Induction of Resistance to Crop Diseases

  • P. Narayanasamy


Development of cultivars with genetic and transgenic resistance to combat crop diseases is beset with formidable problems. As an alternative approach to enhance the levels of resistance of cultivars with desirable agronomic attributes, induction of resistance in such cultivars has been considered as a feasible strategy of disease management. Intensive research efforts have been directed to understand the molecular mechanisms of two principal types of induced resistance viz., systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR). As in the case of genetic resistance, the natural disease resistance (NDR) mechanisms are activated by the biotic and abiotic inducers of resistance to diseases. Growth promotion by rhizobacteria in crop plants and consequent yield increases has been shown as an additional advantage, in addition to the protection of crops offered by these biotic inducers against crop diseases. Hence, the acceptability of this approach by the growers and the general public is clearly foreseen, in contrast to the genetically modified (GM) crop products. Furthermore, this approach is ecofriendly and safe, as the development of resistance in microbial pathogens to inducers is unlikely. The possibility of combining this approach with other disease management strategies has been indicated in certain pathosystems.


Salicylic Acid Powdery Mildew Systemic Resistance Botrytis Cinerea Cucumber Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adikaram NKB, Joyce DC, Terry LA (2002) Biocontrol activity and induced resistance as a possible mode of action for Aureobasidium pullulans against gray mold of strawberry fruit. Austral Plant Pathol 31:223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahn IP, Kim S, Kang S, Suh SC, Lee YH (2005) Rice defense mechanisms against Cochliobolus miyabeanus and Magnapothe grisea are distinct. Phytopathology 95:1248–1255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alfanao G, Lewis Ivey ML, Cakir C, Bos JIB, Miller SA, Madden LV, Kamoun S, Hoitink K (2007) Sysemic modulation of gene expression in tomato by Trichoderma hamatum 382. Phytopathology 97:429–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander D, Goodman RM, Gul-Rella M, Glascock C, Weyman K, Friedrich L, Maddox D, Ahl-Goy P, Luntz T, Ward E, Ryals J (1993) Increased tolerance to two oomycete pathogens in transgenic tobacco expressing pathogenesis-related protein 1a. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:7327–7331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anfoka G, Buchenauer H (1997) Systemic acquired resistance in tomato against Phytophthora infestans by preinoculation with Tobacco necrosis virus. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 50:85–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asai T, Tena G, Plotnikova J, Willmann MR, Chiu WL, Gomez-Gomez L, Boller T, Ausubel FM, Sheen J (2002) MAP kinase signaling cascade in Arabidopsis innate immunity. Nature 415:977–983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asaka O, Shoda M (1996) Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off of tomato with Bacillus subtilis RB14. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:4081–4085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Aziz A, Poinssot B, Daire X, Adrian M, Bezier A, Lambert B, Joubert J, Pugin A (2003) Laminarin elicits defense responses in grapevine and induces protection against Botrytis cinerea and Plasmopara viticola. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 16:1118–1128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aziz A, Tritel-Azis P, Dhuicq L, Jeandet P, Couderchet M, Vernet G (2006) Chitosan oligomers and copper sulfate induce grapevine defense reactions and resistance to gray mold and downy mildew. Phytopatholgy 96:1188–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benhamou N (2004) Potential of the mycoparasite, Verticillium leccanii to protect citrus fruit against Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of green mold: a comparison with the effect of chitosan. Phytopathology 94:693–705CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Benhamou N, Bélanger RR, Paulitz TC (1996) Induction of differential host responses by Pseudomonas fluorescens in Ri-T-DNA transformed pea roots after challenge with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi and Pythium ultimum. Phytopathology 86:1174–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benhamou N, Bélanger RR, Rey P, Tirilly Y (2001) Oligandrin, the elicitin-like protein produced by the mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum, induces systemic resistance to Fusarium crown and root rot in tomato. Plant Physiol Biochem 39:681–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benhamou N, Kloepper JW, Tuzun S (1998) Induction of resistance against Fusarium wilt of tomato by combination of chitosan with an endophytic bacterial strain: ultlrastructure and cytochemistry of the host response. Planta 204:153–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benhamou N, Lafontine PJ, Nicole M (1994) Induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium crown and root rot in tomato plants by seed treatment with chitosan. Phytopathology 84:1432–1444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Benhamou N, Kloepper JW, Quadt-Hallmann A, Tuzun S (1996) Induction of defense-related ultlrastructural modifications in pea root tissues inoculated with endophytic bacteria. Physiol Plant Pathol 12:919–929Google Scholar
  16. Bokshi AI, Morris SC, Deerall BJ (2003) Effects of benzothiadiazole and acetyl salicylic acid on \ubeta-1,3-glucanase activity and disease resistance in potato. Plant Pathol 52:22–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bonnet P, Bourdon E, Ponchet M, Blein J-P, Ricci P (1986) Acquired resistance triggered by elicitins in tobacco and other plants. Eur J Plant Pathol 102:181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brisset MN, Cesborn S, Paulin JP (2000) Acibenzolar-S-methyl induces the accumulation of defense-related enzymes in apple and protects from fire blight. Eur J Plant Pathol 106:529–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buzi A, Chilosi G, Magro P (2004) Induction of resistance in melon seedlings against soil-borne pathogens by gaseous treatments with methyl jasmonate and ethylene. J Phytopathol 152:491–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cao H, Glazebrook J, Clarke JD, Volko S, Dong X (1997) The Arabidopsis NPR1 gene that controls systemic aquired resistance encodes a novel protein containing ankyrin repeats. Cell 8:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cao Y, Song F, Goodman RM, Zheng Z (2006) Molecular characterization of four rice genes encoding ethylene-responsive transcriptional factors and their expressions in response to biotic and abiotic stress. J Plant Physiol 163:1167–1178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chern MS, Fitzgerald HA, Canlas PE, Navarre DA, Ronald PC (2005) Over-expression of a rice NPR1 homologue leads to constitutive activation of defense response and hypersensitivity to light. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18:511–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chern MS, Fitgerald HA, Yadav RC, Canlas PE, Dong X, Ronald PC (2001) Evidence for a disease-resistance pathway in rice similar to the NPR1-mediated signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant J 27:101–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chester KS (1933) The problem of acquired physiological immunity in plants. Quart Rev Biol 8:275–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chivasa S, Murphy AM, Naylor M, Carr JP (1997) Salicylic acid interferes with Tobacco mosaic virus replication via a novel salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive mechanism. Plant Cell 9:547–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Christ U, Mösinger E (1989) Pathogenesis-related proteins of tomato: I. Induction of Phytophthora infestans and other biotic inducers and correlaltions with resistance. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 35:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen Y, Guegler K, Moesinger E, Niderman T (1992) Plant pathogenesis-related proteins. Internatl Patent Appl No. WO 92/20800Google Scholar
  28. Conrath U, Pieterse CM, Mauch-Mani B (2002) Priming in plant-pathogen interactions. Trends Plant Sci 7:210–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Conrath U, Thulke O, Katz V, Schwindling S, Kohler A (2001) Priming as a mechanism in induced systemic resistance of plants. Eur J Plant Pathol 107:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Conway WS, Sams CE (1983) Calcium infiltration of Golden Delicious apples and its effect on decay. Phytopathology 73:1068–1071Google Scholar
  31. Cools HJ, Ishii H (2002) Pretreatment of cucumber plants with acibenzolar-S-methyl systemically primes a phenylalanine-lyase gene (PAL) for enhanced expression upon fungal pathogen attack. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 61:273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Coram TE, Pang ECK (2006) Expression profiling of chickpea genes differentially regulated during a resistance response to Ascochyta raiei. Plant Biotech J:647–666Google Scholar
  33. Coram TE, Pang ECK (2007) Transcriptional profiling of chickpea genes differentially regulated by salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid to reveal pathways of defense-related gene regulation. Funct Plant Biol 34:52–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Daayf F, Schmitt A, Bélanger RR (1997) Evidence of phytoalexin s in cucumber leaves infected with powdery mildew following treatment with leaf extracts of Reynoutria sachlinensis. Plant Physiol 113:719–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Daayf F, Ongena M, Boulanger R, Hadrami IE, Bélanger RR (2000) Induction of phenolic compounds in two cultivars of cucumber by treatment of healthy and powdery mildew-infected plants with extracts of Renoutria sachliensis. J Chem Ecol 26:1579–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dann EK, Meuwly P, Métraux JP, Deverall BJ (1996) The effect of pathogen inoculation or chemical treatment on activities of chitinase and \ubeta-1,3-glucanase and accumulaltion of salicylic acid in leaves of green bean Phaeolus vulgaris L. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 49:307–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. de Capdeville G, Beer SV, Watkins CB, Wilson CL, Tedeshci LO, Aist JR (2003) Pre-and post-harvest harpin treatment of apples induce resistance to blue mold. Plant Dis 87:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. de Capdeville G, Beer SV, Wilson CL, Aist JR (2002) Alternative disease control agents induce resistance to blue mold in harvested ‘Red Delicious’ apple fruit. Phytopathology 92:900–908CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dempsey DA, Wobbe KK, Klessig DF (1993) Resistance and susceptible responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to Turnip crinkle virus. Phytopathology 83:1021–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. DjonovićS, Pozo MJ, Dangott LJ, Howell CR, Kenerley CM (2005) Sm1, a proteinaceous elicitor secreted by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens induces plant defense responses and systemic resistance. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19:838–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dong H, Delaney TP, Bauer DW, Beer SV (1999) Harpin induces disease resistance in Arabidopsis through the systemic acquired resistance pathway mediated by salicylic acid and the NIM1 gene. Plant J 20:207–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dong XN (2004) NPR1, all things are considered. Curr Opin Plant Biol 7:547–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Droby S, Vinokur V, Weiss B, Cohen L, Daus A, Goldschmidt EE, Porat R (2002) Induction of resistance to Penicilliun digitatum in grapefruit by the yeast biocontrol agent Candida oleophila. Phytopathology 92:393–399CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Eichmann R, Biemelt S, Schäfer P, Scholz V, Jansen C, Felk A, Schäfer W, Langen G, Sonnewald U, Kogel K-H, üHückelhoven R (2006) Macroarrray expression analysis of barley susceptibility and nonhost resistance to Blumeria graminis. J Plant Physiol 163:657–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. El Ghaouth A, Wilson CL, Wisniewski M (2003) Control of postharvest decay of apple fruit with Candida saitoana and induction of defense responses. Phytopathology 93:344–348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. El Ghaouth A, Arul J, Grenier J, Benhamou N, Asselin A, Bélanger R (1994) Effect of chitosan on cucumber on plant: Suppression of Pythium aphanidermatum and induction of defense reactions. Phytopathology 84:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Enkerli J, Gist U, Mosinger E (1993) Systemic acquired resistance to Phytophthora infestans in tomato and the role of pathogenesis-related proteins. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 43:161–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Faize M, Faize L, Koike N, Ishizaka M, Ishii H (2004) Acibenzolar-S-methyl-induced resistance to Japanese pear scab is associated with potentiation of multiple defense responses. Phytopathology 94:604–612CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fauteux F, Chain F, Belzile F, Menzies JG, Bélanger RR (2006) The protective role of silicon in the Arabidopsis-powdery mildew pathosystem. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:17554–17559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fitzgerald HA, Chern MS, Navarre R, Ronald PC (2004) Overexpression of (At)NPR1 in rice leads to a BTH-and environment-induced lesion-mimic/cell death phenotype. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 17:140–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fofana B, Benhamou N, McNally DJ, Labbé C, Seguin A, Bélanger RR (2005) Suppression of induced resistance in cucumber through disruption of the flavonoid pathway. Phytopathology 95:114–123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fofana B, McNally DJ, Labbé C, Boulanger R, Benhamou N, Séguin A, Bélanger RR (2002) Milsana-induced resistance in powdery mildew-infected cucumber plants correlates with the induction of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 61:121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Friend J (1985) Phenolic substances and plant disease. In: van Sumere CF, Lea PJ (eds) The biochemistry of phenolics. Oxford Press, Oxford, UK, pp 367–392Google Scholar
  54. Frey S, Carver TLW (1998) Induction of systemic resistance in pea to pea powdery mildew by exogenous application of salicylic acid. J Phytopathol 146:239–245Google Scholar
  55. Gaffney T, Friedrich L, Vernooij B, Negrotto D, Nye G, Uknes S (1993) Requirement of salicylic acid for the induction of systemic acquired resistance. Science 261:754–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gianinazzi S (1983) Genetic and molecular aspects of resistance induced by infection and chemicals. In: Wester EW, Kosuge T (eds) Plant–microbe interactions: molecular and genetic perspectives. MacMillan Co, New York, pp 321–342Google Scholar
  57. Glazebrook J, Chen W, Estes B, Chang H-S, Nawrath C, Métraux J-P, Zhu T, Katagiri F (2003) Topology of the network integrating salicylate and jasmonate signal transduction derived from global expression phenotyping. Plant J 34:217–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gottstein HD, Kuf J (1989) Induction of systemic resistance to anthracnose in cucumber by phosphates. Phytopathology 79:176–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Guo BZ, Chen Z-Y, Brown RL, Lax AR, Cleveland TE, Russin JS, Mehta AD, Selitrennikoff CP, Widstrom NW (1997) Germination induces accumulation of specific proteins and antifungal activities in corn kernels. Phytopathology 87:1174–1178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hammerschmidt R (1999) Induced disease resistance: how do induced plants stop pathogens? Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 55:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Han SH, Lee SJ, Moon JH, Park KH, Yang KY, Cho BH, Kim KY, Kim YW, Lee MC, Anderson AJ, Kim YC (2005) GacS-dependent production of 2R, 3R-butanediol by Pseudomonas chlororaphis 06 is a major determinant for eliciting systemic resistance against Erwinia carotovora, but not against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19:924–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hanson LE, Howell CR (2004) Elicitors of plant defense responses from biocontrol strains of Trichoderma virens. Phytopathology 94:171–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Harman GE, Howell CR, Viterbo A, Chet I, Lorito M (2004) Trichoderma species – opportunistic avirulent plant symbionts. Nature Rev 44:43–56Google Scholar
  64. Harris AR, Adkins PG (1999) Versatility of fungal and bacterial isolates of biological control of damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium spp. Biol Cont 15:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Howell CR, Hanson LE, Stipanovic RD, Puckhaber LS (2000) Induction of terpenoid synthesis in cotton roots and control of Rhizoctonia solani by seed treatment with Trichoderma virens. Phytopathology 90:248–252CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hückehoven R, Fodor J, Preis C, Kogel KH (1999) Hypersensitive cell death and papilla formation in barley attacked by the powdery mildew fungus are associated with hydrogen peroxide but not with salicylic acid accumulation. Plant Physiol 119:1251–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Huynh QK, Hironaka CM, Levine EB, Smith BE, Borgmeyer JR, Shah DM (1992) Antifungal proteins from plants: Purification, molecular cloning and antifungal properties of chitinases from maize seed. J Biol Chem 267:6635–6640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Iavicoli A, Bóutet E, Buchala A, Métraux JP (2003) Induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to root inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 16:851–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ippolito A, El Ghaouth A, Wisniewski M, Wilson CL (2000) Control of postharvest decay of apple fruit by Aureobasidium pullulans and induction of defense responses. Postharvest Biol Technol 19:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ishii H, Watanabe H, Tanabe K (2002) Venturia nashicola: Pathological specialization on pears and control trials with resistance inducers. Acta Hortic 587:613–621Google Scholar
  71. Jalali B, Bhargava S, Kamble A (2006) Signal transduction and transcriptional regulation of plant defence responses. J Phytopathol 154:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jayaraj J, Velazhahan R, Fu D, Liang GH, Muthukrishnan S (2004) Bacterially produced rice thaumatin-like protein shows in vitro antifungal activity. J Plant Dis Protect 111:334–344Google Scholar
  73. Jelitto-Van Dooren EP, Vidal S, Denecke J (1999) Anticipatory endoplasmic reticulum stress: a novel early response before pathogenesis-related gene induction. Plant Cell 11:1935–1944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kamoun S, Lindquist H, Govers F (1997) A novel class of elicitin-like genes from Phytophthora infestans. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 13:136–142Google Scholar
  75. Katou S, Senda K, Yoshioka H, Doke N, Kawakita K (1999) A 51 kDa protein kinase of potato activated with hyphal wall components from Phytophthora infestans. Plant Cell Physiol 40:825–831Google Scholar
  76. Kauss H, Theisingerhinkel E, Mindermann R, Conrath U (1992) Dicholorisonicotinic acid and salicylic acid, inducers of systemic acquired resistance, enhance fungal elicitor responses in parsley cells. Plant J 2:655–660Google Scholar
  77. Khan J, Ooka JS, Miller SA, Madden LV, Hontink HA (2004) Systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma hamatum 382 in cucumber against Phytophthora crown rot and leaf blight. Plant Dis 88:280–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kieffer F, Lherminier J, Simon-Plas F, Nocole M, Paynot M, Elmayan T, Blein JP (2000) The fungal elicitor cryptogein induces cell wall modifications on tobacco cell suspension. J Exp Botany 51:1799–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kim MA, Choi SJ (2002) Induction of gray mold rot resistance by methyl salicylate application in strawberry fruits. J Korean Soc Hort Sci 43:29–33Google Scholar
  80. Kloepper JW, Ryu CM, Zhang S (2004) Induced systemic resistance and promotion of plant growth of Bacillus spp. Phytopathology 94:1259–1266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kogel K-H, Langen G (2005) Induced disease resistance and gene expression in cereals. Cell Microbiol 7:1555–1564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. KućJ (1995) Phytoalexins, stress metabolism and disease resistance in plants. Annu Rev Phytopathol 33:275–297Google Scholar
  83. Kuf J (1990) Immunization for the control of plant disease. In: Hornby D (ed) Biological control of soil-borne pathogens. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, pp 355–373Google Scholar
  84. Lafontine PS, Benhamou N (1996) Chitosan treatment: An emerging strategy for enhancing resistnce to greenhouse tomato plants to infection by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici. Biocont Sci Technol 6:111–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Latunde-Dada AO, Lucas JA (2001) The plant defense activator acibenzolar-S-methyl primes cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.] seedlings for rapid induction of resistance. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 58:199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lherminier J, Benhamou N, Larrue J, Milat M-L, Boudon-Padieu E, Nicole M, Blein J-P (2003) Cytological characterization of elicitin-induced protection in tobacco plants infected by Phytophthora parasitica or phytoplasma. Phytopathology 93:1308–1319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Liang XQ, Holbrook CC, Lynch RE, Guo BZ (2005) \ubeta-1,3-glucanase activity in peanut seed (Arachis hypogaea) is induced by inoculation with Aspergillus flavus and copurifies with a conglutin-like protein. Phytopathology 95:506–511CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Linthorst H (1991) Pathogenesis-related proteins of plants. Critical Rev Plant Sci 10:123–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Liu SY, Liu Z, Fitt BDL, Evans N, Foster SJ, Huang YJ, Latunde-Dada AO, Lucas JA (2006) Resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma stem canker) in Brassica napus (oilseed rape) induced by L. biglobosa and chemical defence activators in field and controlled environments. Plant Pathol 55:401–412Google Scholar
  90. Lozovaya VV, Waranyuwat A, Widholm JM (1998) \ubeta-1,3-glucanase and resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection in maize. Crop Sci 38:1255–1260Google Scholar
  91. Lu ZX, Gaudet DA, Frick M, Puchalski B, Genswein B, Laroche A (2005) Identification and characterization of genes differentially expressed in the resistance reaction in wheat infected with Tilletia tritici, the common bunt pathogen. J Biochem Mol Biol 38:420–431Google Scholar
  92. Lu ZX, Gaudet D, Puchalski B, Despins T, Frick M, Laroche A (2006) Inducers of resistance reduce common bunt infection in wheat seedlings while differentially regulating defence-gene expression. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 67:138–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Maldonado AM, Doerner P, Dixon RA, Lamb C, Cameron RC (2002) A putative lipid transfer protein involved in systemic resistance signaling in Arabidopsis. Nature 419:399–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Maleck K, Levine A, Eulgem T, Morgan A, Schmid J, Lawton KA, Dangl JL, Dietrich RA (2000) Transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana during systemic acquired resistance. Nature Genet 26:403–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mauch-Mani B, Slusarenko AJ (1996) Production of salicylic acid precursors is a major function of phenylalanine-ammonia lyase in the resistance of Arabidopsis to Pernospora parasitica. Plant Cell 8:203–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Maxson-Stein K, He SY, Hammerschmidt R, Jones AL (2002) Effect of treating apple trees with acibenzolar-S-methyl on fire blight and expression of pathogenesis-related protein genes. Plant Dis 86:785–790}CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Maurhofer M, Hase C, Meuwly P, Métraux JP, Défago G (1994) Induction of systemic resistance in tobacco to Tobacco necrosis virus by root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0: influence of the gacA gene and of pyoverdine production. Phytopathology 84:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Maurhofer M, Reimmann C, Schmidt-Sachaerer P, Heeb S, Haas D, Défago G (1998) Salicylic acid biosynthetic genes expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P3 improve the induction of systemic resistance in tobacco against Tobacco necrosis virus. Phytopathology 88:678–684CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Mayers CN, Lee K-C, Moore CA, Wong SM, Carr JP (2005) Salicylic acid-induced resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in squash and Arabidopsis thaliana: contrasting mechanisms of induction and antiviral action. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18:428–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mayrose M, Bonshtien A, Sessa GJ (2004) LeMPK3 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase with dual specificity induced during tomato defense and wounding responses. J Biol Chem 279: 14819–14827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. McNally DJ, Wurms K, Labbé C, Bélanger RR (2004) Synthesis of C-glycosyl flavonoid phytoalexins as a site-specific response to fungal penetration in cucumber. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 63:293–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Métraux JP, Ahl-Goy P, Staub T, Speich J, Steinemann A, Ryals J, Ward E (1991) Induced resistance in cucumber in response to 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid and pathogens. In: Hennecke H, Verma DPS (eds) Advances in molecular genetics of plant-microbe interaction, vol I. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 432–439Google Scholar
  103. Métraux JP, Strait L, Staub Th (1988) A pathogenesis-related protein in cucumber is a chitinase. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 33:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Meyer GD, Höfte M (1997) Salicylic acid produced by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK induces resistance to leaf infection by Botrytis cinerea on bean. Phytopathology 87:588–593CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Mishina TE, Zeier J (2006) The Arabidopsis falvin-dependent monooxygenase FMO1 is an essential component of biologically induced systemic acquired resistance. Plant Physiol 141:1666–1675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mohamed N, Lherminier J, Farmer MJ, Fromentin J, Béno N, Houot V, Milat M-L, Blein J-P (2007) Defense responses in grapevine leaves against Botrytis cinerea induced by application of a Pythium oligandrum strain or its elicitin, oligandrin, to roots. Phytopathology 97:611–620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Molina A, Görlach J, Volrath S, Ryals J (1999) Wheat genes encoding two types of PR-1 proteins are pathogen inducible, but do not respond to activators of systemic acquired resistance. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 12:53–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mou Z, Fan W, Dong X (2003) Inducers of plant systemic acquired resistance regulate NPR1 function through redox changes. Cell 113:935–944Google Scholar
  109. Mukherjee PK, Latha J, Hadar R, Horwitz BA (2003) TmkA, a mitogen-activated protein kinase of Trichoderma virens, is involved in biocontrol properties and repression of conidiation in the dark. Eukary Cell 2:1187–1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Nandi A, Welti R, Shah J (2004) The Arabidopsis thaliana dehydroxyacetone phosphate reductase gene SUPPRESSOR OF FATTY ACID DESATURASE DEFICIENCY 1 is required for glycerolipid metabolism and for the activation of systemic acquired resistance. Plant Cell 16:465–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Narayanasamy P (1995) Induction of Disease Resistance in Rice by Studying the Molecular Biology of Diseased Plants. Final Rep Dept Biotechnol Govt of India, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  112. Narayanasamy P (2006) Postharvest Pathogens and Disease Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, USAGoogle Scholar
  113. Newrath C, Heck S, Parinthawong N, Métraux JP (2002) EDS5, an essential component of salicylic acid-dependent signaling for disease resistance in Arabidopsis is a member of the MATE-transporter family. Plant Cell 14:275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Naylor M, Murphy AM, Berry JO, Carr JP (1998) Salicylic acid can induce resistance to plant virus movement. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 11:860–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nie X (2006) Salicylic acid suppresses Potato virus Y isolate N:O-induced symptoms of tobacco plants. Phytopathology 96:255–263CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Nielsen KK, Bojsen K, Collinge DB, Mikkelsen JD (1994) Induced resistance in sugar beet against Cercospora beticola: Induction by dichloroisonicotinic acid is independent of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase transcript accumulation. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 45:89–99Google Scholar
  117. Obradovic A, Jones JB, Momol MT, Olson SM, Jackson LE, Balogh B, Guven KK, Iriarte FB (2005) Integration of biological control agents and systemic acquired resistance inducers against bacterial spot on tomato. Plant Dis 89:712–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Oh SK, Choi D, Yu SH (1998) Development of integrated pest management techniques using biomass organic farming I. Suppression of late blight and Fusarium wilt of tomato by chitosan involving both antifungal and plant activating activities. Korean J Plant Pathol 14:278–285Google Scholar
  119. Ongena M, Duby F, Jourdan E, Beaudry T, Jadin V, Dommes J, Thonart P (2005) Bacillus subtilis M4 decreases plant susceptibility towards fungal pathogens by increasing host resistance associated with differential gene expression. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 67:692–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ongena M, Jourdan E, Schäfer M, Kech C, Budzikiewicz H, Luxen A, Thonart P (2004) Isolation of an N-alkylated benzylamine derivative from Pseudomonas putida BTP1 as elicitor of induced systemic resistance in bean. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18:562–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Orober M, Siegrist J, Buchenauer H (2002) Mechanisms of phosphate-induced resistance in cucumber. Eur J Plant Pathol 108:345–353Google Scholar
  122. Picard K, Ponchet M, Blein J-P, Rey P, Tirilly Y, Benhamou N (2000) Oligandrin, a proteinaceous molecule produced by the mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum, induces resistance to Phytophthora parasitica infection in tomato plants. Plant Physiol 124:379–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pieterse CMJ, van Pelt JA, Verhagen BWM, Ton J, van Wees SCM, Leon-Kloosterziel KM, van Loon LC (2003) Induced systemic resistance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Symbiosis 35:39–54Google Scholar
  124. Pieterse CMJ, van Wees SCM, van Pelt JA, Knoester M, Laan R, Gerrits H, Weisbeck PJ, van Loon LC (1998) A novel signaling pathway controlling induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 10:1571–1580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Potlakayala SD, Reed DW, Covello PS, Fobert PR (2007) Systemic acquired resistance in canola is linked with pathogenesis-related gene expression and requires salicylic acid. Phytopathology 97:794–802CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Price WC (1936) Virus concentration in relation to acquired immunity from tobacco ringspot. Phytopathology 26:503–529Google Scholar
  127. Profotová B, Burketová L, Novotná Z, Martinec J, Valentová O (2006) Involvement of phospholipases C and D in early response to SAR and ISR inducers in Brassica napus plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 44:143–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Prusky D, Freeman S, Rodriguez RJ, Keen NT (1994) A nonpathogenic mutant strain of Colletotrichum magna induces resistance to C. gloeosporioides in avocado fruits. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 7:326–333Google Scholar
  129. Qin GZ, Tian SP (2005) Enhancement of biocontrol activity of Cryptococcus laurentii by silicon and the possible metabolism involved. Phytopathology 95:69–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Qiu X, Guan P, Wang ML, Moore PH, Zhu YJ, Hu J, Borth W, Albert HH (2004) Identification and expression analysis of BTH induced genes in papaya. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 65:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Raggi V (1998) Hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein accumulation in TMV-infected tobacco showing systemic acquired resistance to powdery mildew. J Phytopathol 146:321–325Google Scholar
  132. Ramamoorthy V, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R (2002) Induction of defense-related proteins in tomato roots treated with Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf1 and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Plant Soil 239:55– 68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Raupach GS, Liu L, Murphy JF, Tuzun S, Kloepper JW (1996) Induced resistance in cucumber and tomato against Cucumber mosaic virus using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Plant Dis 80:891–894Google Scholar
  134. Reiss E, Bryngelson T (1996) Pathogenesis-related proteins in barley leaves induced by infection with Drechslera teres (Sacc.) Shoem. and by treatment with other biotic agents. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 49:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Reuveni M, Agapov V, Reuveni R (1997) A foliar spray of micronutrient solution induces local and systemic protection against powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fulignea) in cucumber plants. Eur J Plant Pathol 103:581–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Reuveni R, Agapov V, Reuveni M (1994) Foliar spray of phosphates induces growth increases and systemic resistance to Puccinia sorghi in maize. Plant Pathol 43:245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Ricci P, Bonnet P, Huet JC, Sallantin M, Beauvais-Cante F, Bruneteau M, Billard V, Michel G, Pernollet J-C (1989) Structure and activity of proteins from pathogenic fungi Phytophthora eliciting necrosis and acquired resistance in tobacco. Eur J Biochem 183:555–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Roberts WK, Selitrennikoff CP (1990) Zematin, an antifungal protein from maize with membrane-permeabilizing activity. J Gen Microbiol 136:1771–1778Google Scholar
  139. Rodriguez Fá, Jurick WM II, Datnoff LE, Jones JB, Rollins JA (2005) Silicon influences cytological and molecular events in compatible and incompatible rice-Maganporthe grisea interactions. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 66:144–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Ross AF (1961a) Localized acquired resistance to plant virus infection in hypersensitive hosts. Virology 14:329–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Ross AF (1961b) Systemic acquired resistance induced by localized virus infection in plants. Virology 14:340–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Ryals J, Ukness S, Ward E (1994) Systemic acquired resistance. Plant Physiol 104:1109–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Saikia R, Yadav M, Sing BP, Gogoi DK, Singh T, Arora DK (2006) Induction of resistance in chickpea by cell wall protein of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri and Macrophomina phaseolina. Curr Sci 91:1543–1546Google Scholar
  144. Salzman R, Brady J, Finlayson S, Buchnan C, Summer EJ, Sun F, Klein PE, Pratt LH, Cordonnier-Pratt M, Mullet JE (2005) Transcriptional profiling of sorghum induced by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid reveals cooperative regulation and novel gene responses. Plant Physiol 138:352–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Schenk PM, Kazan K, Wilson I, Anderson JP, Richmond T, Somerville SC, Manners JM (2000) Coordinated plant defense responses in Arabidopsis revealed by microarray analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:11655–11660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Shoresh M, Yedidia I, Chet I (2005) Involvement of jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling pathway in the systemic resistance induced in cucumber by Trichoderma asperellum T203. Phytopathology 95:76–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Shoresh M, Gal-On A, Leibman D, Chet I (2006) Characterization of a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene from cucumber required for Trichoderma-conferred plant resistance. Plant Physiol 142:1169–1179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Siegrist J, Jeblick W, Kauss H (1994) Defense responses in infected and elicited cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) hypocotyl segments exhibiting acquired resistance. Plant Physiol 105:1365–1374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Silverman P, Seskar M, Kanter D, Schweizer P, Métraux JP, Raskin I (1995) Salicylic acid in rice: biosynthesis, conjugation and possible role. Plant Physiol 108:633–639Google Scholar
  150. Song F, Goodman RM (2002) Molecular cloning and characterization of a rice phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C gene, OsPLC1 that is activated in systemic acquired resistance. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 61:31–40Google Scholar
  151. Sparla F, Rotino L, Valgimigli MC, Pupillo P, Trost P (2004) Systemic resistance induced by benzothiadiazole in pear inoculated with the agent of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora). Scientia Horti 101:269–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Spoel SH, Koornneef A, Claessens SM, Korzelius JP, Van Pelt JA, Mueller MJ (2003) NPR1 modulates cross-talk between salicylate- and jasmonate-dependent defense pathways through a novel function in the cytosol. Plant Cell 15:760–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Stadnik MJ, Buchenauer H (2000) Inhibition of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase suppresses the resistance induced by benzothiadiazole in wheat to Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 39:451–461Google Scholar
  154. Sticher L, Mauch-Mani B, Métraux JP (1997) Systemic acquired resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 35:235–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Subramaniam R, Desveaux D, Spickler C, Michnick SW, Brisson N (2001) Direct visualization of protein interactions in plant cells. Nature Biotechnol 19:769–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Takahashi H, Ishihara T, Hase S, Chiba A, Nakaho K, Arie T, Teraoka T, Iwata M, Tugane T, Shibata D, Takenaka S (2006) Beta-cyanoalanine synthase as a molecular marker for induced resistance by fungal glycoprotein elicitor and commercial plant activators. Phytopathology 96:908–916CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Takenaka S, Kawasaki S (1994) Characterization of alanine-rich hydroxyproline-containing cell wall proteins and their application for identifying Pythium species. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 45:249–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Takenaka S, Zenita N, Nakamura Y (2003) Induction of defense reactions in sugar beet and wheat by treatment with cell wall protein fractions from the mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum. Phytopathology 93:1228–1232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Tanaka T, Ono S, Watakabe Y, Hiratsuka K (2006) Bioluminescence reporter assay system to monitor Arabidopsis MPK3 gene expression in response to infection by Botrytis cinerea. J Gen Plant Pathol 72:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Terry LA, Joyce DC (2000) Suppression of gray mold on strawberry fruit with the chemical plant activator acibenzolar. Pest Manag Sci 56:989–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Tjamos SE, Flemetakis E, Paplomatas EJ, Katinakis P (2004) Induction of resistance to Verticilliun dahliae in Arabidopsis thaliana by the biocontrol agent K-165 and pathogenesis-related proteins gene expression. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18:555–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Vallélian-Bindschedller L, Métraux JP, Schweizer P (1998) Salicylic acid accumulation in barley is pathogen-specific but not required for defense-gene activation. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 11:702–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Van Loon LC, Glick GP (2004) Increased plant fitness by rhizobacteria. In: Sandermann H (ed) Molecular ecotoxicology of plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp 177–205Google Scholar
  164. Verhagen BW, Glazebrook J, Zhu T, Chang HS, van Loon LC, Pieterse CM (2004) The transcriptome of rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 17:895–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Vigers AJ, Roberts WK, Selitrennikoff CP (1991) A new family of antifungal proteins. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 4:315–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Viswanathan R, Prem Kumar SM, Ramesh Sundar A, Kathiresan T (2006) Cloning partial endochitinase cDNA of Trichoderma harzianum antagonistic to Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot of sugarcane. Curr Sci 91:951–956Google Scholar
  167. Viswanathan R, Ramesh Sundar A, Prem Kumar SM (2003) Mycolytic effect of extracellular enzymes of antagonistic microbes to Colletotrichum falcatum, red rot pathogen of sugarcane. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 19:953–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Viswanathan R, Samiyappan R (2001) Role of chitinases in Pseudomonas spp.-induced systemic resistance against Colletotrichum falcatum in sugarcane. Ind Phytopathol 54:418–423Google Scholar
  169. Viterbo A, Harel M, Horwitz BA, Chet I, Mukherjee PK (2005) Trichoderma mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is involved in induction of plant systemic resistance. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:6241–6246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Walters DR, Newton AC, Lyon GD (2005) Induced resistance: helping plants to help themselves. Biologist 52:28–33Google Scholar
  171. Wang D, Weaver ND, Kesarwani M, Dong X (2005) Induction of protein secretory pathway is required for systemic acquired resistance. Science 308:1036–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Ward E, Uknes SJ, Williams SC, Dincher SS, Wiederhold DL, Alexander A, Ahl-Goy P, Métraux JP, Ryals JA (1991) Coordinate gene activity in response to agents that induce systemic acquired resistance. Plant Cell 3:1085–1094PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. West JS, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T, Narcy JP, Huang YJ, Roux J, Steed JM, Fitt BDL, Schmit J (2002) Colonization of winter oilseed rape tissues by A Tox+ and B/Tox0 Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) in France and England. Plant Pathol 51:311–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Wildermuth MC, Dewdney J, Wu G, Ausubel FM (2001) Isochorismate synthase is required to synthesize salicylic acid for plant defence. Nature 414:562–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Woloshuk CP, Meulenhoff JS, Sela-Buurlage M, van den Elzen PJM, Cornellissen BJC (1991) Pathogen-induced proteins with inhibitory activity toward Phytophthora infestans. Plant Cell 3:619–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Xia Y, Suzuki H, Borevitz J, Blount J, Guo Z, Patel K, Dixon RA, Lamb C (2004) An extracellular aspartic protease functions in Arabidopsis disease resistance signaling. EMBO J 23:980–988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Xie C, Kuf J (1997) Induction of resistance to Peronospora tabacina in tobacco leaf disks by leaf disks with induced resistance. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 51:279–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Yalpani N, Shulaev V, Raskin I (1993) Endogenous salicylic acid levels correlate with accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins and virus resistance in tobacco. Phytopathology 83:702–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Yalpani N, Silverman PT, Michael AW, Kleier DA, Raston I (1991) Salicylic acid is a systemic signal and an inducer of pathogenesis-related proteins in virus-infected tobacco. Plant Cell 3:809–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Yao Y, Xie Z, Chen W, Glazebrook J, Chang H-S, Han B, Zhu T, Zou G, Katagiri F (2003) Quantitative nature of Arabidopsis responses during compatible and incompatible interactions with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Plant Cell 15:317–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Ye XS, Pan SQ, Kuf J (1990) Association of pathogenesis-related proteins and activities of peroxidase, β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase with systemic induced resistance to blue mold, but not to systemic Tobacco mosaic virus. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 36:523–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Yedidia I, Benhamou N, Chet I (1999) Induction of defense responses in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L) by the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:1061–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Yoshioka K, Nakashita H, Klessig DF, Yamaguchi I (2001) Probenazole induces systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis with a novel type of action. Plant J 25:149–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Zeier J (2005) Age-dependent variations of local and systemic defense responses in Arabidopsis leaves towards an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 66:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Zeier J, Pink B, Mueller MJ, Berger S (2004) Light conditions influence specific defence responses in incompatible plant-pathogen interactions uncoupling systemic resistance from salicylic acid and PR-1 accumulation. Planta 219:673–683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Zhang S, Moyne A-L, Reddy MS, Kloepper JW (2000) The role of salicylic acid in induced systemic resistance elicited by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria against blue mold of tobacco. Biol Cont 25:288–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Zhang T, Tessaro MJ, Lassner M, Li X (2003) Knockout analysis of Arabidopsis transcription factors TGA2, TGA5 and TGA6 reveals their redundant and essential roles in systemic acquired resistance. Plant Cell 15:2647–2653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Zhu YJ, Qiu X, Moore PH, Borth W, Hu J, Ferreira S, Albert HH (2003) Systemic acquired resistance induced by BTH in papaya. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 63:237–248Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Narayanasamy
    • 1
  1. 1.Former Professor and Head, Department of Plant PathologyTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatore-641 002India

Personalised recommendations