Ageing: Issues Action (August):46–55Google Scholar
  113. Knodel J, Chayovan N (1997) Family support and living arrangements of Thai elderly. Asia-Pacific Popul J 12:51–68Google Scholar
  114. Knodel J, Chayovan N, Siriboon S (1992) The impact of fertility decline on familial support for the elderly: An illustration from Thailand. Popul Dev Rev 18:79–103Google Scholar
  115. Knodel J, Ofstedal MB (2003) Gender and aging in the developing world: Where are the men? Popul Dev Rev 29:677–698Google Scholar
  116. Konetzka RT, Stearns SC, Konrand TR, Magaziner J, Zimmerman S (2005) Personal care aide turnover in residential care settings: An assessment of ownership, economic, and environmental factors. J Appl Geront 24:87–107Google Scholar
  117. Koropeckyj-Cox T, Vaughn RAC (2007) Characteristics of older childless persons and parents: Cross-national comparisons. J Family Issues 28:1362–1414Google Scholar
  118. Kramarow EA, Liblitz J, Lentzner H (2007) Trends in the health of older Americans 1970–2005. Health Aff 25:1417–1425Google Scholar
  119. Kunst AE, Bos V, Lahelma E, Bartley M, Lissau I, Regidor E, et al. (2005) Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in self-assessed health in 10 European countries. Int J Epidemiol 34: 295–305Google Scholar
  120. La Plante MP, Hendershot GE, Moss AJ (1992) Assistive technology devices and home accessibility features: Prevalence, payment, need, and trends. Advance data from vital and health statistics, no 217, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  121. Larsson K, Silverstein M (2004) The effects of marital and parental status on informal support and service utlization: A study of older Swedes living alone. J Aging Stud 18:231–244Google Scholar
  122. Lee GR, Dwyer JW, Coward RJ (1990) Residential location and proximity to children among impaired older parents. Rural Sociol 55:579–589Google Scholar
  123. Liesbeth S, Liefbroer AC (2008) Intergenerational transmission of age at first birth in the Netherlands for birth cohorts born between 1935 and 1984: Evidence from municipal registers. Popul Stud 62:69–84Google Scholar
  124. Lilja M, Bergh A, Johansson L, Nygard L (2003) Attitudes towards rehabilitation needs and support from assistive technology and the social environment among elderly people with disability. Occup Ther Int 10:75–93Google Scholar
  125. Lin G, Rogerson PA (1995) Elderly parents and the geographic availability of their adult children. Res Aging 17:303–331Google Scholar
  126. Litwak E, Kulis S (1987) Technology, proximity, and measures of kin support. J Marriage Fam 49:649–661Google Scholar
  127. Liu K, Manton KG, Aragon C (2000) Changes in home care use by disabled elderly persons: 1982–1994. J Gerontol. B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 55:S245–S253Google Scholar
  128. Lowenstein A, Daatland, SO (2006) Filial norms and family support in a comparative cross-national context: Evidence from the OASIS study. Ageing Soc 26:203–223Google Scholar
  129. Lye DN, Klepinger DH, Hyle PD, Nelson A (1995) Childhood living arrangements and adult children’s relations with their parents. Demography 32:261–280Google Scholar
  130. MacDonald A, Cooper B (2007) Long-term care and dementia services: An impending crisis. Age Ageing 36:16–22Google Scholar
  131. Macunovich DJ, Easterlin RA, Schaeffer CM, Crimmins EM (1995) Echoes of the baby boom and bust: Recent and prospective changes in living alone among elderly widows in the United States. Demography 32:17–28Google Scholar
  132. Mann WC, Goodall S, Justiss MD, Tomita M (2002) Dissatisfaction and nonuse of assistive devices among frail elders. Assistive Technol 14:130–139Google Scholar
  133. Mann WC, Krauza J, Hurren D, Tomita M (1992) Assistive devices for home-based elderly and persons with cognitive impairments. Top Geriatr Rehabil 8:35–52Google Scholar
  134. Mann WC, Ottenbacher KJ, Fraas L, Tomita M, Granger CV (1999) Effectiveness of assistive technology and environmental interventions in maintaining independence and reducing home care costs for the frail elderly. Arch Fam Med 8:210–217Google Scholar
  135. Manton KG, Corder L, Stallard E (1993) Changes in the use of personal assistance and special equipment from 1982 to 1989: Results from the 1982 and 1989 NLTCS. Gerontologist 33:168–176Google Scholar
  136. Manton KG, Gu X, Lamb VL (2006) Change in chronic disability from 1982 to 2004–2005 as measured by long-term changes in function and health in the U.S. elderly population. PNAS 103:18374–18379Google Scholar
  137. Manton KG, Gu X, Ukraintseva SV (2005) Declining prevalence of dementia in the U.S. elderly population. Adv Gerontol Res 16:30–37Google Scholar
  138. Mason K (1992) Family change and support of the elderly in Asia: What do we know? Asia-Pacific Popul J 7:13–32Google Scholar
  139. Matthews SH, Rosner T (1988) Shared filial responsibility: The family as the primary caregiver. J Marriage Fam 50:185–195Google Scholar
  140. Matthews SH, Heidorn J (1998) Meeting filial responsibilities in brothers-only sibling groups. J Gerontol: Soc Sci 53B: S278–S286Google Scholar
  141. McAuley WJ, Blieszner R (1985) Selection of long-term care arrangements by older community residents. Gerontologist 25:188–193Google Scholar
  142. Merli MG, Palloni A (2006) The HIV/AIDS epidemic, kin relations, living arrangements and the African elderly in South Africa. In: Cohen B, Menken J (eds) Aging in sub-saharan africa: Recommendations for furthering research, National Academies Press, Washington, DC, pp 117–165Google Scholar
  143. Miller B (1991) Elderly married couples, gender, and caregiver strain. Adv Med Sociol 2:245–266Google Scholar
  144. Miller B, McFall S (1991) Stability and change in the informal task support network of frail older persons. Gerontologist 31:735–745Google Scholar
  145. Miller B, McFall S, Campbell R (1994) Changes in sources of community long-term care among African American and white frail older persons. J Gerontol 49:S14–S24Google Scholar
  146. Miner S, Uhlenberg P (2004) Intragenerational proximity and the social role of sibling neighbours after midlife. Fam Relations 46:145–153Google Scholar
  147. Moen P, Robison J, Fields V (1994) Womens work and caregiving roles – A life-course approach. J Gerontol 49: S176–S186Google Scholar
  148. Motel-Klingebiel A (2003) Intergenerational support for the elderly and the welfare state - a comparative perspective on families and social policies. Paper presented at the Network for European Social Policy Analysis (ESPAnet) conference: Changing European Societies – The Role for Social Policy, 13–15 November, Copenhagen, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  149. Murphy M, Grundy E (2003) Mothers with living children and children with living mothers: The role of fertility and mortality in the period 1911–2050. Popul Trends 112:36–44Google Scholar
  150. Mutchler JE (1992) Living arrangements and household transitions among the unmarried in later life. Soc Sci Q 73:565–580Google Scholar
  151. Nihtilä E, Martikainen P (2008) Why older people living with a spouse are less likely to be institutionalized: The role of socioeconomic factors and health characteristics. Scand J Public Health 36:35–43Google Scholar
  152. Nochajski S, Tomita M, Mann WC (1996) Use and satisfaction with assistive devices by older persons with cognitive impairments: a pilot intervention study. Top Geriatr Rehabil 12:40–53Google Scholar
  153. Noelker LS, Bass, DM (1989) Home care for elderly persons: Linkages between formal and informal caregivers. J Gerontol 44:S63–S70Google Scholar
  154. OECD (2005) Long-term care for older people. Paris: OECD PublishingGoogle Scholar
  155. OECD (2007) Trends in severe disability among ederly people: Assessing the evidence in 12 OECD countries and the future implications prepared by Gaétan Lafortune, Gaëlle Balestat, and the Disability Study Expert Group Members. Paris: OECD Health Working Paper #26, OECD (DELSA/HEA/WD/HWP/2007)Google Scholar
  156. Olshansky SJ, Passaro D, Hershow R (2005) A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. New Eng J Med 352:1138–1145Google Scholar
  157. Palloni A (2001) Living arrangements of older persons. In United Nations (ed) Living arrangements of older persons: Critical issues and policy responses. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, Special Issue Nos. 42/43, United Nations, New York, pp 54–110Google Scholar
  158. Palloni A, DeVos S, Pelaez M (2002) Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (CDE Working Paper No. 99-02). University of Wisconsin, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  159. Peek CW, Zsembik BA, Coward RT (1997) The changing caregiving networks of older adults. Res Aging 19:333–361Google Scholar
  160. Pezzin LE, Schone BS (1999) Parental marital disruption and intergenerational transfers: An analysis of lone elderly parents and their children. Demography 36:287–297Google Scholar
  161. Pickard L, Wittenberg R, Comas-Herrera A, Davies B, Darton R (2000) Relying on informal care in the new century? Informal care for elderly people in England to 2031. Ageing Soc 20:745–772Google Scholar
  162. Preston SH (2005) Deadweight? The influence of obesity on longevity. New Engl J Med 352:1135–1137Google Scholar
  163. Redfoot DL, Pandya SM (2002) Before the boom: Trends in long-term supportive services for older Americans with disabilities. Washington, D.C.: The AARP Public Policy InstituteGoogle Scholar
  164. Reynolds SL, Saito Y, Crimmins EM (2005) The impact of obesity on active life expectancy in older American men and women. Gerontologist 45:438–444Google Scholar
  165. Roan CL, Raley RK (1996) Intergenerational coresidence and contact: A longitudinal analysis of adult children’s response to their mother’s widowhood. J Marriage Fam 58:708–717Google Scholar
  166. Robine JM, Romieu I, Cambois E (1999) Health expectancy indicators. Bull World Health Org 77:181–185Google Scholar
  167. Robison J, Moen P, Dempster-McClain D (1995) Women’s caregiving: Changing profiles and pathways. J Gerontol: Soc Sci 50B, S362–S373Google Scholar
  168. Rogerson PA, Weng RH, Lin G (1993) The spatial separation of parents and their adult children. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 83:656–671Google Scholar
  169. Rosenthal CJ (2000) Aging families: Have current changes and challenges been “oversold”? In: Gee EM, Gutman GM (eds) The overselling of population aging: Apocalyptic demography, intergenerational challenges, and social policy. Oxford University Press, Toronto, pp 45–63Google Scholar
  170. Rosenthal CJ, Martin-Matthews A, Matthews SH (1996) Caught in the middle? Occupancy in multiple roles and help to parents in a national probability sample of Canadian adults. J Gerontol: Soc Sci 51B:S274–S283Google Scholar
  171. Rosenthal CJ, Matthews SH, Marshall VW (1989) Is parent care normative? The experiences of a sample of middle-aged women. Res Aging 11:244–260Google Scholar
  172. Russell JN, Hendershot GE, LeClere F, Howie J, Adler M (1997) Trends and differential use of assistive technology devices: United States, 1994. In: Advance data from vital and health statistics, vol. 292. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  173. Russell R (2007) The work of elderly men caregivers: From public careers to an unseen world. Men Masculinities 9:298–314Google Scholar
  174. Saad PM (2003) Transferencias informales de apoyo de los adultos mayores en América Latina y el Caribe: Estudio comparativo de encuestas SABE. Notas de Población, CELADE, Chile 30:175–218Google Scholar
  175. Safilios-Rothschild C (1989) Theoretical aspects of the family systems of the less and more industrialised countries : Are all family systems converging? Paper presented at the International Population Conference/Congress International de la Population, New Delhi International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Liege, Belgium, pp 119–127Google Scholar
  176. Schoeni RF, Freedman VA, Martin LG (2008) Why is late-life disability declining? Milbank Q 86:47–89Google Scholar
  177. Schoeni RF, Freedman VA , Wallace RB (2001) Persistent, consistent, widespread, and robust? Another look at recent trends in old-age disability. J Gerontol: Soc Sci 56B:S206–S218Google Scholar
  178. Seltzer MM, Li LW (2000) The dynamics of caregiving: transitions during a three-year prospective study. Gerontologist 40:165–178Google Scholar
  179. Shanas E (1979) Social myth as hypothesis: The case of the family relations of old people. Gerontologist 19:3–9Google Scholar
  180. Shapiro A (2003) Later-life divorce and parent-adult child contact and proximity. J Family Issues 24;264–285Google Scholar
  181. Shea D, Davey A, Femia EE, Zarit S, Sundström G, Berg S, et al. (2003) Exploring assistance in Sweden and the United States. Gerontologist 43:712–721Google Scholar
  182. Shelton N, Grundy E (2000) Proximity of adult children to their parents in Great Britain. Int J Popul Geogr 6:181–195Google Scholar
  183. Shrestha LB (2000) Population ageing in developing countries. Health Aff 12:204–212Google Scholar
  184. Silverstein M (1995) Stability and change in temporal distance between the elderly and their children. Demography 32:29–45Google Scholar
  185. Sobotka T (2004) Is lowest-low fertility in Europe explained by the postponement of childbearing? Popul Dev Rev 30:195–220Google Scholar
  186. Sobotka T, Testa MR (Forthcoming) Childlessness attitudes and intentions in Europe. In: Höhn C, Avramov D, Kotowska I (eds) People, population change and policies: Lessons from the population policy acceptance study, vol. 16/1, European Studies of PopulationGoogle Scholar
  187. Soldo BJ (1996) Cross pressures on middle-aged adults: A broader view. J Gerontol: Soc Sci 51B, S271–S273Google Scholar
  188. Soldo BJ, Hill MS (1995) Family structure and transfer measures in the health and retirement study – Background and overview. J Hum Res 30:S108–S137Google Scholar
  189. Soldo BJ, Wolf DA, Agree EM (1990) Family, households, and care arrangements of frail older women: A structural analysis. J Gerontol: Soc Sci 45:S238–S249Google Scholar
  190. Spiess CK, Schneider U (2003) Interactions between caregiving and paid work hours among European midlife women, 1994 to 1996. Ageing Soc 23:41–68Google Scholar
  191. Spillman BC (2004) Changes in elderly disability rates and the implications for health care utilization and cost. Milbank Q 82:157–194Google Scholar
  192. Spillman BC, Black KJ (2005) Staying the course: Trends in family caregiving, AARP Policy Paper #2005-17. AARP, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  193. Spillman BC, Pezzin LE (2000) Potential and active family caregivers: Changing networks and the “sandwich generation” Milbank Q 78:347–374Google Scholar
  194. Spitze G, Logan J (1990) More evidence on women (and men) in the middle. Res Aging 12:182–198Google Scholar
  195. Stevenson B, Wolfers J (2007) Marriage and divorce: Changes and their driving forces. J Econ Perspect 21:27–52Google Scholar
  196. Stoller EP (1990) Males as helpers: The role of sons, relatives and friends. Gerontologist 30:228–235Google Scholar
  197. Stoller EP, Cutler SJ (1993) Predictors of use of paid help among older people living in the community. Gerontologist 33:31–40Google Scholar
  198. Stone R (2001) Long term care workforce shortages: impact on families (Policy Brief No. 3 Who will provide care: emerging issues for state policymakers). Washington D.C.: Family Caregiver AllianceGoogle Scholar
  199. Stone R, Cafferata GL, Sangl J (1987) Caregivers of the frail elderly: A national profile. Gerontologist 27:616–626Google Scholar
  200. Sundström G (1994) Care by families: An overview of trends. In OECD (ed) Caring for frail elderly people. New directions in care (Vol. 14, pp 15–55). Paris: OECD Social Policy StudiesGoogle Scholar
  201. Sundström G, Johansson L, Hassing LB (2002) The shifting balance of long-term care in Sweden. Gerontologist 42:350–355Google Scholar
  202. Taylor DH, Hoenig H (2004) The effect of equipment usage and residual task difficulty on use of personal assistance, days in bed, and nursing home placement. J Am Geriatric Soc 52:72–79Google Scholar
  203. Tennstedt SL, Chang BH (1998) The relative contribution of ethnicity versus socioeconomic status in explaining differences in disability and receipt of informal care. J Gerontolol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 53:S61–S70Google Scholar
  204. Tennstedt SL, Crawford SL, McKinlay JB (1993) Is family care on the decline ? A longitudinal investigation of the substitution of formal long-term care services for informal care. Milbank Q 71:601–624Google Scholar
  205. Testa MR, Grilli L (2006) The influence of childbearing regional contexts on ideal family size in Europe. Population, 61:107–138Google Scholar
  206. Thornton A, Young-DeMarco L (2001) Four decades of trends in attitudes toward family issues in the United States. J Marriage Fam 63:1009–1037Google Scholar
  207. Tomassini C, Glaser K, Wolf DA, Broese van Groenou MI, Grundy E (2004) Living arrangements among older people: An overview of trends in Europe and the USA. Popul Trends 115:24–34Google Scholar
  208. Tomassini C, Wolf DA (2000a) Shrinking kin networks in Italy due to sustained low fertility. Eur J Popul Stud 16:353–372Google Scholar
  209. Tomassini C, Wolf DA (2000b) Stability and change in the living arrangements of older Italian women: 1990–1995. Genus, LVI:203–219Google Scholar
  210. Tomita MR, Mann WC, Fraus LF, Stanton KM (2004) Predictors of the use of assistive devices that address physical impairments among community-based elders. J Appl Gerontol 23:141–155Google Scholar
  211. U.S. Bureau of the Census (1975) Historical statistics of the U. S. Colonial times to 1970 (Part 1). Washington DC: U. S. Government Printing OfficeGoogle Scholar
  212. van der Geest S, Mul A, Vermeulen H (2004) Linkages between migration and the care of frail older people: Observations from Greece, Ghana and The Netherlands. Ageing Soc 24:431–450Google Scholar
  213. van der Heide A, Jacobs JW, van Albada-Kuipers GA, Kraaimaat FW, Geenen R, Bijlsma JW (1993) Self report functional disability scores and the use of devices: Two distinct aspects of physical function in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 52:497–502Google Scholar
  214. Velkoff VA, Kowal PR (2007) Population ageing in Sub-Saha-ran Africa: Demographic dimensions 2006. Washington, DC: Current Population Reports, P95/07-1. U.S. Census BureauGoogle Scholar
  215. Verbrugge LM, Rennert C, Madans J (1997) The great efficacy of personal and equipment assistance in reducing disability. Am J Public Health 87:384–392Google Scholar
  216. Verbrugge LM, Sevak P (2002) Use, type, and efficacy of assistance for disability. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 57: S366–S379Google Scholar
  217. Wachter KW (1997) Kinship resources for the elderly. Philos Trans R Soc Lond: B Biol Sci 352:1811–1817Google Scholar
  218. Waidmann TA, Manton KG (1998) International evidence on disability trends among the elderly. The Urban Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  219. Walker A, Maltby T (1997) Ageing Europe. Buckingham: Open University PressGoogle Scholar
  220. Werner B (1988) Fertility trends in the UK and in thirteen other developed countries, 1966–1986. Popul Trends 51:18–24Google Scholar
  221. White L (1994) Coresidence and leaving home: Young adults and their parents. Ann Rev Sociol 20:81–102Google Scholar
  222. Wolf DA (1994) The elderly and their kin: Patterns of availability and access. In: LG Martin, SH Preston (eds), Demography of aging, Academy Press, Washington DC, pp 146–194Google Scholar
  223. Wolf DA (1995) Changes in the living arrangements of older women: an international study. Gerontologist 35:724–731Google Scholar
  224. Wolf DA, Longino C (2005) Our “increasingly mobile society”? The curious persistence of a false belief. Gerontologist 45:5–11Google Scholar
  225. Wolff JL, Kasper JD (2006) Caregivers of frail elders: Updating a national profile. Gerontologist 46:344–356Google Scholar
  226. Yang JJ, Mann WC, Nochajski S (1997) Use of assistive devices among elders with cognitive impairment: a follow-up study. Top Geriatr Rehabil 13:13–31Google Scholar
  227. Zimmer Z, Chappell NL (1994) Mobility restriction and the use of devices among seniors. J Aging Health 6:185–208Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emily M. Agree
    • 1
  • Karen Glaser
    • 2
  1. 1.Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimore, MDUSA
  2. 2.King’s College London, University of LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations