Specialized channels in astrocytes


As discussed in Chapter 7, astrocytes express a large repertoire of ion channels that are reminiscent of those used by excitable cells to generate or propagate electrical signals. In addition, astrocytes also contain more specialized channels that appear to engage in ion and water homeostasis in brain. Most notably, these include anion channels and water-permeable aquaporins. These channels are much less well understood than their voltage-gated cousins. This chapter attempts to provide a concise summary of our current knowledge regarding the molecular, pharmacological and biophysical characteristics of these specialized channels as well as to discuss some of the potential roles for these channels in the biology of astrocytes. The reader is also referred to recent reviews on anion channels in astrocytes (Walz, 2002) and aquaporins in the central nervous system (Badaut et al., 2002;Venero et al., 2001).


Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Chloride Channel Anion Channel Neuronal Signaling Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Voltage-gated chloride channel


Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator




4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2–2′-disulfonic acid




γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor


Glial fibrillary acidic protein


Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase


9-anthracene carboxylic acid


5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid


Protein kinase A


Protein kinase C


4-acetamido-4′-isocyanatostilbene-2–2′-disulfonic acid


Tetraethylammonium ion


Voltage-dependent anion channel


Volume-sensitive organic osmolyte-anion channel


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adler DA, Rugarli EI, Lingenfelter PA, Tsuchiya K, Poslinski D, Liggitt HD, Chapman VM, Elliott RW, Ballabio A, Disteche CM (1997) Evidence of evolutionary up-regulation of the single active X chromosome in mammals based on Clc4 expression levels in Mus spretus and Mus musculus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 9244–9248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agre P, Preston GM, Smith BL, Jung JS, Raina S, Moon C, Guggino WB, Nielsen S (1993) Aquaporin CHIP: the archetypal molecular water channel. Am J Physiol 265: F463–F476.Google Scholar
  3. Akabas, MH (2000) Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Structure and function of an epithelial chloride channel. J Biol Chem. 275: 3729–3732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Badaut J, Hirt L, Granziera C, Bogousslaysky J, Magistretti PJ, Regli L (2001) Astrocytespecific expression of aquaporin-9 in mouse brain is increased after transient focal cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 21: 477–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Badaut J, Lasbennes F, Magistretti PJ, Regli L (2002) Aquaporins in brain: distribution, physiology, and pathophysiology. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 22: 367–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ballerini P, Di Iorio P, Ciccarelli R, Nargi E, D’Alimonte I, Traversa U, Rathbone MP, Caciagli F (2002) Glial cells express multiple ATP binding cassette proteins which are involved in ATP release. Neuroreport 13: 1789–1792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bekar LK, Walz W (2002) Intracellular chloride modulates A-type potassium currents in astrocytes. Glia 39: 207–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bevan S, Chiu SY, Gray PTA, Ritchie JM (1985) The presence of voltage-gated sodium, potassium and chloride channels in rat cultured astrocytes. Proc Roy Soc Lond B: Biol Sci B225: 299–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bevensee MO, Apkon M, Boron WF (1997) Intracellular pH regulation in cultured astrocytes from rat hippocampus. I. Role of HCO3-. J Gen Physiol 110: 453–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brandt S, Jentsch TJ (1995) ClC-6 and ClC-7 are two novel broadly expressed members of the ClC chloride channel family. FEBS Letters 377: 15–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brooks HL, Regan JW, Yool AJ (2000) Inhibition of aquaporin-1 water permeability by tetraethylammonium: involvement of the loop E pore region. Mol Pharmacol 57: 1021–1026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bureau MH, Khrestchatisky M, Heeren MA, Zambrowicz EB, Kim H, Grisar TM, Colombini M, Tobin AJ, Olsen RW (1992) Isolation and cloning of a voltage-dependent anion channel-like Mr 36,000 polypeptide from mammalian brain. J Biol Chem 267: 8679–8684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Crepel V, Panenka W, Kelly ME, MacVicar BA (1998) Mitogen-activated protein and tyrosine kinases in the activation of astrocyte volume-activated chloride current. J Neurosci 18: 1196–1206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Denker BM, Smith BL, Kuhajda FP, Agre P (1988) Identification, purification, and partial characterization of a novel Mr 28,000 integral membrane protein from erythrocytes and renal tubules. J Biol Chem 263: 15634–15642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dermietzel R, Hwang T-K, Buettner R, Hofer A, Dotzler E, Kremer M, Deutzmann R, Thinnes FP, Fishman GI, Spray DC, Siemen D (1994) Cloning and in situ localization of a brain-derived porin that constitutes a large-conductance anion channel in astrocytic plasma membranes. PNAS 91: 499–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duan D, Winter C, Cowley S, Hume JR, Horowitz B (1997) Molecular identification of a volume-regulated chloride channel. Nature 390: 417–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dutzler R, Campbell EB, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R (2002) X-ray structure of a ClC chloride channel at 3.0 A reveals the molecular basis of anion selectivity. Nature 415: 287–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elkjaer M, Vajda Z, Nejsum LN, Kwon T, Jensen UB, Amiry-Moghaddam M, Frokiaer J, Nielsen S (2000) Immunolocalization of AQP9 in liver, epididymis, testis, spleen, and brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 276: 1118–1128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fava M, Ferroni S, Nobile M (2001) Osmosensitivity of an inwardly rectifying chloride current revealed by whole-cell and perforated-patch recordings in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. FEBS Lett 492: 78–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ferroni S, Marchini C, Nobile M, Rapisarda C (1997) Characterization of an inwardly rectifying chloride conductance expressed by cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Glia 21: 217–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferroni S, Marchini C, Schubert P, Rapisarda C (1995) Two distinct inwardly rectifying conductances are expressed in long term dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP treated rat cultured cortical astrocytes. FEBS Lett 367: 319–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ferroni S, Nobile M, Caprini M, Rapisarda C (2000) pH modulation of an inward rectifier chloride current in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Neurosci 100: 431–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gray PT, Ritchie JM (1986) A voltage-gated chloride conductance in rat cultured astrocytes. Proc Roy Soc Lond B: Biol Sci 228: 267–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grunder S, Thiemann A, Pusch M, Jentsch TJ (1992) Regions involved in the opening of cic-2 chloride channel by voltage and cell volume. Nature 360: 759–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hasegawa H, Ma T, Skach W, Matthay MA, Verkman AS (1994) Molecular cloning of a mercurial-insensitive water channel expressed in selected water-transporting tissues. J Biol Chem 269: 5497–5500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hille B (2001) Ion Channels of Excitable Membranes. Sunderland: Sinauer.Google Scholar
  27. Jackson PS, Madsen JR (1997) Identification of the volume-sensitive organic osmolyte anion channel in human glial cells. Pediatr Neurosurg 27: 286–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jackson PS, Morrison R, Strange K (1994) The volume-sensitive organic osmolyte-anion channel VSOAC is regulated by nonhydrolytic ATP binding. Am J Physiol 267: C1203–C1209.Google Scholar
  29. Jackson PS, Strange K (1993) Volume-sensitive anion channels mediate swelling-activated inositol and taurine efflux. Am J Physiol 265: t-500.Google Scholar
  30. Jalonen T (1993) Single-channel characteristics of the large-conductance anion channel in rat cortical astrocytes in primary culture. Glia 9: 227–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jalonen T, Johansson S, Holopainen I, Oja SS, Arhem P (1989) A high-conductance multi-state anion channel in cultured rat astrocytes. Acta Physiol 136: 611–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jalonen T, Varga V, Hartikainen K, Janaky R, Oja SS (1991) Anion conductance blocked by divalent cations in cultured rat astrocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 633: 583–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jentsch TJ, Stein V, Weinreich F, Zdebik AA (2002) Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol Rev 82: 503–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Jung JS, Bhat RV, Preston GM, Guggino WB, Baraban JM, Agre P (1994) Molecular characterization of an aquaporin cDNA from brain: candidate osmoreceptor and regulator of water balance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91: 13052–13056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kawasaki M, Uchida S, Monkawa T, Miyawaki A, Mikoshiba K, Marumo F, Sasaki S (1994) Cloning and expression of a protein kinase c-rcgulated chloride channel abundantly expressed in rat brain neuronal cells. Neuron 12: 597–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kettenmann H (1987) K+ and Cl- uptake by cultured oligodendrocytes. Can J Physiol & Pharmacol 65: 1033–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kimelberg HK (1981) Active accumulation and exchange transport of chloride in astroglial cells in culture. Biochim Biophys Acta 646: 179–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kimelberg HK, Frangakis MV (1985) Furosemide- and bumetanide-sensitive ion transport and volume control in primary astrocyte cultures from rat brain. Brain Res 361: 125–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kimelberg HK, Kettenmann H (1990) Swelling-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of cultured astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. I. Effects on membrane potentials, input impedance and cell-cell coupling. Brain Res 529: 255–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kimelberg HK, O’Connor E (1988) Swelling of astrocytes causes membrane potential depolarization. Glia 1: 219–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Knepper MA (1994) The aquaporin family of molecular water channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91: 6255–6258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lang F, Busch GL, Ritter M, Volkl H, Waldegger S, Gulbins E, Haussinger D (1998) Functional significance of cell volume regulatory mechanisms. Physiol Rev 78: 247–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lascola CD, Kraig RP (1996) Whole-cell chloride currents in rat astrocytes accompany changes in cell morphology. J Neurosci 16: 2532–2545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Lascola CD, Nelson DJ, Kraig RP (1998) Cytoskeletal actin gates a Cl- channel in neocortical astrocytes. J Neurosci 18: 1679–1692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Linsdell P (2001) Relationship between anion binding and anion permeability revealed by mutagenesis within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel pore. J Physiol 531: 51–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Manley GT, Fujimura M, Ma T, Noshita N, Filiz F, Bollen AW, Chan P, Verkman AS (2000) Aquaporin-4 deletion in mice reduces brain edema after acute water intoxication and ischemic stroke. Nat Med 6: 159–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Matsuzaki T, Tajika Y, Tserentsoodol N, Suzuki T, Aoki T, Hagiwara H, Takata K (2002) Aquaporins: a water channel family. Anat Sci Int 77: 85–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McCarty NA, McDonough S, Cohen BN, Riordan JR, Davidson N, Lester HA (1993) Voltage-dependent block of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl-channel by two closely related arylaminobenzoates. J Gen Physiol 102: 1–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller C (1982) Open-state substructure of single chloride channels from Torpedo electroplax. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 299: 401–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Miller C, White MM (1984) Dimeric structure of single chloride channels from Torpedo electroplax. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81: 2772–2775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nagelhus EA, Horio Y, Inanobe A, Fujita A, Haug FM, Nielsen S, Kurachi Y, Ottersen OP (1999) Immunogold evidence suggests that coupling of K+ siphoning and water transport in rat retinal Muller cells is mediated by a coenrichment of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in specific membrane domains. Glia 26: 47–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nagelhus EA, Veruki ML, Torp R, Haug FM, Laake JH, Nielsen S, Agre P, Ottersen OP (1998) Aquaporin-4 water channel protein in the rat retina and optic nerve: polarized expression in Muller cells and fibrous astrocytes. J Neurosci 18: 2506–2519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Nakahama K, Nagano M, Fujioka A, Shinoda K, Sasaki H (1999) Effect of TPA on aquaporin 4 mRNA expression in cultured rat astrocytes. Glia 25: 240–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nicchia GP, Frigeri A, Liuzzi GM, Santacroce MP, Nico B, Procino G, Quondamatteo F, Herken R, Roncali L, Svelto M (2000) Aquaporin-4-containing astrocytes sustain a temperature- and mercury-insensitive swelling in vitro. Glia 31: 29–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nielsen S, Nagelhus EA, Amiry-Moghaddam M, Bourque C, Agre P, Ottersen OP (1997) Specialized membrane domains for water transport in glial cells: high-resolution immunogold cytochemistry of aquaporin-4 in rat brain. J Neurosci 17: 171–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Nielsen S, Smith BL, Christensen EI, Agre P (1993) Distribution of the aquaporin CHIP in secretory and resorptive epithelia and capillary endothelia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90: 7275–7279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Niemietz CM, Tyerman SD (2002) New potent inhibitors of aquaporins: silver and gold compounds inhibit aquaporins of plant and human origin. FEBS Lett 531: 443–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nobile M, Pusch M, Rapisarda C, Ferroni (2000) Single-channel analysis of a ClC-2-like chloride conductance in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Febs Letters 479: 10–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nowak L, Ascher P, Berwald-Netter Y (1987) Ionic channels in mouse astrocytes in culture. J Neurosci 7: 101–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Olsen ML, Schade S, Lyons SA, Sontheimer H (2003) Expression of voltage-gated chloride channels in human glioma cells. J Neurosci submitted.Google Scholar
  61. Olson JE, Sankar R, Holtzman D, James A, Fleischhacker D (1986) Energy-dependent volume regulation in primary cultured cerebral astrocytes. J Cell Physiol 128: 209–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Orkand RK, Nicholls JG, Kuffler SW (1966) Effect of nerve impulses on the membrane potential of glial cells in the central nervous system of amphibia. J Neurophysiol 29: 788–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Parkerson KA, Sontheimer H (2003) Contribution of Chloride Channels to Volume Regulation of Cortical Astrocytes. Am J Physiol (Cell Physiol), in press.Google Scholar
  64. Pasantes-Morales H, Murray RA, Lilja L, Moran J (1994) Regulatory volume decrease in cultured astrocytes. i. potassium- and chloride-activated permeability. Am J Physiol 266: Pt 1):C165–71.Google Scholar
  65. Preston GM, Jung JS, Guggino WB, Agre P (1993) The mercury-sensitive residue at cysteine 189 in the CHIP28 water channel. J Biol Chem 268: 17–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Price DL, Ludwig JW, Mi H, Schwarz TL, Ellisman MH (2002) Distribution of rSlo Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in rat astrocyte perivascular endfeet. Brain Res 956: 183–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ransom CB, O’Neal JT, Sontheimer H (2001) Volume-activated chloride currents contribute to the resting conductance and invasive migration of human glioma cells. J Neurosci 21: 7674–7683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Riordan JR, Rommens JM, Kerem B, Alon N, Rozmahel R, Grzelczak Z, Zielenski J, Lok S, Playsic N, Chou JL, et al (1989) Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: cloning and characterization of complementary DNA. Science 245: 1066–1073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Roy G (1995) Amino acid current through anion channels in cultured human glial cells. J Membr Biol 147: 35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Saadoun S, Papadopoulos MC, Davies DC, Bell BA, Krishna S (2002a) Increased aquaporin 1 water channel expression in human brain tumours. Br J Cancer 87: 621–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Saadoun S, Papadopoulos MC, Davies DC, Krishna S, Bell BA (2002b) Aquaporin-4 expression is increased in oedematous human brain tumours. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 72: 262–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sanchez-Olea R, Moran J, Martinez A, Pasantes-Morales H (1993) Volume-activated Rb+ transport in astrocytes in culture. Am J Physiol 264: C836–C842.Google Scholar
  73. Sheppard DN, Welsh MJ (1992) Effect of ATP-sensitive K+ channel regulators on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride currents. J Gen Physiol 100: 573–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sik A, Smith RL, Freund TF (2000) Distribution of chloride channel-2-immunoreactive neuronal and astrocytic processes in the hippocampus. Neurosci 101: 51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sonnhof U (1987) Single voltage-dependent K+ and Cl- channels in cultured rat astrocytes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 65: 1043–1050.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Soroceanu L, Manning TJ, Jr., Sontheimer H (1999) Modulation of glioma cell migration and invasion using Cl- and K+ ion channel blockers. J Neurosci 19: 5942–5954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Stegen C, Matskevich I, Wagner CA, Paulmichl M, Lang F, Broer S (2000) Swelling-induced taurine release without chloride channel activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing anion channels and transporters. Biochim Biophys Acta 1467: 91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Steinmeyer K, Schwappach B, Bens M, Vandewalle A, Jentsch TJ (1995) Cloning and functional expression of rat clc-5, a chloride channel related to kidney disease. J Biol Chem 270: 31172–31177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stobrawa SM, Breiderhoff T, Takamori S, Engel D, Schweizer M, Zdebik AA, Bosl MR, Ruether K, Jahn H, Draguhn A, Jahn R, Jentsch TJ (2001) Disruption of ClC-3, a chloride channel expressed on synaptic vesicles, leads to a loss of the hippocampus. Neuron 29: 185–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tabcharani JA, Chang XB, Riordan JR, Hanrahan JW (1992) The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel. Iodide block and permeation. Biophys J 62: 1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Thiemann A, Grunder S, Pusch M, Jentsch TJ (1992) A chloride channel widely expressed in epithelial and non- epithelial cells. Nature 356: 57–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Thinnes FP, Gotz H, Kayser H, Benz R, Schmidt WE, Kratzin HD, Hilschmann N (1989) [Identification of human porins. I. Purification of a porin from human B-lymphocytes (Porin 31 HL) and the topochemical proof of its expression on the plasmalemma of the progenitor cell.]. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 370: 1253–1264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tsukaguchi H, Shayakul C, Berger UV, Mackenzie B, Devidas S, Guggino WB, van Hoek AN, Hediger MA (1998) Molecular characterization of a broad selectivity neutral solute channel. J Biol Chem 273: 24737–24743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ullrich N, Sontheimer H (1996) Biophysical and pharmacological characterization of chloride currents in human astrocytoma cells. Am J Physiol (Cell Physiol) 270: C1511–C1521.Google Scholar
  85. Ullrich N, Sontheimer H (1997) Cell cycle-dependent expression of a glioma-specific chloride current: proposed link to cytoskeletal changes. Am J Physiol 273 (Pt 1): C1290–1297.Google Scholar
  86. Venero JL, Vizuete ML, Machado A, Cano J (2001) Aquaporins in the central nervous system. Prog Neurobiol 63: 321–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vizuete ML, Venero JL, Vargas C, Ilundain AA, Echevarria M, Machado A, Cano J (1999) Differential upregulation of aquaporin-4 mRNA expression in reactive astrocytes after brain injury: potential role in brain edema. Neurobiol Dis 6: 245–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Waldegger S, Jentsch TJ (2000) From tonus to tonicity: Physiology of CLC chloride channels. J Am Soc Nephrol 11: 1331–1339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Walz W (1987) Swelling and potassium uptake in cultured astrocytes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 65: 1051–1057.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Walz W (2002) Chloride/anion channels in glial cell membranes. Glia 40: 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Walz W, Mukerji S (1988) KCl movements during potassium-induced cytotoxic swelling of cultured astrocytes. Exp Neurol 99: 17–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Walz W, Wuttke WA (1999) Independent mechanisms of potassium clearance by astrocytes in gliotic tissue. J Neurosci Res 56: 595–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yamamoto N, Sobue K, Fujita M, Katsuya H, Asai K (2002) Differential regulation of aquaporin-5 and -9 expression in astrocytes by protein kinase A. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 104: 96–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yamamoto N, Sobue K, Miyachi T, Inagaki M, Miura Y, Katsuya H, Asai K (2001a) Differential regulation of aquaporin expression in astrocytes by protein kinase C. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 95: 110–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yamamoto N, Yoneda K, Asai K, Sobue K, Tada T, Fujita Y, Katsuya H, Fujita M, Aihara N, Mase M, Yamada K, Miura Y, Kato T (2001b) Alterations in the expression of the AQP family in cultured rat astrocytes during hypoxia and reoxygenation. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 90: 26–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology and Civitan International Research CenterThe University of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations