The Linguistic Categorization of Deictic Direction in Chinese — with Reference to Japanese —

  • Christine Lamarre

This paper discusses the linguistic categorization of deictic direction in Mandarin Chinese, with reference to Japanese. It focuses on the following question: to what extent should the prevalent bimorphemic (nondeictic + deictic) structure of Chinese directionals be linked to its typological features as a satellite-framed language. We know from other satellite-framed languages such as English, Hungarian, and Russian, that this feature is not necessarily directly connected to satellite-framed patterns. Furthermore, verb-framed languages like Korean or Japanese also frequently combine deictic and non deictic paths in the same verb complex. Our conclusion is that the typological behavior of a language from the viewpoint of Talmy's typology (Verb-framed vs. Satellite-framed) has no direct bearing on its choice of bipartite encoding of paths (deictic together with nondeictic). However, these typological features likely exert an indirect influence on the strategies used by a language to combine deictic paths, nondeictic paths, and the manner or cause of motion in a same verb complex, and ultimately also on the frequency of using deictic paths. We conclude that in order to understand why the overt linguistic expression of deictic direction is prevalent in some languages and not in others, we must take into account at least two different levels of linguistic organization, one pertaining to the syntactic devices expressing causativity and change of state, the other pertaining to the semantic devices through which languages express subjectivity.

Keywords

spatial deixis subjectivity motion events directionals 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arakawa, K. 荒川 清秀 (1994). 「買ッテクルと “买来 ” 」 Kattekuru to măilai [Kattekuru and măilai ], 『愛知大学外国語研究紀要』 Aichi Daigaku Gaikokugo Kenkyuu Kiyoo, 18, 71-81.Google Scholar
  2. Berthele, R. (2004). The typology of motion and posture verbs: a variationist account. In B. Kortmann (ed.), Dialectology meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a CrossLinguistic Perspective (93-126). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  3. Chao, Y. R. (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese, Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  4. Craig, C. (1993). Jakaltek directionals: their meaning and discourse function. Languages of the World, 2, 23-36. (Lincom Europa).Google Scholar
  5. Cuī, D. 崔 达送 (2005). 《中古汉语位移动词研究》 Zhōnggǔ Hǎnyǔ wèiyí dòngcí yánjiū [Studies on Medieval Chinese motion verbs]. 合肥 Hefei: 安徽大学出版社 Anhui University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Fillmore, C. (1997). Lectures on Deixis. Stanford University: CSLI Publications.Google Scholar
  7. François, A. (2003). Of Men, Hills, and Winds: Space Directionals in Mwotlap, Oceanic Linguistics, 42-2, 407-437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fukami, K. 深見 兼孝 (1999). 日本語の“ていく・てくる”と朝鮮語の a/ə gada・a/ə oda」 Nihongo no teiru/tekuru to Choosengo no a/gada-a/oda [Japanese teiku-teiru and Korean a/ gada-a/ oda],『広島大学教育学部紀要』 Hiroshima Daigaku Kyooikugakubu Kiyoo, [Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Hiroshima University]. Part 2, Vol. 38, 47-52.Google Scholar
  9. Hóu, J. 侯 精一 et al. (2001). 《中国語補語例釈 日文版》 Zhōngguóyǔ bǔyǔ lìshì Rìwénbǎn. [A compendium of Chinese complements: Japanese edition]. 北京 Beijing: 商务印书馆 Commercial Press.Google Scholar
  10. Hyslop, C. (2001). The Lolovoli dialect of the North-East Ambae Language, Vanuatu. Pacific Linguistics 515. Camberra: The Australian National University.Google Scholar
  11. Jū, H. 居 红 (1992). 《汉语趋向动词及动趋短语的语义和语法特点》Hànyǔ qūxiàng dòngcí jí dòngqū duǎnyǔ de yǔyì hé yǔfǎ tèdiǎn [Semantic and Syntactic Characteristics of Chinese Directional Verbs and Verb Phrases], 《世界汉语教学》 Shìjiè Hànyǔ Jiàoxué [Chinese Teaching in the World], 4, 276-282.Google Scholar
  12. Koga, T., Koloskova Y. et al. (2006). The linguistic encoding of motion events in English, Russian and German ⎯ a contrastive study with Japanese ⎯ Paper read at the 132nd meeting of the Linguistic Society of Japan, the University of Tokyo (17-18 July 2006).Google Scholar
  13. Kopecka, A. (2006). The semantic structure of motion verbs in French : typological perspectives. In M. Hickmann and S. Robert (eds.), Space in Languages: Linguistic Systems and Cognitive Categories (pp. 83-101). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  14. Lamarre C. 柯理思 (2002). 《汉语方言里连接趋向成分的形式》 Hànyǔ fāngyánli liánjiē qūxiàng chéngfèn de xíngshì [An Investigation of the various markers inserted between verbs and directionals in Han dialects],《中国语文研究》Zhōngguó Yǔwén Yánjiū [Studies in Chinese Linguistics] 1, 26-44. (Hong Kong).Google Scholar
  15. Lamarre, C. 柯理思 (2003). 汉语空间位移事件的语言表达 - 兼论述趋式的几个问题 Hànyǔ Kōngjiān wèiyí shìjiàn de yǔyán biǎodá [The linguistic encoding of motion events in Chinese], 《现代中国语研》 Xiàndài Zhōngguóyǔ Yánjiū [Contemporary Research in Modern Chinese], 5, 1-18 (Kyoto).Google Scholar
  16. Lamarre, C. 柯理思 (2005). 《讨论一个非典型的述趋式ú“走去”类组合》 Tǎolùn yí ge fēi diǎnxíng de shùqūshìú‘zǒuqù’ lèi zǔhé [On a non-prototypical Verb-Directional construction: zŏuqù and similar compounds]. In J. Shěn, Wú and Hóng (eds.), 《语 法化与语法研究(二)》(pp. 53-68). 商务印书馆.Google Scholar
  17. Lamarre, C. (2006). 《动词后置成分“走”的语法化》 Dòngcí hòuzhì chéngfèn zǒu de yǔfǎhuà [The grammaticalization of postverbal directional -zou ‘away’]. In N. Ogoshi (ed.), Contrastive Studies of Grammaticalization and Categorization in East Asian Languages— from particulars to universals, Project Report for Grant-in aid for scientific research n. 14310221 (2002-05), (pp. 104-116). University of Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  18. Lamarre, C. (2007a). The Linguistic Encoding of Motion Events in Chinese: With Reference to Cross-dialectal Variation. In C. Lamarre and T. Ohori (eds.), Typological Studies of the Linguistic Expression of Motion Events, Volume 1: Perspectives from East and Southeast Asia (pp. 3-33). Tokyo: Center for Evolutionary Cognitive Sciences at the University of Tokyo (21st century COE Program).Google Scholar
  19. Lamarre, C. (2007b). 《试探北方官话的指示位移动词与“上/到+处所词+来/去”格式》 Shìtàn Běifāng Guānhuà de zhǐshì wèiyí dòngcí yǔ “shàng/dào + chùsuǒcí + lai/qu” géshì [Northern Chinese synthetic and analytic deictic motion verbs]. Paper read at the 4th Conference on Mandarin Dialects, Ankang (Shaanxi), Oct. 2007.Google Scholar
  20. Lamarre, C., & Liu, S. 柯 理思、刘 淑学. (2001). 《河北冀州方言“拿不了走”一类的 格式》 Héběi Jìzhōu fāngyán nábuliǎozǒu yílèi de géshì [Patterns like nábuliǎozǒu in the Jizhou dialect of Hebei]. 《中国语文》Zhōngguó Yǔwén, 5, 428-438.Google Scholar
  21. Liu, D. 劉 丹青 (2000).《粵語句法的類型學特點》(Yuèyǔ jùfǎ de lèixíngxué tèdiǎn) [The typological characteristics of Cantonese Syntax]. 《亞太語文教育學報》(Yà-Tài yǔwén jiàoyù Xuébào) [Asia Pacific Journal of Language in Education], 3-2, 1-29 (Hong Kong).Google Scholar
  22. Liu, Y. (ed.) 刘月华 主编 (1998). 《趋向补语通释》 Qūxiàng bǔyǔ tōngshì [Directional complements: a compendium]. 北京 Beijing: 北京语言文化大学出版社 Běijīng Yǔyán Wénhuà Dàxué.Google Scholar
  23. Matsumoto, Y. (1996). Complex Predicates in Japanese: A Syntactic and Semantic Study of the Notion ‘Word’. Stanford: CSLI Publications and Tokyo: Kurosio Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. Matsumoto, Y. (2003). Typologies of lexicalization patterns and event integration: Clarifications and reformulations. In S. Chiba et al. (eds.), Empirical and theore-tical Investigations into Language: A Festschrift for Masaru Kajita (pp. 403-418). Tokyo: Kaitakusha.Google Scholar
  25. Paris, M.-C. (1992). Démonstratifs et personne en chinois standard. In M-A. Morel and L. Danon-Boileau (eds.), La deixis (pp. 166-175). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  26. Paris, M.-C. (1997). L’espace énonciatif en chinois moderne: mais où la triade est-elle passée? In C. Fuchs and S. Robert (eds.), Diversité des langues et représentations cognitives (pp. 93-105). Ophrys. (English translation : John Benjamins 1999)Google Scholar
  27. Peyraube, Alain. (2006). Motion Events in Chinese: A diachronic study of directional complements. In Hickmann and Robert (eds.), Space in Languages : Linguistic Systems and Cognitive Categories (pp. 121-135). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  28. Qi, H. 齐沪扬. (1998). 《现代汉语空间问题研究》 Xiàndài Hànyǔ kōngjiān wèntí yánjiū [Studies on spatial issues in Modern Chinese], 上海 Shanghai : 学林出版社 Xuélín Chūbǎnshè.Google Scholar
  29. Ross, M. (2004). The Grammaticization of directional verbs in Oceanic languages. In I. Bril and F. Ozanne-Rivierre (eds.), Complex Predicates in Oceanic Languages —Studies in the Dynamics of Binding and Boundness (pp. 297-329). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  30. Rygaloff, A. (1977). Existence, possession, présence (être et avoir), Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale, 1, 7-16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shibatani, M. (2003). Directional Verbs in Japanese. In E. Shay & U. Seibert (eds.), Motion, direction and location in languages (pp. 258-86). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  32. Slobin, D. (1997). The Universal, the Typological, and the Particular in Acquisition. In D. Slobin (ed.) The Crosslinguistic Study of Language Acquisition. Vol. 5: Expanding the Contexts (pp. 1-39). Mahwah / London: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  33. Slobin, D. (2004). The many ways to search for a frog: Linguistic typology and the expression of motion events. In Strömqvist & Verhoeven (eds.) Relating events in narrative: Vol. 2. Typological and contextual perspectives (pp. 219-257). London: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  34. Talmy, L. (1985). Lexicalization patterns: Semantic structure in lexical form. In T. Shopen (ed.) Language typology and syntactic description, Vol. III: Grammatical categories and the lexicon (pp. 57-149). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Talmy, L. (2000). Toward a Cognitive Semantics - Vol. II: Typology and process in Concept Structuring. Cambridge (Ma) : MIT Press.Google Scholar
  36. Tanaka, S. & Matsumoto, Y. (1997). 『空間と移動の表現』 Kuukan to Idoo no Hyoogen [Linguistic Expressions of Space and Motion]. 東京 Tokyo: 研究社 Kenkyusha. Tang, Zhengda. & Lamarre, C. (in print). A contrastive study of the linguistic encoding of motion events in Standard Chinese and in the Guanzhong dialect of Mandarin (Shaanxi) , Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics, 2.1.Google Scholar
  37. Uehara, S. (2006). Toward a typology of linguistic subjectivity: A cognitive and cross- linguistic approach to grammaticalized deixis. In A. Athanasiadou et al. (eds.), Subjectification: Various paths to subjectivity (pp. 75-117). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  38. Wilkins, D., & Hill, D. (1995). When “go” means “come”: Questioning the basicness of basic motion verbs. Cognitive Linguistics, 6-2/3, 209-259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xu, Dan. (2006). Typological change in Chinese Syntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Lamarre
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations