Copepods

  • Álvaro Morales-Ramírez
  • Eduardo Suárez-Morales
Part of the Monographiae Biologicae book series (MOBI, volume 86)

The marine copepod fauna of Costa Rica has been studied from samples obtained in different environments including reef areas, coastal systems, and fully oceanic zones. Up to 7 (Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida, Monstrilloida, Mormonilloida, Poecilostomatoida, Siphonostomatoida) out of the 11 orders of Copepoda that are currently recognized are present in Costa Rica. The total number of species known in Costa Rican waters is 209. Most records are of planktonic forms, and nearly 10% of the copepod species richness known in the country is represented by benthic Harpacticoida. There is, however, a substantial asymmetry in the number of copepod species comparing the Costa Rican Pacific (164 species) with the Caribbean coast (45 species). Excluding the strictly benthic forms, the proportion represented by these numbers compared to the corresponding regional fauna is also unequal: the Costa Rican copepod fauna includes 49.6% of the species known in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) and adjacent areas, and only 8% of the species recorded in the Caribbean Basin. Overall, 20 species of benthic Harpacticoida represent the first information of this order in Costa Rica and some of them are endemic forms. Despite the fact that copepods are probably the best known marine zooplankton group in Costa Rica, it is recommended that both ecological and taxonomic studies should continue as it is likely that new surveys particularly from relatively neglected areas such as the oceanic epipelagic and meso-bathypelagic environments will increase substantially the faunistic lists.

Keywords

Biomass Migration Phytoplankton Brittle Trench 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alameda GM (1980) Sistemática y distribución de los copépodos (Crustacea) del Golfo de Tehuantepec (Mexico). B. Sc. thesis, Fac Sci, UNAM, 121 pGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambler JW, Ferrari FD, Fornshell JA (1991) Population structure and swarm formation of the cyclopoid copepod Dioithona oculata near mangrove cays. J Plankton Res 113:1257–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arcos F, Fleminger A (1986) Distribution of filter-feeding calanoid copepods in the eastern equatorial Pacific. CalCOFI Rep 27:170–186Google Scholar
  4. Bednarski M (2001) Macrozooplankton of Culebra Bay, Costa Rica with emphasis on copepods. M.Sc. thesis, ZMT, University of Bremen, Germany, 155 pGoogle Scholar
  5. Björnberg TKS (1971) Distribution of plankton relative to the general circulation system in the area of the Caribbean Sea and adjacent regions. Symposium on Investigations and Resources of the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions, UNESCO, Paris, pp 343–356Google Scholar
  6. Björnberg TKS (1981) Copepoda. In: Boltovskoy D (ed) Atlas del zooplancton del Atlántico sudoccidental y métodos de trabajo con zooplancton marino. INIDEP, Mar del Plata, Argentina,pp 587–679Google Scholar
  7. Bodin P (1988) Catalogue des Nouveaux Copepodes Harpacticoides Marins. Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, 288 pGoogle Scholar
  8. Bodin P (1997) Catalogue of the new marine harpacticoid copepods (1997 edition). Studiedoc. Koninkl Belgisch Inst Natuurwetensch (Doc Travail, Inst Royal Sci Nat Belgique) 89:1–304Google Scholar
  9. Boltovskoy D, Gibbons MJ, Hutchings L, Binet D (1999) General biological features of the South Atlantic. In: Boltovskoy D (ed) Zooplankton of the Southwestern Atlantic. Backhuys, Leiden,pp 1–42Google Scholar
  10. Boxshall GA, Halsey SH (2004) An Introduction to Copepod Diversity, vol 166. Part I. The Ray Society, London, 421 pGoogle Scholar
  11. Bucklin A (1986) The genetic structure of zooplankton populations. Pelagic biogeography UNESCO Tech Pap Mar Sci 49:33–41Google Scholar
  12. Bucklin A (1998) Molecular analysis of biogeographic patterns and processes: the copepod Nannocalanus minor in the N. Atlantic Ocean IOC-UNESCO Workshop Rep 142:78–85Google Scholar
  13. Burd BJ, Thomson RE, Jamieson GS (1992) Composition of a deep scattering layer overlying a mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal plume. Mar Biol 113:517–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Campos A (1980) Distribución y abundancia relativa de los copépodos planctónicos en el Golfo de México y el Mar Caribe. Cienc Biol 5:57–74Google Scholar
  15. Campos A (1982) Lista de especies de copépodos planctónicos de aguas cubanas. Poeyana 24:1–27Google Scholar
  16. Campos A, Suárez-Morales E (1994) Copépodos pelágicos del Golfo de México y el Mar Caribe.I. Sistemática y Biología. CONACYT/ CIQRO, México, 368 pGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen YQ (1986) The vertical distribution of some pelagic copepods in the eastern tropical Pacific. CalCOFI Rep. 27:205–227Google Scholar
  18. Claus, C (1866) Die Copepoden Fauna von Nizza. Ein Beitrag zur Charakteristik der Form und anderen Abänderungen “im Sinne Darwin's,” Marburg & Leizig, 34 pGoogle Scholar
  19. Coker RE, González JG (1960) Limnetic copepod population of Bahía Fosforescente and adjacent waters, Puerto Rico. J Elisha Mitchell Sci Soc 76:8–28Google Scholar
  20. Damkaer DM (2002) The Copepodologist's cabinet: a biographical and bibliographical history. Am Phil Soc, Mem 240:300Google Scholar
  21. Dana JD (1848) Conspectus Crustaceroum quae in orbis terrarium circumnavigatione “Carolo Wilkes” e Classe Republicae Foederatae Duce, lexit et descripsit Jacobus D. Dana. Collectorum I. Proc Am Acad Arts Sci 1:149–155Google Scholar
  22. Deevey GB (1979) Bathypontia Sars (Copepoda: Calanoida): eight species, two new, from the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Proc Biol Soc Wash 92:724–742Google Scholar
  23. De la Cruz A (1971) Zooplancton de la región sureste del Golfo de México. Ciencias (Cuba), Ser 4(24):1–55Google Scholar
  24. Ferrari FD (1975) Taxonomic notes on the genus Oncaea (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from the Gulf of Mexico and northern Caribbean Sea. Proc Biol Soc Wash 88:217–232Google Scholar
  25. 2.
    Ferrari F, Bowman TEB (1980) Pelagic copepods of the Family Oithonidae (Cyclopoida) from the east coast of Central and South America. Smithson Contrib Zool 312:1–27Google Scholar
  26. Fleminger A (1964) Distributional atlas of calanoid copepods in the California current region, part II. CalCOFI Atlas 7:1–213Google Scholar
  27. Fleminger A (1967) Taxonomy, distribution and polymorphism in the Labidocera jollae group, with remark on evolution within the group (Copepoda: Calanoida). Proc US Nat Mus 120:1–61Google Scholar
  28. Fleminger A (1976) Evidence of a species swarm in a Caribbean planktonic copepod species group. Am Zool 16:269Google Scholar
  29. Fleminger A (1979) Labidocera (Copepoda, Calanoida): new and poorly known Caribbean species with a key to species in the western Atlantic. Bull Mar Sci 29:170–190Google Scholar
  30. Giesbrecht W (1892) Systematik und Faunistik der pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapal und der angrezenden Meeres-Abschnitte. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. Zoologische Station zu Neapel. XIX. Monographie. Friedländer & Sohn, Berlin, pp 1–831Google Scholar
  31. González JG, Bowman TE (1965) Planktonic copepods from Bahia Fosforescente, Puerto Rico, and adjacent waters. Proc US Nat Mus 117:241–304Google Scholar
  32. Guzmán HM, Obando VL (1988) Diversidad y abundancia diaria y estacional del zooplancton marino de la Isla del Caño, Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 36:139–150Google Scholar
  33. Greenlaw CF (1979) Acoustical estimation of zooplankton populations. Limnol Oceanogr 24:226–241Google Scholar
  34. Hamner WM, Carleton JH (1979) Copepod swarms: attributes and role in coral reef ecosystems. Limnol Oceanogr 24:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. He DH, Wang CS, Liu HB, Yang GM (1992) A study on zooplankton distribution patterns and indicator species in Kuroshio upstream area and adjacent East China Sea. Acta Ocean Sin 11:237–254Google Scholar
  36. Hernández-Trujillo S (1999) Variability of community structure of Copepoda related to El Ni ñ o 1982–83 and 1987–88 along the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. Fish Oceanogr 8:284–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hernández-Trujillo S, Esqueda-Escárcega G (2002) La diversidad de copépodos marinos en México. Oceánides 17:65–69Google Scholar
  38. Ho J-S, Dojiri M, Hendler G, Deets GB (2003) A new species of Copepoda (Thaumatopsyllidae) symbiotic with a brittle star from California, USA, and designation of a new Order Thaumatopsylloida. J Crust Biol 23:582–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hulsemann K, Fleminger A (1990) Taxonomic value of minute structures on the genital segment of Pontellina females (Copepoda: Calanoida). Mar Biol 105:99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Humes AG (1991) Zoogeography of copepods at hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Bull Plankt Soc Japan, Spec Vol (1991):383–389Google Scholar
  41. Humes AG (1994) How many copepods? Hydrobiol 292/293:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huntley ME, González A, Zhu Y, Zhou M, Irigoien X (2000) Zooplankton dynamics in a mesos-cale eddy-jet system off California. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 201:165–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Huys R, Boxshall GA (1991) Copepod Evolution. The Ray Society, London 159:1–468Google Scholar
  44. 3.
    Johnson MW (1964) On a new species of Pseudodiaptomus from the west coast of Mexico, Costa Rica and Ecuador (Copepoda). Crustaceana 7:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Latreille PA (1802) Historie naturalle générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes. París,468 pGoogle Scholar
  46. Legaré JEH (1961) Estudios preliminares del zooplancton en la región de Cariaco. Bol Inst Oceanogr Univ Oriente 1:191–218Google Scholar
  47. Legaré JEH (1964) The pelagic Copepoda of eastern Venezuela. 1. The Cariaco Trench. Bol Inst Oceanogr, Univ Oriente 3:15–81Google Scholar
  48. López-Salgado I, Gasca R, Suárez-Morales E (2000) La comunidad de copépodos (Crustacea) en los giros a mesoescala en el occidente del Golfo de México (julio, 1995). Rev Biol Trop 48:169–179Google Scholar
  49. Markhaseva EL (1995) A new species of Paracomantenna from the eastern tropical Pacific (Crustacea, Copepoda: Aetideidae). Zoosyst Ross 3:229–233Google Scholar
  50. Markhaseva EL (1997) A new species of Pseudochirella from the eastern tropical Pacific (Crustacea: Copepoda: Aetideidae). Zoosyst Ross 6:31–32Google Scholar
  51. Markhaseva EL, Ferrari FD (1996) Three new species of Ryocalanus from the eastern tropical Pacific (Crustacea, Copepoda: Ryocalanidae). Zoosyst Ross 4:63–70Google Scholar
  52. Mauchline J (1988) Taxonomic value of pore pattern in the integument of calanoid copepods (Crustacea). J Zool 214:697–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mauchline J (1998) The biology of calanoid copepods Adv Mar Biol 33:1–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McGowan JA, Walker PW (1979) Structure in the copepod community of the North Pacific Central Gyre. Ecol Monogr 49:195–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McGowan JA, Walker PW (1985) Dominance and diversity maintenance in an oceanic system. Ecol Monogr 55:103–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 4.
    Michel HB, Foyo M (1976) Caribbean Zooplankton. Part 1. Siphonophora, Heteropoda,Copepoda, Euphausiacea, Chaetognatha and Salpidae. Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, USA, 549 pGoogle Scholar
  57. Mielke W (1983) Two new Psammopsyllus species (Copepoda) from the Caribbean coast of Panama. Stud Neotrop Fauna Environ 18:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mielke W (1990a) Zausodes septimus Lang, 1965 und Enhydrosoma pericoense nov. spec., zwei bentische Ruderfu β krebse (Crustacea, Copepoda) aus dem Eulitoral von Panama. Microfauna Mar 6:139–156Google Scholar
  59. Mielke W (1990b) A new species of Psammotopa (Copepoda) from the Pacific coast of Panama. Crustaceana 59:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 5.
    Mielke W (1992) Six representatives of the Tetragonicipitidae (Copepoda) from Costa Rica. Microfauna Mar 7:101–146Google Scholar
  61. 6.
    Mielke W (1993) Species of the taxa Orthopsyllus and Nitocra (Copepoda) from Costa Rica. Microfauna Mar 8:247–266Google Scholar
  62. 7.
    Mielke W (1994a) New records of two copepod species (Crustacea) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Microfauna Mar 9:55–60Google Scholar
  63. 8.
    Mielke W (1994b) Microcanuella bisetosa gen. n., sp. n., a new taxon of Canuellidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the Costa Rican Pacific coast, with remarks on Galapacanuella beckeri. Bijdr Dierk 64:55–64Google Scholar
  64. 9.
    Mielke W (1994c) Two co-occurring new Karllangia species (Copepoda: Ameiridae) from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 42:141–153Google Scholar
  65. 10.
    Mielke W (1995) Species of the taxon Schizopera (Copepoda) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Microfauna Mar 10:89–116Google Scholar
  66. 11.
    Mielke W (1997) New findings of interstitial Copepoda from Punta Morales, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Microfauna Mar 11:271–280Google Scholar
  67. Milne-Edwards H (1840) Ordre des Copepodes. In: Historie naturelle des Crustaces comprenant l'Anatomie, la Physiologie et la Classification de ces Animaux, 3. Paris, pp 411–529Google Scholar
  68. 12.
    Morales-Ramírez A (1996) Checklist of copepods from Gulf of Nicoya, Coronado Bay and Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with comments on their distribution. Rev Biol Trop 44(Suppl 3):103–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 13.
    Morales-Ramírez A (2001) Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica, los microcrustáceos: Subclase Copepoda (Crustacea: Maxillopoda). Rev Biol Trop 49(Suppl 2):115–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Morales-Ramírez A, Murillo MM (1996) Distribution, abundance and composition of coral reef zooplankton, Cahuita National Park, Limon, Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 44:619–630Google Scholar
  71. 14.
    Morales-Ramírez A, Vargas-Zamora JA (1995) Especies comunes de copépodos pelágicos (Crustacea: Copepoda) del Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 43:207–218Google Scholar
  72. Owre HB, Foyo M (1964a) Report on a collection of Copepoda from the Caribbean Sea. Bull Mar Sci Gulf Caribb 14:359–372Google Scholar
  73. Owre HB, Foyo M (1964b) Plankton of the Florida Current. Part IX. Additions of the list of Copepoda, with descriptions of two rare species. Bull Mar Sci Gulf Caribb 14:342–358Google Scholar
  74. Palomares-García R, Suárez-Morales E, Hernández-Trujillo S (1998). Catálogo de los copépodos (Crustacea) pelágicos del Pacífico Mexicano. CICIMAR-ECOSUR, México, 352 pGoogle Scholar
  75. Park TS (1970) Calanoid Copepods from the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. 2. Two new species and new records from plankton samples. Bull Mar Sci 20:472–546Google Scholar
  76. 14b.
    14b. Park TS (1994) Taxonomy and distribution of the marine calanoid copepod family Euchaetidae. Bull Scripps Inst Oceanogr Univ Calif, San Diego 29:1–203Google Scholar
  77. Rao DVS, Sameoto D (1988) Relationship between phytoplankton and copepods in the deep tropical Pacific Ocean off Costa Rica. Bull Mar Sci 42:85–100Google Scholar
  78. Reid JW (1990) Continental and coastal free-living copepoda (Crustacea) of Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean region. In: Navarro D, Robinson JG (eds) Diversidad biológica en la Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an, Quintana Roo, México. CIQRO/University of Florida, Chetumal, México, pp 175–213Google Scholar
  79. 15.
    Sameoto DD (1986) Influence of the biological and physical environment on the vertical distribution of mesozooplankton and micronekton in the eastern tropical Pacific. Mar Biol 93:263–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sars GO (1901) Copepoda, Calanoida. Crustacea of Norway 4:1–28Google Scholar
  81. Sars GO (1903) Copepoda, Calanoida. Crustacea of Norway 4:145–171Google Scholar
  82. Suárez-Morales E (1997) Pelagic copepod assemblages during spring upwelling off the Yucatan Peninsula (1985). Int Oceanogr Comm (SCOR/IOC-UNESCO) Workshop Rep 142:345–352Google Scholar
  83. 16.
    Suárez-Morales E, Gasca R (1989a) Copépodos calanoides epiplanctónicos del Domo de Costa Rica (julio-agosto, 1982). Cienc Mar 15:89–102Google Scholar
  84. Suárez-Morales E, Gasca R (1989b) Copépodos epiplanctónicos (Crustacea) del Canal de Yucatán (mayo-junio, 1984). Carib J Sci 25:196–202Google Scholar
  85. Suárez-Morales E, Gasca R (1998) Updated checklist of the free-living marine Copepoda (Crustacea) of Mexico. An Inst Biol, Univ Nac Autón Méx, Ser Zool 69(1):105–119Google Scholar
  86. Suárez-Morales E, Gasca R (2000a) The planktonic copepod community at Mahahual reef, western Caribbean. Bull Mar Sci 66:255–267Google Scholar
  87. Suárez-Morales E, Gasca R (2000b) Epipelagic copepod assemblages in the Western Caribbean Sea. Crustaceana 73:1247–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Suárez-Morales E, Gómez-Aguirre S (1996) Aspectos históricos y perspectivas del estudio de zooplancton marino en México. Ciencia 47:215–223Google Scholar
  89. 17.
    Suárez-Morales E, Morales-Ramírez A (2001) Nuevo registro de Acartia (Planktacartia) negligens Dana, 1849 (Copepoda, Calanoida) en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Rev Biol Trop 49:1286Google Scholar
  90. 18.
    Suárez-Morales E, Morales-Ramírez A (2003) A new species of Cymbasoma (Crustacea: Copepoda: Monstrilloida) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America. Proc Biol Soc Wash 116:206–214Google Scholar
  91. Suárez-Morales E, Zurita JC (1991) Copépodos epipelágicos de la zona costera central de Michoacán, México (invierno-verano, 1983). Univ Cienc (UJAT) 8:25–32Google Scholar
  92. Suárez-Morales E, Franco-Gordo C, Saucedo M (2000a) On the pelagic copepod (Crustacea: Copepoda) community of the central Mexican tropical Pacific (autumn, 1990). Crustaceana 73:751–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Suárez-Morales E, Reid JW, Gasca R (2000b) Copepoda. In: Llorente J, González E, Papavero N (eds) Biodiversidad, taxonomía y biogeografía de artrópodos de México: hacia una síntesis de su conocimiento. Vol. II. UNAM/CONABIO/Bayer, México, pp 172–190Google Scholar
  94. 19.
    Vinogradov M, Shushkina A (1994) A study of vertical distribution of the North Pacific zoo-plankton based on quantitative estimations from the deep manned submersible (DMS) “Mir.” Trud Inst Okean 131:41–63Google Scholar
  95. Vinogradov ME, Shushkina EA, Gorbunov AY, Shashkov NL (1991) Vertical distributions of mesozooplankton and macroplankton in the vicinity of the Costa Rica Dome. Oceanology 31:759–769Google Scholar
  96. 20.
    Walter C (1989) Review of the new world species of Pseudodiaptomus (Copepoda: Calanoida) with a key to the species. Bull Mar Sci 45:590–628Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Álvaro Morales-Ramírez
    • 1
  • Eduardo Suárez-Morales
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (CIMAR) y Escuela de BiologíaUniversidad de Costa RicaCiudadCosta Rica
  2. 2.El Colegio de la Frontera Sur-ChetumalChetumalMéxico

Personalised recommendations